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MANA 4325 Final Study Bundle

by: Josh Radcliff

MANA 4325 Final Study Bundle MANA 4325

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > Business > MANA 4325 > MANA 4325 Final Study Bundle
Josh Radcliff
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Hey everyone, I have uploaded a study guide for each of the three tests we have had this semester. Since we did not cover any new material for the final, I have created a study bundle, which has...
Leadership in Organizations
Dr. Alison Hall
Mana, 4325, MANA4325, Leadership, In, Organizations, Dr., Hall, final, study, bundle, guide
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This 75 page Bundle was uploaded by Josh Radcliff on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MANA 4325 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Alison Hall in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Leadership in Organizations in Business at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
Josh Radclif MANA 4325 Test 1 Study Guide Dr. Hall Chapter 1 – What Does it Mean to Be a Leader?  Focus on these topics for test 1: 1) Know the definition of leadership, its components, and be able to recognize those components in an example o 2) Know the 6 fundamental transformations of leaders today o 3) Know the primary reasons for derailment and what new paradigm skills you can adopt to avoid it o 4) Know the diferences between management and leadership  Be familiar with direction, alignment, relationships, personal qualities, and outcomes o 5) Know the evolution of leadership and how the historical approaches apply today  The Need for Leadership o It seems that everywhere we look these days in the newspaper, television, etc. that some prominent leader of a business or organization has been caught doing something they shouldn’t be doing.  Ex: director of CIA General David Petraeus left his position because of an extramarital afair with his biographer causing the CIA to lose trust in him and investigate potential leaks of classified information (much like Kevin Spacey’s character in the Netflix show House of Cards, if anyone has seen it).  Ex: Religions televangelists caught with Rolls Royces and private jets bought with money from donations o Because of all the negative news we hear about every day, the general public feels a strong lack of leadership exists in our nation. This played a big role in Obama’s election in 2008 because he made people feel hopeful in a time of uncertainty. o Leadership – an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes and outcomes that reflect their shared purposes.  The leader and follower influence each other.  Leaders may not necessarily dictate the desired change  But the leaders and followers must have the same purpose for the change.  Leaders influence others to come together around a common vision  The traits of a good leader are the same as traits of a good follower  Think for themselves and carry out assignments with enthusiasm  Committed to something outside their own interest.  Have courage to stand up for what they believe  Good leaders are also good followers o Everyday Leadership  You don’t have to be famous and nationally known to be a great leader.  Leadership is an everyday way of acting and thinking that has little to do with your position in a group, organization, or company  Examples are given on page 6 of the textbook.  The New Reality for Leaders o Because of the age of technology where communication between anyone around the globe is becoming so instantaneous, the paradigm of a leader is shifting o Paradigm – a shared mindset that represents a fundamental way of thinking about, perceiving, and understanding the world. The paradigm of a leader has changed as follows:  Old paradigm: Stabilizer  New paradigm: Change Manager  Before: if it’s working, don’t change a thing. Just maintain the success  Now: Change and crises are inevitable. We must adapt and move forward  Old paradigm: Controller  New paradigm: Facilitator  Before: Hierarchy of power in a company. The leader and leader only made decisions and everyone else listened and obliged  Now: A leader shares power and increases an organizations success by getting everyone involved and committed  This has changed because ideas are now more important than materials and success today depends on the intellectual capacity of all employees  Old paradigm: Competitor  New paradigm: Collaborator  Before: Leaders head a company that is competing against anyone and everyone. The company is on their own. They promote competition within the company to motivate employees to work harder  Now: Leaders stress teamwork, compromise, and cooperation. Horizontal collaboration spreads knowledge and information throughout the organization  This is because social media has hyperconnected the world, so it’s easier to collaborate and people want to do that more than compete  Old paradigm: Diversity Avoider  New paradigm: Diversity Promoter  Before: Everyone in an organization who thinks alike, acts alike, and has similar skills should work together because they will communicate best and be the most successful  Now: Bringing a diverse group of people together can bring in broad mindsets to thrive in a multinational world. Because things are so global now, organizations need to be able to adapt to anything, and a more diverse group of people makes that more likely  Old Paradigm: Hero  New paradigm: Humble  Before: Celebrate the leader as a hero who stands out above all  Now: People have begun to associate that attitude with arrogance, and many people with that mindset have proven to be at the forefront of some of the biggest ethical scandals and business failures. These people become cocky and selfish. o Now, we’d rather a leader who often seems shy and has no need to be in the limelight. They are more concerned with the successes of the team or company rather than their own success. They accept responsibility for mistakes, but give credit for successes to other people or the organization as a whole  How Leadership Difers from Management o Management – The attainment of organizational goals in an efective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling organizational resources o Both leadership and management do the following:  Provide Direction  Align Followers  Build Relationships  Develop Personal Leadership Qualities  And Create Outcomes o But they do so in diferent ways. The following exhibit simplifies it best. o Vision – A picture of an ambitious, desirable future for the organization or team.  Ex: “Become the premier phone company in the world”  Ex: “Provide afordable furniture for people with limited budgets”  Evolving Theories of Leadership – How the view of a leader has changed over time o Great Man Theories – A leader was a man who was born to be a leader to put everything together and influence others based on his strength of inherited traits o Trait Theories – Leaders had certain traits or characteristics that others don’t that can be isolated as contributed to their success o Behavior Theories – Studied what it is leaders do on the job, what efective leaders do diferently than inefective leaders, and how they behaved toward their followers o Contingency (AKA Situational) Theories – Leaders analyze their situation and tailor their behavior to improve leadership efectiveness. Variables in situations include characteristics of their followers, the work environment, and the task at hand o Influence Theories – Studies how a leader influences others. It could be charismatic leadership, which is leading via the way they conduct themselves; or it could be the vision they instill in others or the culture they foster within their realm of leadership o Relational Theories – Leadership viewed as a relational process that meaningfully engages all participants and enables each person to contribute to achieving the vision. Related are transformational leadership and servant leadership  A Model of Leadership Evolution – Putting the above theories into diferent eras over time o Leadership Era 1 – Things were smaller and simpler at this time, so it was easy for one man to run the show o Leadership Era 2 – Hierarchy forms, managers emerge, and people are expected to do as they’re told o Leadership Era 3 – Rational management stopped being as successful, and ideas of small groups and teamwork began to surpass the old methods because they responded better to a changing world o Leadership Era 4 (TODAY) – Enter social media and digital age.  Agile leader emerges – a leader who is open to learning and change and encourages the growth and development of others o Exhibit below is good depiction of the Leadership Eras  Leadership Can Be Learned o Leader Fatal Flaws – Learn to be a leader in today’s era by taking note of what people have done wrong so you don’t make the same mistake yourself  Derailment – When a manager with an impressive track record reaches a certain level but goes of track and can’t advance because of a mismatch between job needs and personal skills and qualities  The biggest leader mistakes are people mistakes rather than technical ones.  Managers fail more frequently because they are deficient with soft, human skills rather than a lack of hard work or technical skills. o Five Fatal Flaws That Cause Derailment: o Leader Good Behaviors  The best leaders are those who are genuinely interested in other people and find ways to bring out the best in them.  Mastering the Art of Science and Leadership o Knowing about leadership research helps people analyze situations from a variety of perspectives and learn how to be more efective leaders o Learning to be a leader   True / False Questions o Leadership involves downward influence enacted by a person with a higher position on a person with a lower position  FALSE: Leadership involves reciprocal, multidirectional influence o Leadership can exist without followers provided that the leader has significant expertise  FALSE: There must be followers, per the definition stated above o Leadership involves agreed upon goals, missions, outcomes, etc.  TRUE: Leadership requires that followers understand, support, and share the leader’s purpose for action o Leadership involves maintaining existing structures, systems, and processes  FALSE: Leadership involves change and challenge to the status quo o Regardless of how talented an individual is, leadership is never accidental  TRUE: Leadership reflects purpose and intention o Leaders are of the highest moral and ethical quality  FALSE: Should be true, but it’s not, unfortunately. There are good leaders and bad leaders and both can be efective in their “influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real change and outcomes that reflect shared purposes.” However, not all leaders take personal responsibility or exercise integrity Chapter 2: Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships  Know these topics for test 1: o 1) Be able to outline personal traits and characteristics of leaders o 2) Know how to identify your own traits to turn into strengths o 3) Know the diferent roles that leaders can play o 4) Recognize autocratic vs. democratic leadership behavior and the impact of each o 5) Know the diference between people-oriented and task-oriented leadership and when each should be used o 6) Describe some key characteristics of entrepreneurial leaders  The Trait Approach o Traits – The distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader,  The main characteristics discussed in class were: 1) optimism 2) self-confidence 3) honesty 4) integrity and 5) drive o The Great Man approach that thought leaders inherited or were born with leadership traits began the study of trait approach, but the diversity of traits that efective leaders possess indicates that leadership ability is not genetic. o Stogdill research in 1948 found these as some of the most common traits leaders share:  General intelligence, initiative, interpersonal skills, self- confidence, drive for responsibility, personal integrity, aggressiveness, independence, and tolerance for stress  The value of each of those traits depends on the situation though. o Some other leader characteristics are provided in exhibit 2.1 below o Optimism and Self-Confidence  Optimism – A tendency to see the positive side of things and expect that things will turn out well.  Being able to see the glass half full has proven to be vital, and it should be an important trait to focus on if you struggle to see the positives in even tough situations  Self-Confidence – Assurance in one’s own judgments, decision making, ideas, and capabilities  A leader who has a positive self-image and displays certainty about his or her own ability to achieve an outcome (known as self-efficacy) fosters confidence among followers, gains respect and admiration, and creates motivation and commitment among followers for the mission at hand. o Honesty and Integrity  Be ethical. Don’t be Bernie Madof and commit the biggest Ponzi scheme in history.  Honesty – Truthfulness and nondeception; having a certain openness about yourself  Integrity – The quality of being whole, integrated, and acting in accordance with solid ethical principles; staying true to your values  Both are a foundation of TRUST, which is vital in any type of relationship. o Drive – High motivation that creates a high efort level by a leader  Leaders set high standards and high goals because they have ambition to achieve greatness. This is usually accompanied by lots of energy and time devoted to their work  Know Your Strengths o Leaders will face challenges that they aren’t equipped to handle on their own. It is crucial for them to be interdependent and know when something is out of their league so they can take appropriate action to delegate responsibilities. o What are strengths?  Strength – A natural talent or ability that has been supported and reinforced with learned knowledge and skills  When you find out what interests you or what you are good at, pursue them. Practice them. Enjoy them. The more you focus on your strengths, the better you will get at them, and the happier you will be. Take on tasks where you can utilize your strengths.  Do what you love and have 1) energy 2) enthusiasm and 3) efectiveness doing it. o Trombone Player Wanted video watched in class  Be specific at describing your strengths  Signs of your strengths:  1) You look forward to doing whatever it is; there’s a passion and desire; there’s a yearning quality to them  2) You are naturally inquisitive about it and always so focused on it  3) It gives you a restorative quality that you feel when you are done. You feel fulfilled  4) You feel strong and magnificent afterwards o Matching Strengths with Roles  Leaders have diferent strengths, and it is important to match those strengths with the type of leadership role that fits them best. There are three diferent roles  1) Operational role – A vertically oriented leadership role in which an executive has direct control over people and resources and the position power to accomplish results  Best in vertical management positions that focus on delivering results and following protocols  Strengths would be high self-confidence, assertiveness, knowledgeable, and ability to get others to believe in their vision  2) Collaborative role – A horizontal leadership role in which the leader often works behind the scenes and uses personal power to influence others and get things done  They are team leaders and have great people skills to network, build relationship, and obtain agreement through personal influence. They are also highly tenacious and proactive, exhibiting flexibility to cope with uncertainty  3) Advisory role – A leadership role that provides advice, guidance, and support to other people and departments in the organization  Examples would be lawyers, financial advisors, and human resource managers.  They focus on broad capabilities of the organization as a whole  Strengths include great people skills, influence through communication and personal persuasion, honesty, and integrity because they build trust and keep the organization on solid ethical ground  Behavior Approaches – can be learned more readily than traits, enabling leadership to be accessible to all o Autocratic vs. Democratic Behaviors  Autocratic – A leader who tends to centralize authority and derive power from position, control of rewards, and coercion  A child study showed they performed great with this leader present but not as good with the leader absent, and a feeling of hostility arose  Democratic – A leader who delegates authority to others, encourages participation, relies on subordinates’ knowledge for completion of tasks, and depends on subordinate respect for influence  A child study showed they didn’t perform quite as well as the kids under the autocrat, but they performed just as good with the leader absent as with the leader present. They were also happier.  There is a nice sliding scale between full autocrat and full democrat shown below:  The use of these two behaviors could be situational  It may be better to be autocratic if your employees tend to be young with little experience and a high turnover rate, like in fast food restaurants  High end companies with employees with lots of intelligence and experience may need less “watching over” and thus a more democratic approach could be used o The Ohio State Studies  Did a lot of surveys and determined two main categories of leader-behavior:  1) Consideration – The extent to which a leader is sensitive to subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust  2) Initiating Structure – The extent to which a leader is task orientated and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal achievement  While the initiating structure has proved to be more efective on paper, subordinates tend to have better morale under leaders who lean towards the consideration side. o University of Michigan Studies  Studied behaviors between efective and inefective leaders and found two more types of leadership behavior:  1) Employee-centered – A leadership behavior that displays a focus on the human needs of subordinates  Underlying dimensions: Leader support and interaction facilitation, meaning they facilitate positive interaction among followers and seek to minimize conflict. Related to “consideration” behavior in The Ohio State study  2) Job-centered - A leadership behavior in which leaders direct activities toward efficiency, cost-cutting, and scheduling, with an emphasis on goals and work facilitation  Subordinates can direct this behavior as well, enhancing performance  Underlying dimensions: Goal emphasis and work facilitation  These two behaviors do not overlap; you have one or the other, but not both. o The Leadership Grid (UT Austin Study) – A two-dimensional leadership model that describes major leadership styles based on measuring both concern for people and concern for production  Concern for people and concern for results were placed on an X and Y axis, and scores were plotted on a grid depicting five of the seven major leadership styles  1) Team Management – most efective style because members work together to accomplish tasks  2) Country Club Management – Primary emphasis on people over output  3) Authority-Compliance Management – Efficiency is the dominant focus  4) Middle-of-the-Road Management – focus on a little on both people and production  5) Impoverished Management – No leadership present  o Theories of a “High-High” Leader  Just like The Ohio State and Michigan studies, this Leadership grid revealed two main behaviors:  1) Concern for People  2) Concern for Results  The exhibit below summarizes all of the studies   Are people-oriented behaviors and task-oriented behaviors the most important behaviors?  Three diferent independent studies revealed similar results, proving they must be pretty darn important.  Can both people and task-oriented behaviors exist in the same leader and how?  Both are present when people work with or through others to accomplish an activity  Can people actually change themselves into leaders from one orientation to the other?  Yes.  Individualized Leadership – A theory stating that a leader develops a unique relationship with each subordinate or group member, which determines how the leader behaves toward the member and how the member responds to the leader. o The leader has a diferent relationship or leadership style with each subordinate o Dyads - a series of two-person interactions; focuses on exchange, or what each party gives to and receives from the other o This theory has developed in three stages overtime: o 1) Vertical Dyad Linkage Model – A model of individualized leadership that argues for the importance of the dyad formed by a leader with each member of the group  Because of the individual relationship, some people are considered part of the “in-group” while others are the “out- group.” The diferences are in the below exhibit o 2) Leader-Member Exchange – Individualized leadership model that explores how leader-member relationship develop over time and how the quality of exchange relationships afects outcomes  In-group subordinates tend to have the same characteristics of the leader and be more successful and happier. o 3) Partnership Building – Focuses on the ability to the leader to develop positive relationships with a large number of subordinates so there is no sharp division between in-group and out-group subordinates.  Organization can be damaged if the out-group people start to resent other peers for their in-group relationship with the boss.  Entrepreneurial Traits and Behaviors o Entrepreneurs need strong  1) drive  2) enthusiasm  3) future vision,  4) Persistent and willing to take risk. o They are persistent, independent, and action-oriented. o Drawn to new opportunities and are more concerned with innovation, creativity, and creating new processes rather than with maintaining the status quo  QUIZ 1 Questions o 1) The definition of leadership involves six key elements. Five of these are explicitly stated in the definition used in your textbook. Which of the six elements is implied but NOT directly stated in the definition?  A) Change  B) Followers  C) Influence  D) Personal responsibility and integrity  E) Shared Purpose o 2) Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics that is considered highly important for leadership efectiveness today?  A) Drive B) Honesty C) Integrity  D) Realism E) Self-Confidence o 3) You excel in life by maximizing your strengths, not by fixing your weaknesses.  A. True B. False o 4) An important diference between the two University of Michigan and Ohio State studies is that the UM approach says managers fall on a continuum and are either people focused or task focused. However, the Ohio State approach allows for leaders to be varying levels of both.  A. True B. False Chapter 3 – Contingency Approaches to Leadership  Know these topics for test 1: o Understand how leadership is contingent (AKA it depends) on the people and/or the situation o Apply Hersey-Blanchard’s theory to follower readiness o Apply Fiedler’s model to relationships between leader style, situational favorability, and group task performance o Explain the Path-Goal theory of leadership o Be able to use the Vroom-Jago model to determine how much follower participation should be allowed in specific decision situations o Know how to use the power of situational variables to substitute for or neutralize the need for leadership  The most efective leadership approach depends on many factors, and understanding the contingency approaches can help a leader adapt his or her approach  The Contingency Approach – Theories that explain the relationship between leader styles and efectiveness in specific situations o Contingency – A theory meaning one thing depends on another thing. o The contingency approach looks at three main variables that relate to efective leadership, explained by the exhibit below:  1) The Leader 2) The Follower and 3) The Situation  o The main behaviors (aka meta-categories) that can be adjusted based on the situation were discussed in the last chapter:  1) Task-oriented behavior and 2) Relationship-oriented behavior  The exhibit below gives types of situations in which you would want diferent amounts of task or relationship-oriented behavior:   Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory – An extension of the Leadership Grid focusing on the characteristics of followers as the important element of determining efective leader behavior o Basis is that followers vary in readiness  People with low task readiness or capability need a diferent leadership style than those with high readiness or capability. o Leader Style  Leader can adopt one of four leadership styles based on relationship and task behavior  1) Directing style – high concern for tasks, low concern for people o Leader provides detailed objectives and explicit instructions  2) Coaching style – High concern for both relationships and tasks o Leader provides task instruction and personal support to the followers  3) Supporting style – High relationship, low task behavior o Leader encourages participation, consults with followers, and facilitates decision making  4) Entrusting style – Low concern for tasks and relationships o Leader gives little direction or support because complete responsibility is given to the followers  More detailed graph explaining these four styles below: o o Follower Readiness Contingency – Explained both in the exhibit above and the bullets below; Leader needs to diagnose a follower’s readiness and select the appropriate leadership style for the readiness level  Low Readiness – Leader uses directing style; leader tells followers exactly how and when to do it with lots of detail  Moderate Readiness – Leader uses coaching style; follower lacks skill but is hard working and eager to learn  Leader gives direction and also explains and clarifies them as opposed to merely saying how it should be done  High Readiness – Leader uses supporting style; Followers have necessary skills but are uncertain of themselves  Very High Readiness – Leader uses entrusting style; Followers have lots of ability and confidence and can accept responsibility for their own task behavior  Leader provides a general goal and lets the follower take it from there, with little assistance from the leader. o In Hersey-Blanchard model, leaders can tailor their type of leadership to each individual, much like the leader-member exchange theory from Chapter 2.  Fiedler’s Contingency Model – A model designed to diagnose whether a leader is task-oriented or relationship-oriented and match leader style to the situation. o Leadership Style – measured with a questionnaire known as the least preferred coworker (LPC) scale  16 bipolar adjectives on an 8 point scale (the one we took in class).  If the leader describes their least preferred coworker using positive concepts, he or she is considered relationship-oriented  If the leader describes their least preferred coworker using negative concepts, he or she is considered task-oriented o Situation – three diferent situations that can be either favorable or unfavorable to a leader  1) Leader-member relations – looks at a group’s attitude of acceptance towards a leader  If they trust and respect the leader, leader-member relations are favorable  If they distrust and don’t respect the leader, leader- member relations are unfavorable  2) Task Structure – Evaluates if tasks are defined, involve specific procedures, and have clear goals  Well-defined tasks like assembly line workers’ jobs have a high degree of structure (favorable)  Creative, ill-defined tasks like strategic planning have low degree of structure (unfavorable)  3) Position Power – Evaluates how much formal authority a leader has over a subordinate.  High position power (favorable) – Leader can plan, direct, evaluate, or reward/punish the subordinate  Low position power (unfavorable) – Leader has little authority over subordinates and can’t evaluate, reward, or punish them.  Measuring Favorability  Highly favorable situations = all three favorable points mentioned above = Task oriented leader is more efective  Moderately favorable situations = there is a mix of favorable and unfavorable situations = Relationship oriented leader is more efective  Highly unfavorable situations = all three unfavorable mentioned above = task oriented leader is more efective o Contingency Theory – To use Fiedler’s theory, a leader must know if he or she is…  1) relationship or task oriented and  2) If leader-member relations, task structure, and position power are favorable or unfavorable o It is criticized a lot because  If you are put in one situation and the company starts to change for the better because of your leadership, the situation will change, so will you no longer be a good leader?  It doesn’t address people who fall in the middle of the LPC score.  The favorableness is arbitrary  There was weak support for this model  Path-Goal Theory – A contingency approach to leadership in which the leader’s responsibility is to increase subordinates’ motivation by clarifying the behaviors necessary for task accomplishment and rewards o c o Leaders change their behaviors to match the situation o o Leader Behavior – 4 types of behaviors that leaders can learn  1) Supportive Leadership – Concern for worker’s well-being and personal needs  Leader is open, friendly, and approachable  Leader creates a team environment and treats everyone as equals  Similar to consideration and people-oriented leadership  2) Directive Leadership – Tells workers exactly what they’re supposed to do  Leader plans, makes schedules, sets performance goals, etc.  Similar to initiating structure or task-oriented leadership  3) Participative Leadership – Consults with coworkers about decisions  Leader asks for suggestions and encourages participation in decision making  Similar to coaching or supportive style in Hersey- Blanchard model  4) Achievement-oriented Leadership – sets clear and challenging goals for subordinates.  Leader stresses high quality performance and improvement over time  Show confidence in workers and help them achieve the goals o Situational Contingencies  1) Personal characteristics of group members – Similar to Hersey-Blanchard’s readiness  A worker with low ability may need a leader who provides additional training or coaching  A worker who is self-centered may want a monetary reward as motivation  A worker who needs clear authority may want a directive leader  A worker who wants more freedom may want a participative leader  2) The work environment – Includes the degree of task structure, the nature of the authority system, and the work group itself  Task structure much like Fiedler – tasks are either laid out in detail or workers have more freedom  Formal authority system includes the amount of legitimate power used by leaders and the extent to which the policies restrain the workers’ behavior  Work group characteristics consist of educational level of the workers and the quality of relationships among them.  Use of Rewards  Supportive leadership increases a worker’s confidence to achieve the goal and receive the reward  Directive leadership specifies the path a worker needs to follow to get the reward  Achievement-Oriented leadership sets a diferent and higher goal for the worker than the current goal in place in order to get the reward  Participative leadership clarifies the worker’s needs and sets diferent rewards pertaining to those needs   Vroom-Jago Contingency Model – A contingency model that focuses on varying degrees of participative leadership, and how each level of participation influences quality and accountability of decisions; three parts of this model: o 1) Leader Participation/Decision Styles – There are five levels of a worker’s participation in decision making  1) Leader decides (autocratic)  2) Consult Individually  3) Consult Group  4) Facilitate  5) Delegate; scale shown below o o 2) Diagnostic Questions – Use these 7 questions to decide how much group participation there should be (mentioned above) to use  1) How significant is the decision?  High significance = more autocratic w/ the leader making the decision  2) How important is subordinate commitment to carrying out the decision?  High subordinate commitment – more democratic w/ group involved  3) What is the leader’s expertise with the problem?  High expertise = more autocratic decision  4) If leader decided alone, would subordinates have a high or low commitment to the decision?  High commitment = more autocratic  5) Do the subordinates support the goals of the organization?  If yes, then be more democratic  6) What is the group members’ expertise on the problem?  High expertise = be more democratic  7) How skilled and committed are the group members to working as a team?  High skill and commitment = more democratic o 3) Selecting a Decision Style – Two decision matrixes: 1) Time-based model and 2) Development-based model; in other words, does the leader need to get the job done in a timely fashion or does he or she have time to use the job as a chance to develop the subordinates into better employees with better skills and knowledge?  The following two exhibits demonstrate these two matrixes. It looks complex, but if you read it carefully, it’s quite simple. The ‘H’ stands for “High” while the ‘L’ stands for “Low.” Each matrix goes through the 7 questions above and ends with one of the 5 decision style (mentioned above) you should use.  Time-Based Model – Used when time is an important factor in completing job   Employee Development-Based Model – When the importance of the job is to develop the employee   Substitutes for Leadership o Substitute – A situational variable that makes leadership unnecessary or redundant  For example, in situations where the organization is already very structured, a task-oriented leader doesn’t have to use his/her task-oriented leader skills because the organization is a substitute for that form of leadership o Neutralizer – A situational characteristic that counteracts the leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors  When the leader has a certain leadership style but can’t use it because it would be bad for a particular situation o In other words, when certain leadership characteristics are already implemented in the situation, the leader should try to adopt the characteristic that is lacking in the situation.  Example: The work situation for bank tellers provides a high level of formalization, little flexibility, and a highly structured task. The head teller should NOT adopt a task-oriented style because the organization already provide structure and direction. The head teller should concentrate on a people- oriented style. o More examples are given in this exhibit  EXAM 1:  30-40 Questions  ½ Multiple Choice  ½ T/F  There will be scenario-based questions. Know what type of leadership behavior is best in X situation.  Know questions like “according to XYZ theory…” MANA 4325 Test 2 Study Guide Dr. Hall Chapter 4 – The Leader as an Individual  Topics to know for test o How/why is self-awareness important? o How to recognize blind spots o Know the major personality dimensions and how personality influences leadership and relationships within organizations o Know what instrumental and end values are, and know how they guide thoughts and behavior o Know different attitudes and how they relate to a leader’s behavior o Know different attributions and how perception affects the leader- follower relationship o Know the differences in cognitive style and how to broaden one’s own thinking style to expand leadership potential o Know how to lead and work with people with varied personality traits  The Secret Ingredient for Leadership Success – SELF-AWARENESS o Self-awareness – Being conscious of the internal aspects of one’s nature, such as personality traits, emotions, values, attitudes, and perceptions, and appreciating how your patters affect other people. o The importance of self-awareness  When leaders deeply understand themselves, they remain grounded and constant, so that people know what to expect from them.  It also can eliminate some blind spots a person may have o Leader Blind Spots – Characteristics or habits that people are not aware of or don’t recognize as problems but which limit their effectiveness and hinder their career success  A big blind spot that can be very damaging is being a jerk - someone who hurts relationships with employees, subordinates, and peers. It can drive a company into the ground.  Another blind spot is being too nice – Being a people pleaser can prevent a leader from seeing that they are damaging their relationships and careers by being overly concerned with what others think of them  Personality and Leadership o Personality – The relatively stable set of unseen characteristics and processes that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, and people in the environment o A Model of Personality – The Big Five personality dimensions (listed below)  1. Extroversion – The degree to which a person is outgoing, sociable, talkative, and comfortable meeting and talking to new people  “Dominance” in a situation is similarly related  Not as important of a characteristic to have as most people may think because 4 in 10 leaders are introverts, not extroverts  2. Agreeableness – The degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good natured, cooperative, forgiving, compassionate, understanding, and trusting  High agreeableness means you are warm and approachable  Today’s successful leaders know how to get people to like and trust them  3. Conscientiousness – The degree to which a person is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented  More important than extroversion  A person who focuses on a few goals  Guilt is a positive emotion for a leader because it is associated with a heightened sense of responsibility to others.  4. Emotional Stability – The degree to which a person is well adjusted, calm, and secure o Handles stress well and can handle criticism, not taking mistakes personally o Having high emotional intelligence means you understand others’ feelings well.  5. Openness to Experience – The degree to which a person has a broad range of interests and is imaginative, creative, and willing to consider new ideas o Being open to taking on new challenges and being creative will help a company grow, which we learned earlier is important in a leader today. Traveling and experiencing all sorts of different cultures and interests is important in making a well- rounded leader  Importance of the Big Five is for leaders to understand their strengths and deficiencies in these categories so they can be more aware of themselves and their tendencies.  Personality Traits and Leader Behavior  2 main attributes that impact behavior  1. Locus of Control – Defines whether a person places the primary responsibility for what happens to him or her within himself/herself or outside forces o Internal locus control – people believe they are masters of their own fate. They control their destiny  Very self-motivated people in control of their own behavior, participate in more social activities, and more actively seek information.  Can handle more complex problem solving  More likely to seek leadership positions o External locus control – Believes outside forces determine what happens to them  Prefer lots of structure and direction in their work.  2. Authoritarianism – The belief that power and status differences should exist in an organization o High degree of authoritarianism usually means you respect the hierarchy system and doing your part o Don’t really like people expressing their personal feelings. o Will dictate how much power the leader delegates to others o As we studied in earlier chapters, today’s leaders are moving towards a lower degree of authoritarianism. o Either can be good as long as the followers share the same degree of authoritarianism as the leader  Values and Attitudes o Instrumental and End Values  Values – Fundamental beliefs that an individual considers to be important, that are relatively stable over time, and that have an impact on attitudes and behavior  End Values AKA terminal values – Beliefs about the kind of goals or outcomes that are worth trying to pursue  Ex: People who strive for security, a comfortable life, and good health focus on end values.  Ex: People place value on social recognition, pleasure, and an exciting life  Instrumental Values – Beliefs about the types of behavior that are appropriate for reaching goals  Ex: Being helpful to others, being honest, exhibiting courage  People have both end values and instrumental values, but their order of importance changes from person to person.  **Understanding peoples’ value differences can help improve communication and effectiveness; reminds me somewhat of the Path-goal theory  National culture, generational differences, family background, and how a person was raised all have a high effect on what a person values.  **Values influence how leaders relate to others  Ex: a leader who values obedience, conformity, and politeness may have a difficult time understanding and appreciating a follower who is self-reliant, independent, creative, and rebellious  Leaders can be more effective when they clarify their own values and understand how values guide their actions and affect their organizations. Clarifying and stating corporate values are an important part in defining how an organization operates o How Attitudes Affect Leadership  Attitude – An evaluation – either positive or negative – about people, events, or things…Wow, really philosophical definition there…  Attitudes towards followers are developed from a leader’s attitude about human nature in general.  Douglas McGregor identified two different assumptions about human nature  1. Theory X – The assumption that people are basically lazy and not motivated to work and that they have a natural tendency to avoid responsibility o People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives o The average person has little ambition and prefers security above all o Believes in task-orientation and concerned with production  2. Theory Y – The assumption that people do not inherently dislike work and will commit themselves willingly to work that they care about o A person will exercise self-direction and self-control when he/she is committed. o A person learns not only to accept but also to seek responsibility o Imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problems are exhibited by many in the population o The intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partly utilized, and we are capable of so much more. o People-oriented and concerned with relationships o McGregor believes this is better than theory X  Social Perception and Attributions o Perception – The process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information o Because of individual differences in attitudes, personality, values, interests, and experiences, people often “see” the same thing in different ways.  Ex: A person might have developed the attitude that leaders are insensitive and arrogant, based on a pattern of perceiving arrogant and insensitive behavior from supervisors over a period of time. If a person moves to a new job, this attitude will continue to affect the way he or she perceives superiors in the new environment. o Perceptual Distortions – Errors in judgment that arise from inaccuracies in the perceptual process. Some of the most common errors are below:  Stereotyping – The tendency to assign an individual to a broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual  Prevents people from truly knowing those they stereotype and prevents talented people from advancing in an organization and fully contributing their talents to the organization’s success  Halo Effect – An overall impression of a person or situation based on one characteristic, either favorable or unfavorable  It blinds the perceiver to other characteristics that should be used in generating a more complete assessment.  Projection – The tendency to see one’s own personal traits in other people  They project their own needs, feelings, values, and attitudes into their judgment of others  Best safeguard to this error is good self-awareness and empathy  Perceptual Defense – The tendency to protect oneself by disregarding ideas, situations, or people that are unpleasant  People develop blind spots in the perceptual process so that negative sensory data do not hurt them.  Recognizing peoples’ blind spots can help people develop a clearer picture of reality o Attributions – Judgments about what caused a person’s behavior – either characteristics of the person (internal) or of the situation (external)  They help people decide how to handle a situation.  Distorted attributions come from:  1) The Fundamental Attribution Error – The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another’s behavior and overestimate the influence of internal factors o Ex: When a person is promoted to CEO, people may look at the character traits that got him there when in reality, it could have been external factors like business conditions creating a need for someone with his strong background at that particular time  2) The Self-Serving Bias – The tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors on one’s successes and the influence of external factors on one’s failures o People give themselves too much credit for what they do well and give external forces too much blame when they fail.  Cognitive Differences / Cognitive Style – How a person perceives, processes, interprets, and uses information o Patterns of Thinking and Brain Dominance  Left brain thinkers are logical and analytical thinkers who take a linear approach to problem solving, whereas the right brain is associated with creative, intuitive, values-based thought processes.  Ned Herrmann broadened these ideas into what is called the whole brain concept – An approach that considers not only a person’s preference for right-brained vs. left-brained thinking, but also conceptual vs. experiential thinking; it identifies four quadrants of the brain related to different thinking styles  Quadrant A – Associated with logical thinking, analysis of facts, and processing numbers.  Person is rational and realistic, thinks critically, and likes to deal with numbers and technical matters.  The scientist.  Leader is directive and authoritative, focuses on tasks and activities, and likes to deal with concrete information and facts  Quadrant B – Associated with planning, organizing acts, and careful detailed review  Person is well-organized, reliable, and neat.  The manager  Leaders are conservative and highly traditional. They tend to avoid risks and strive for stability. They follow rules and procedures  Quadrant C – Associated with interpersonal relationships and intuitive and emotional thought processes.  Person is sensitive to others and enjoy interacting and teaching others.  The teacher  Leaders are friendly, trusting, and empathetic. They are concerned with people’s feelings more than with tasks and procedures and may put emphasis on employee development and training  Quadrant D – Associated with conceptualizing, synthesizing, and integrating facts and patterns  Person is visionary and imaginative; likes to speculate and break the rules, takes risks, and may be impulsive.  The artist  Leader is holistic, imaginative, and entrepreneurial. They enjoy change, experimentation, and allow followers a great deal of freedom and flexibility  o As a leader, it is important to be aware of the different parts of the brain their followers use. They can gear the communication to fit that person better. Leaders can recruit people with varied cognitive styles to help achieve important goals o Problem-Solving Styles: Jungian Types and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  MBTI Assessment – Test that measures how individuals differ in gathering and evaluation information for solving problems and making decisions. In each of the following categories, you will test for either one or the other:  1. Introvert (I) vs. Extrovert (E) – Where to


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