Chapter 7 Notes
Chapter 7 Notes PSY-P 101
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Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Cierra Beyers on Tuesday March 3, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY-P 101 at Indiana University taught by Jeff Huber in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 03/03/15
Chapter 7 February 26th Pete Carrols Prank Video Punked by fake hotel bill Why the prank 0 He wanted to pair laughter and fun with team meetings What is learning Acquiring new and relatively enduring info and or behaviors Changes that persist over time Associations connections that persist over time 0 There is a connection between behavior and consequence reward punishment Behaviorism amp Learning Respondent Conditioning John B Watson Individual responds to stimulus in environment AKA Classic conditioning or Pavlonian conditioning Most important theory 0 People who are passionate can accomplish anything I Huber talked about when he went hunting with his dad and his dog His dad started to walk better and was able to shoot the gun Before Conditioning I Neural stimulus NS stimulus that doesn t trigger response I Unconditional stimulus US stimulates response naturally During Conditioning I Bell NS is repeatedly paired with food US After Conditioning I When you ring the bell the dog salivates You can condition a negative or positive response Higher Order Conditioning new NS turns into condition stimulus CS with paired with CS 0 It is a physiological response 0 AKA Second order processing Generalization conditioned by responses triggered by related stimuli o EX dog drools when scratched and rubbed o EX abused children fear angry faces Discrimination learned ability to only respond to specific stimuli o EX Dog only comes when bell is a certain pitch Pavlov s Legacy Physiological response Unconscious Automatic response phobias Related to biological drive and response Occurs in all animals and all humans Phobia persistent irrational fear and avoidance of specific stimuli Passion Hard work Persistence Success Operant Conditioning BF Skinner Operant Conditioning behavior modified in response to consequences of behavior Operant individual voluntarily operates or quotactsquot on environment Respondent Individual responds and reacts to environment The Skinner Box Controlled observable measurable Bird with light eats then he must learn to turn around to make the light ash which means he can eat Discriminative Stimulus DS any stimuli present during reinforcement Reinforcer Stimulus that increases the probability that the response reoccurs Positive Reinforcement Process of using a reinforcer Primary Reinforcer stimulus naturally reinforcing Food drink fun attention sex power Generalized Reinforcer neutral stimulus through repeated pairings with other reinforcers becomes reinforcing Money buys food builds power People don t always exhibit the behavior we want so we use shaping reinforcing successive approximations toward desired behaviors Negative Reinforcement removal of aversive stimulus EX Child throws tantrum 0 Parents give into child s demands so parents don t have to hear tantrum Extinction cessation of behavior by withdrawal of reinforcement Simple and easy to administer Not always easy to find source of reinforcement Generalization transfer response from one situation to a similar but neverbefore encountered situation Discrimination refrain from making learned response because situation is dissimilar and response would be inappropriate Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement reward given every time after target behavior 0 Good for young children early learning 0 If you always use continuous reinforcement reward is expected and becomes a crutch It reduces the development of intrinsic motivation PartialIntermitten Reinforcement reward given part of the time 0 Target behavior takes longer to acquire and establish but lasts longer Intrinsic Motivation perform behavior for its own sake and for internal satisfaction Geometric Puzzle Study two groups playing with puzzles One was rewarded and one wasn t The one that was rewarded stopped playing with them after experiment because the reward was gone which meant their motivation was gone too You should use few rewards and fade them over time Evaluation Theory rewards effectiveness is based on how the reward is perceived Delayed Gratification If you wait 5 minutes to give a dog a treat after something good BAD Humans are wired for delayed gratification Delayed reinforcer given after period of time Delayed Gratification skill related to impulse control and longerterm goal setting and attainment Marshmallow Study 0 If kid waits to eat marshmallow he will get another 0 Those who waited tended to be more successful goal attainment later in life than those who didn t wait Delayed Gratification Basic personality trait Reasonably stable throughout life can be changed though Positively linked conscientious optimism hope internal focus of control 0 When one goes up the other goes up Positively related general concern for health Negatively related cigarette alcohol consumption Likely environmentally conscientious Punishment Sometimes unavoidablenecessary Opposite effect of reinforcer Negative Punishment 0 Loss removal of positive stimulus penalty 0 Uses reason Do this to get thatquot o Involves delayed gratification 0 Preferred over positive punishment Positive Punishment 0 Aversive stimulus follows behavior 0 3 types I Reprimands censures of reproofs I Timeouts remove from reinforcing situation I Response cost loss of reinforcers for inappropriate behaviors loss of points Punishment is a part of learning Case Against Physical Punishment 1 Ethicalhumanitarian considerations 2 Draws attention to bad behavior but doesn t show what good behavior is 3 Often accompanied by undesirable emotional side effects associated with punisher not punished behavior a The person is only thinking about how much he she hates the punisher Doesn t eliminate behavior just suppresses it Causes frustration leads to maladaptive behaviors 6 Violence as punishment models suggests aggressive behavior is appropriate 5 Sometimes Punishment is necessary not physical punishment Some people need it Some situations require it When Punishment is Unavoidable and Necessary Administer it wisely sparingly and lovingly in order to avoid side effects Caring this hurts me as much as it hurts you Spell out the rules beforehand 4 F s o Firm fair friendly love sinner hate sin and forgiving 3 R s o Reasonable respectful relevant Praise publically criticize privately Reasoning Listen these are the rules that we talked about These approaches model appropriate behaviors Ieffery Gray Reinforcement Sensitive Theory 1 Behavioral Activation System BAS responds to reward and incentive regulates approach behavior a Accelerator motivates approach behavior 2 Behavioral Inhibition System BIS responds to punishment regulates avoidance behaviors a Brakes stop behavior High BAS impulsive pursue and achieve goals associated with hope elation and happiness Low BAS less motivated by rewards and to pursue and achieve goals High BIS avoidance of negative unpleasant events associated with anxiety fear frustration and sadness Low BIS less reluctant to approach negative events and less anxious No worries foolhardy Biological Causation BAS dopamine production association with hypothalamus and brain reward rat BIS associated with the hippocampus part of limbic emotion system and associated with memory storage 0 Powerful biological in uences on our reaction to reward and punishment Significant differences between individuals Socially Cognitive Theory Behavioral operant conditioning principles Cognitive remember imagine anticipate Imitation observational learning Much social learning results from imitation Observational learning watch behavior of others and imitate or not imitate depending on contingency Video 0 Hit BoBo doll while child was watching The adult wasn t getting punished Dr Bandura Child ends up hitting doll Why did the child imitate I Disinhibitory effect adult reinforced not punished for behavior I Inhibitory effect suppression of behavior from seeing model punished 0 Children with autism can mirror nor follow someone s gaze 0 3030 lives in Iceland now because it is ranked the most peaceful country 0000 Vicarious Reinforcement individual observes someone else reinforced for behaviors Happens because of mirror neurons fire to re ect actions or feelings of others Motivation and Imitation If they ain t motivated they ain t imitatingquot We are wired to imitate When we see someone rewarded punished that we like our brain activates as if we received reward punishment Monkey Video 0 Same neuron fires when you watch something and do something Prosocial behavior actions benefitting others and society Antisocial behavior actions harmful to individuals and society Children who observe violence may be violent Research Viewing violence 0 Leads to violence 0 Reduced prosocial behavior 0 Video I Alabama I Kid played video games all day and then he killed 3 people 0 There is a difference between adolescents and adults I Prefrontal cortex impulse control areas doesn t develop until the early 20 s I Mental health I Home life I Emotional state I Power of the model Power and Imitation Power expertise experience success something attractive alluring o Tongue with Michael Jackson during basketball Cognitivism computer as metaphor what if human mind works like computer Cognition using mental processes for processing new info Metacognition knowing about our knowing Remember 15 things Our knowing is limiting Cognitive definition of learning anchoring new info to old info in memory Creating new neural connections Recall activating appropriate nodes and associated nodes Humanism recognized individual and humanness of every learner Maslow and Rogers changes learning in classroom 7 Humanistic Learning Objectives 1 Autonomy personal choices decision making 2 Selfconcept positive notion of self 3 Personal Values beliefs and ideas 4 Affect emotions and feelings 5 Communication 6 Selfevaluation 7 Selfgrowth 3 Humanistic Learning Theories 1 Student Centered Learning student involved in decision making and goal setting 2 Discovery Learning learning throughout one s own efforts a Students curiosity i Einstein s compass b Problem wishing to solve c Student embarks to solve it 3 Facilitated Learning a Teacher acts as a facilitator Humanistic definition of learning Student centered process in which teacher facilitate and humanistic learning objective are emphasized Scaffolding temporary help from teacher to help student to the next level Zone of Proximal Development what learning can do with and without help
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