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UW 1020 American Environmental Advocacy 11215 Reading Notes Class Notes Discussed McKibben article quantifies real life perspective s express seriousness of issue 27 trillionpoints in economic amp human terms talks in terms of time URGENTgtmore urgency 16 yrs comparing s 8 gt2 diverse statistical topics beeragain unit switching seriousness drunk driving profitsgt pollution 37 billion gt searching for new reserves RHETORICuse of language to persuade audience EXIGENCERionew data Ethoscredibility refers to world leaders establish source credentials appear to logos quotes from meteorologists science quotes specifics offers own credentials his solution adds to ethos Pathosemotion scale of s is frightening Rex Tillerson reckless Gov t inaction CopenhagenMunich of our times Rio conferencegtthey just showed up but weren t seriously getting anything accomplished just came for show 2 degrees Celsiustoo much island nations and Africa US amp China 40 moral responsibility warnings like for smoking Egoslogic alternative sources of energy FF power comes from wealth moral outrage pros l cons create degree on FF precedent Timeline is evidence of appealing to younger audience giving a sense of urgency amp putting it in terms of relevance like technology counterculture appeal University endowments using Borat reference Portfolio been 20 yrs since Rio conferenceshows how long this has been going on for written 2 beer example time framegt style Audience must not know numbers already Rolling stones reviews music pop culture music entertainment younger audiences who don t work full time because they have more progressive beliefs and aren t established world leaders os therefore more open to change They re educated liberal appeal to new audience a form of fresh eyes and perspective So better to put article in this type of magazine instead of typical scientific because is exposed to new audience and broadens the issue younger people are more effective and willing to protest more 011415 Stauffer article protest movements aren t a series of fresh starts debunked myth new critics separated text from politics and ideology literature empowerstransforms people protest lit tries to give voice to collective consciousness by uniting isolate discontent linked to time and place critiques society from the outside looking in gt using empathy and shock value with teleological purpose class discussion What is PL the uses of language to change the society and uses language to transform the self and change society How does PL change society by bringing attention to the issues and possibly start protests to lead to change it s a type of awakening plays roles in societal revivals happen in times of distress so help society transforms beliefsideals can inspire individuals establish commorodory inward vs outward What makes PL effective its style and what it effects How influential is PL depends on what it is how it s written and its effect on society How is it different from other literature PL talks about present day issues and addresses issues that go beyond entertainment and shows intention vs effect it s openended and needs to be perceived as PL What are the different techniques utilized shock empathy and symbolic action factswhat could happen openendedness and ambiguity and generating solutions in literature What has PL achieved bringing attention to issues and bring about change Scholars All lit no lit Ralph Ellison thinks all literature is Protest Lit TSIS Reading notes Intro every goodaccomplished writer has certain moves they always use to be successful templates fillintheblank grids are a common example but should only use them as a moldable outline utilize to organize and clear up writing provides structure provide a way to express your ideas amp summarizing others responses academic writing is arguementative write other s voices into yours is a response to others motivation for writing example MLK s letter from Birmingham jailgtresponse to clergymen s public statements summary and response format dailogueplay form Pollitt is another example regarding waving the flag outside of the place of the twin towers from 911 also disliking or fearing books growing up doesn t mean you can t grow fond of them later in life can still be a good teacher of literature don t play it safe and avoid controversy must fulfill the so what and who cares most argumentative writing is driven by disagreement but doesn t rule out agreement templates can be expanded or condensed as needed should help open text and map out voices and qualify and support planting a naysayer is one of the most crucial moves help writing become more original and creative patternstructure used to master basic form and then should be used creatively start basic and then add complexity In the Introduction to They Sayl Say The Moves That Mat ter in Academic Writing Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein provide templates that Specifically Graff and Birkenstein argue that the types of writing templates they offer As the authors themselves put it Although some people believe Graff and Birken stein insist that In sum then their view is that l agreedisagreehave mixed feelings In my view the types of templates that the authors recommend instance In addition object of course on the grounds that argue that Overall then I believe important point to make given For Some might Yet I would an 1st Chto give writing a reasonpoint thesis and its larger context must be clearly defined bring larger conversation to individual claim order and timing are essential summarize what theyothers say then your own opinion first summary then detail english is decadent can start with anecdote or jay leno moment Harris How to write in response to others intertextuality rewriting intertexts performatives forwarding countering coming to terms taking an approach stories theories both sides have negatives and positives not taking sides or arguing a point epigraphs and setting quotes aside from other text can tell style by how author reaches conclusions mode is a style of thinking not inducible issues in society evolve adopt approach not style working in another s mode transform influences how to position own work in relation to others acknowledge influenceswriters who provide model for own define concerns writer s drive interestsvalues characteristic method style turning approach to itself ask same questions as previous writer reflexivitynoting and reflecting on key choices sociologist s approachdefine how influences direct work show how work diverges common ideas similarities and differences ideas should never be ideologies status quo or dictating imperative for renonce skepticism can make society s work pragmatists approach reflexivity Braverman s necessities of public narratives ambiguous and fragmentary evidence of experiences psychoanalysis as medical specialtyFreud stated in German das Es language profoundly shapes text and meanings of authors explores subject matter in a real way coming to terms define project note keywords amp assess uses and limits set of questionsquestions what author is working on recognizing what author is saying see argument from author s POV Q s What other viewpoints does he bring into the discussion and where do you see him make They Sayl Say moves What do you think of his definitions of protest literature His views of what makes for effective protest literature You might specifically consider Whether protest literature needs to provide an explicit solution Whether protest lit needs to be part of a movement to be effective Whether you need to intend the work to be protest for it to count in some respect I ll explain this more clearly when we meet Whether you think openended protest lit stuff that requires you to work to interpret it is better than simpler messages We ll be talking extensively this semester about lens or frame sources sources whose ideas you borrow to help you understand another work How could you take Stauffer s ideas about empathy shock and symbolic action and use them to help you understand McKibben What about Muir Joseph Harris Rewriting Doing Things With Texts My questions are straightforward what do you take Harris to be arguing What useful ideas do you find in his text Why does he choose the word rewriting for what most people would call just writing And how can his descriptions of how people use texts help you as a reader uses and limits templates could stifle creativity riff off them complex and numerous sides TSIS responding to others amp presenting own view templates for info contrast indicate conversation responding to intro purpose ORDERgtintroduce conceptgt counterwhat others think gt then own ideas templates can look limiting Harris intro rewriting importance gtuse other text for own purpose helps develop thoughts coming to terms is the first step forwarding CTT counter taking an approval parallelcontrast toTSlS complex texts intertextualitygtintellectuals writing in response fairwriting projects makes main idea complex more of a plan of work think of as project rather than thesis paraphrase or restate trouble with wilderness Cronin environmental historianwrote changes in the land spends first half explaining why Americans think positively about wilderness TSIS goes through how it changes overtime then explains problem takes up counterarguments uses and limitations turn in paper copy on Wed peoples relationship with land disciplines as frameslenses of what he s looking through policies about land romanticism culture polisci peoples relationship with the land Q s what have people thoughttaught about wilderness shift in idea sublime vs frontier barren savage uninhabited desolate waste bewilderment terror nostalgiagt sublime w romanticism still fear but of a sacred place place where Satan resides but has turned into God s home sublime where you can glimpse the face of God place where you could feel insignificant immeasurable regions of Heaven eternity descriptive adjectives that evoke emotion religious symbolism apacolypse end of the world shift of sublime to dualism in our perceptions we see human society as opposed to it wilderness vs wildnessgtwilderness has long history and is a culturalsocial construct pros and cons why we re seperate from the wilderness who changed the perceptions of wilderness being negative or positive how is the shift permitted what is his wilderness intended to be does it achieve environmental goals 10 what is its effect on us how and why is it deceiving what exactly is wilderness what or who constitutes its nature people and their perceptions but pristinepure view is harmful and we should not view it as something that can t be tampered with purepristine idea isn t helpful but rather harms disagrees with others that it s been tampered with he thinks it s rugged and nature is made to be used by humans stasesstance stance question definition what is the issue exactly define problem causeeffect what or who caused it value good or bad positive or negative action what to do about the problem jurisdictionwho is responsible putting the blame on one entity Thoreau Personifies naturegt Titanic 11 unwelcoming still terrifying shifts when you get to Muir doesn t fear it but instead welcomes it and says it s pleasurable less scary as 19th century approaches less unknown world is more familiar Frontiergt wilderness to be conquered manifest destiny becomes an escape unmapped free natural West conflict opportunity lawlessness free unforgiven gold boom violence survival barren Indians cowboys wild places being tamed Turner opposes frontier Democracygt he thinks it s limited and closing by the 1800 s fears we ll lose touch with nature frontier made America a unique nation Cronon s responsegt start preserving by creating National Parks then wilderness turns into recreational places moved it to planes more barren area we protect sublime places firstoverlooks frontier because when we go as a consumer that idea is ruined page 15 ironies becomes playground for welltodo lesson of social classes harmful because people forget where they come from real home vs actual home we live in true environmental responsibility is separated so causes a threat makes us think we re unnatural bc we re harming the Earth paradoxgt nature dies because we enter it 12 can t replace wilderness with ecological diversitygt endangered species gt concept of new and used land urban folk don t understand it bc they have never worked the land fantasy of wild places when you use it for recreation you forget the real use of land itself can t live sustainably solution is living in middleground gt see nature in our homes bring nature into architecture and homes and cities honour the wild accept wilderness as humane and part of us gt to find sustainable definition value of how wilderness has changed throughout time causeeffect through historically lense not much on action nothing really on jurisdiction Cronongt uses and limitations vs in Muir unfamiliar POV seams to discount value of wildness using nature as recreation suicide wilderness idea allows no human role in nature logos and pathos pg 19 wilderness costs vs benefits how definition of wilderness differs from our perceptions gt advocates reckless harmfulirresponsible behavior towards nature Cronon tries to advocate argue how to protect wilderness 13 advocates for respect for naturegt moral obligation shows value commercialized the wildgt ties into ethics of ecotourism labor is only understood by lower social classes only wealthy can afford tours minorities and poor get worst of environmental problems pg 20 limitations social and class issues Muir sublimegt gift of God pg 135 renunciation eternal toil divine manuscript limitation is credibility doesn t introduce himselfgtaudience is more focused environmentalistsgt assumes audience is already involved in movement ethos scholarly individuals in academic Professors Yosemite tree differs in ecosystem vs tree in backyard uses personification to connect humans to nature describing bear harmonious experience of senses holistic feelingsemotions feeling presence of God facade religious symbolism with grasshopper and Brown bear gt sermon focus on animals habitat gt not people Cronon s uninhabited wilderness extended metaphor compares to Yosemite temple gt how out of reach it isgt to God as well Extrensicgt human based gt compares to humans lntrinsic 14 deep ecology movement PARADOX he gets a fulfillment fromgt deep solitude they re his companionsgt friends he is greatful for religious experience spiritualhumbling appreciation ties into sublime realizing his role in the world through animal roles unexpected reactions in the bear more shy than he thought when initial curiousity struck to follow it in the first place rugged gt but defends it in defense of the flock leisurely gt like hunting sense of abundance taking jar off shelves of pantry 012815 What are Close Readings Where you generate your ideas Create a word list write down wordsphrases that capture your attention while reading Guide to close readings BB Think about how these ideas relate to Cronon Going to need to lay out Cronon s ideas in order to support own idea s about reading Explain how it helpshinders the understanding of the text Cronon Dualism nature v humanity wilderness v civilization 15 o Creates the illusion of escape 0 We can t see the wild outside of wilderness fail to care for nature in backyard 0 Fantasy of unworked land by the upper class don t understand our actual relationship to nature imagine them as untouched when we touch it all of the time 0 Behavior towards native people removing them from home when they have lived there forever 0 Views man as corrupt When writing a paper Audience prof peers parents other scholars friends employers What to do in paperfor readers 0 Summarize 0 Coming to Terms 0 Identify the author title author genre credentials Thoreau Reading Questions about Reading 0 What is the significance of Thoreau personifying nature as a woman 0 How can heathenism and religious purpose coexist o What characteristics does personification give wilderness 0 Why does Thoreau continue to explore despite his concerns and fears Ways to answer this in the text other textjournals history biography accounts of similar activities 0 What role does racism play in the Thoreau s view of wilderness o What is the role of nature as civilization spreads o How does he feel about humanity using nature for their own purposes 0 Why does Thoreau insist upon climbing the mountain and experiencing nature by himself 16 17 Who is he writing for People curious about the frontier People who haven t experienced wilderness Tend to be more educated and more religious Most likely to be for white masculine people Transcendentalists Does he think the land will be developed or not At the end why does his change into asking questions Why does Thoreau think man is not to be associated with nature How does Thoreau see his role in nature Come to Terms With Personification Commerce End Being alone Will this place be developed Cranberries Claimed and divided the land 80 miles from Bangor may be a farm difficult place to settle because of the deep and narrow ravine man not to be associated with it may not want it to be developed uses savage to say that it still seems wild and not for white man forever untamable on the page 5 unhanselled globe What is going on at the end of the essay Language is more fragmented and emotional than the rest of the piece Perhaps it s how he is expressing his internal conflict Maybe has feeling of sublime and insignificance in the bigger picture Contact with physical world Earth made of Chaos and Old Night gt physical Spiritual connection lnsult to the Gods What God saw fit to make this world old as the flood referring to the flood with Noah allusions to Greek mythology CRONON lense for Thor C says T embodies frontier democracy dualism human amp nature at opposite ends Tgt perserving advocate for individualismgt Robinson crusoe unworn land gt unworked Cronon says changes in the land only daring goes untrepid explorer Topen ended 18 C more opinionated T is debatable more so than C T is one interpretation of C Cearly wasteland scary sublime domesticated sublime Muir frontier recreation domesticatedgt berries are God s bounty soley scary sublimegt good vs badgt out of body experience sundomestic darkscary Muir confronting beargt domesticated but recreation w bear scene Mary Austin land of little rain inhospital land dry empty land little creates opportunity there is little must be seeked out lost bordersgt unclaimed land causes a separation that isn t there anymore humans are no longer involved vast and forgotten in history makes a unity sets a sameness about the place prevailing notions of deserts shows Salty to prove humans can be a part of naturegt rugged like the Yucca tree rugged individualism of Cronon at the endgt frontier notions 19 ending shows how nature wins scary sublimegt Ionliest paragraph 16God s hands and stars and beautiful devine human insignificancecommunion of the stars Dualism different perspectives on the desertgt some see unsurvival to some full of light ppl integrated separationgt depends on seasons both can be arguable depend on weather salty seasons gives canvas to birds her presence seasonal differences Native americans 200 diff species Cronon says wilderness she recognizes indians living there unlike Cronon less of a wilderness writer but still non the lessgt Muir is classic but she is newer only people like salty can live in the desert describing the desert in great detail through imagery and comparing other areas to the desert environment 20 levels of pure desertness 1 explaining the desertification of land negative effect of dried up lakes on the ecosystem and even just pollution and murky water pool is never quite dry but dark and bitter 1 by using negative connotation contrasting negative murkiness and dark dingy dirty to fresh beauty uses personification and imagery to describe setting place through weather too describes importance of bodies of water such as rivers to health of ecosystem country of 3 seasons gt weather issues bringing flowers and nature to life to bring in emotions for the droughtits effects by comparing a species at the same place yrs later change drought caused bc plants are waterloving gt hydrophillic compared to its effects on the native inhabitants settingsierras comparing plants and animalshumans inevitability of life and death differences between the seasons sublime gt connection to God gt how all these species came to this dwelling emotional effect mules example the land and its calling to people contrasting old and new southern western dialogue desertbred people and their effect compare and contrast Mary Austin The Mesa Trail 21 more negative connotation not hospitable predators view from horsebackgt shows disconnection criticism of human harm Pete s role he s the type of purpose that could survive in the rugged environmentgt he integrates light vs dark gt better at night but still weary impervious with his animalsgt comfortable with the land integrate the role and purpose of these trails mesa through history imagery again focusing on trees around symbiosis amp nature s relationship to one another weather s effect the value of solitary time predatorprey relationships eating mating habits times in depth detail of slaughter specifica area and relationship to surroundings movement vs stillness animals habits out of the ordinary why they need this interdependence of whole ecosystem its sphere of influence 22 engaging senses smells and effects journey from beginning to end Mary Austin isn t first person The Nature of Everglades one unique region on earth remote and not fully known detailed imagery and personification vast glittering openness 5 unique in its simplicity and diversity juxtaposition related harmony in forms of life 5 special RIVER OF GRASS gt as it s referred to miracle of lightgrass and water is its meaning and central factit is a river of grass 56 furthest south of north america close proximity to tropicsgt what does this say about its atmosphere detailed explanation gt describes and adds to mysteriousness creates eeiry scene and feelings evergladesbig water positive shimmering polished shining ect different from wilderness comparing to Muir and Cronon cronon says people thinking positive of wilderness and nature transition of negative to positive stay out of it people don t have a place here I39m still not sure the idea you39re talking about will work I think that Douglas39s work was pretty fundamental in changing views of the Everglades so I don39t think that the view by 23 the time she published was fully positive From what I can gather online she started work on protecting the Everglades in the 20s it got some protection in 3934 she continued to write and published Everglades River of Grass in 3947 it got more protection in 47 and she continued to work and organize to get even further protections I think it would be better to find a more narrow focus for the paper What was most interesting to you You could focus on just the negative views she39s trying to change You could also focus on the positive but you might narrow that more You can also write on this topic and we can alter the thesis after you draft but be aware you39re probably going to want to get a narrower take on things looking at landscape that isn t necessaryclassically sublime she strays from traditional views of wilderness such as Muir makes continuation or departure gt creates notion as a tough place like Thoreau less about subjective experience more about nonhuman nature secular sublime 1st pg through vastness compared to how small humans are to it Quote that means a lot to her and why she s writing Yet the Indians who have known the Glades longer than and better than any dictionarymaking white men gave them their perfect and poetic name which is also truePayhayokee which is the Indian word for Grassy Water Today Everglades is one word and yet plural They are the only Everglades in the world pg 8 uninhabited but lndians now it bestgt just swampland gt to national park her role in getting protection for it paradox of diversity but yet unitingunique force similar to what Austin does presents what people have thought about it but she s trying to contrast and change people s minds of it negative gt positive got wilderness protection to extend to the everglades Quote that stands out to me The first saw grass exactly as it grows today sprang up and lived in the sweet water and the pouring sunlight and died in it and from its own 24 dying and decaying tissues and tough fibers bright with silica sprang up more fiercely again only fire can conquer it promoting protection p911 logos logical pathosemotional ethoscredibility sublime secular secular sublimenot explicit juxtaposition comparing contrasting vs transitions ESSAYmetaphors similes and imagery tone or diction structure appeals to emotion reason and authority the persona of the speaker awareness of audience use of personification studies of protest literaturethe question of genre or type of writing the use of empathy pg 8amp9 secularsublime doesn t have to mean materialistic beauty of sublime departure continuationdoesn t refer to divinity isolateduninhabited independent 25 how Englishmen changed the namesgt they chose as opposed to Indians unique seasons Week 4 readings rhetorical situation trying to find contextgtauthor audiencegtNew Englandgtpoor readers townspeople poor students bc living off bare minimum roadmap to living frively like him trying to teach purposeexigence urgency at this time context and genre autobiography memoir personal essay Thoreau gt lake WALDEN acts fearless of living in wildernessuncertainbiblical references important in that time 70s attitudewe readeducatedcynical his evolution as an environmentalist themes we are slaves of our luxuries came out in 1852 gtstart of Industrial Revolution comments on Abolitionistsgt SelfEmancipationgrowing inequalitycuts on luxury deforestationgt only few trees in Walden man and natural world Why does Thoreau choose Walden Pond as the site of his experiment Why does the kind of personal enlightenment he seeks have to take place in nature and not say in the middle of a city How about a sequel Manhattan because that s the true site of nature wouldn t be the same in the middle of a city After travelling extensively he chose this location Take a look at Thoreau39s descriptions of Walden Pond and its surroundings What is the pond like What sorts of animals birds and plants live in the surrounding area What changes take place over the course of the seasons Through the struggle of the laborers who have to work the land and thus are closest to it it s a fools life 2 to others Thoreau provides some hefty descriptions of his daytoday life at Walden Pond How does he adjust his life to conform more closely to nature Do you think he does the best 26 job he could No I think he could provide more detail and go more in depth and bring in more emotions pathos life consciousness amp existence Take a look at the passages where Thoreau mentions quotlifequot Having scoured through these what would you say does not count as really living according to Thoreau Do most people really live in the fullest sense of the word What is it about modern life that disgusts Thoreau so much he cannot afford to sustain the manliest relations to men his labor would be depreciated in the market He has no time to be anything but a machine 2 this description of how most live Also the Negro slavery and North he says is worse for this How godlike how immortal is he See how he cowers and sneaks how vaguely all the day he fears not being immortal nor divine but the slave and prisoner of his own opinion of himself a fame won by his own deeds Public opinion is a weak tyrant compared with our own private opinionThe mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation What is called resignation is confirmed desperation From the desperate city you go into the desperate country 3 Now let39s turn it around What does count as life for Thoreau What role does understanding and consciousness play in living a real life People chose this form to another so it must be better Do you think Thoreau feels that there is only one way to live Or is he arguing the opposite that there are many ways to live What about a person who makes a lot of money or persecutes other people but considers this to be his unique principle of life Is this person truly living Why or why notNo he s saying we can make a choice to go the easy way or to really live we shouldn t think we have no choice left It s never too late he says and not to let the older generations steer you one way and say you cant do something bc new ppl have found out they can if they try Age isn t a better teacher than youth bc it has lost more than it has profited society and class According to Thoreau what is not civilized about his society What would a really civilized society look like We39re not talking Sim here the higher social classes and their luxuries may seem like it but isn t 27 Review some of the passages where Thoreau talks about quotsavagequot or American Indian customs Which customs does he want to preserve and why What aspects of quotsavagequot society is he most critical of Now look at some of the passages where Thoreau mentions ancient Greek Roman Indian or Chinese civilizations either their philosophy or their customs check out our quotAllusionsquot if you have trouble finding them What does he value in the work of these civilizations How does the 19thcentury society in which he lives compare with these ancient civilizations Which civilization would you most want to be a part of wisdom What is wisdom according to Thoreau Is it something that can be acquired at school From reading books If not what are the sources of true wisdom What are some of the most significant experiences for Thoreau at Walden Pond How do these experiences contribute to his own personal wisdom Do you think Thoreau ends the book any wiser than he was in the beginning Why or why not While we39re at it are you any wiser after having read his book isolation For Thoreau what are the advantages to being alone time and space to think and truly gain the ultimate wealth of connecting with one s true self Do you think Thoreau likes people or do you think he is a misanthrope Find quotes to support your opinion He likes certain types to an extent but not being around them all the time Thoreau isn39t entirely alone on Walden Pond of course He makes regular trips into town he has many visitors he chats with the locals and last but not least he39s got the friendship of Nature Why does Thoreau seek companionship Which companions does he most enjoy and why happiness According to Thoreau what are the primary causes of unhappiness in the world Why are people anxious or depressed ls depression widespread If so why 28 Take a look at some scenes where Thoreau takes pleasure in his surroundings Find a scene that focuses on each of the five senses sight hearing smell taste touch What kind of language does Thoreau use to help his reader feel what he feels What is true happiness for Thoreau Do you think he39s discovered true happiness by the end of the novel Explain why or why not using specific quotes visions of america antebellum period According to Thoreau what are the primary causes of unhappiness in the world Why are people anxious or depressed ls depression widespread If so why Take a look at some scenes where Thoreau takes pleasure in his surroundings Find a scene that focuses on each of the five senses sight hearing smell taste touch What kind of language does Thoreau use to help his reader feel what he feels What is true happiness for Thoreau Do you think he39s discovered true happiness by the end of the novel Explain why or why not using specific quotes technology and modernization What are some of the technologies and quotmodernquot advances discussed by Thoreau in Walden How have developments such as the railroad and the telegraph changed the pace of life according to Thoreau What are the effects of this change on human beings on their quality of life on their psychological state What is time like in nature Why isn39t the book written in chronological order month by month from March 1845 to September 1847 as opposed to a more seasonal order moving from spring to winter and back to spring What are the unique features of each of the seasons spring summer fall winter at Walden Pond Waldenpg12 Thoreau puts fish in sky to show the sublime advocating for having a simpler life anticonsumer back to the land movement in the 1950s romanticism relationship to nature he s part of it even though he s human no dualism respectful of naturegtwhen he talks about hunting and how to preserve animalsgt anticonformity 29 gtahead of his time in relationship to nature during Industrial Revolution his thinking was revolutionary appreciates nature for what it is amp derives meaning from it Ameatur naturalist anti industrialist gt does not call for preservation undoes using pastoral motif celebration of countryside pastorsheephearder in Greek in between place like suburb not wild and scarygtcomfortable problems romanticises farming and doesn t acknowledge the work that goes into it CTT summary Forwarding not a response to an author rather an effort to discuss with other readers for your own purpose analyze it he says remember don t just quote but analyze and add own input gt art of analyzing quotes gt explain what it means and why it s being used gt good writing is making it easier for the reader Quote sandwich gt can be used for structuring paragraphs Thesis gt topic sentence Rule gt use exampleevidenceexhibit Application Conclusion T E A 30 OITIJgtT types of forwarding illustratinggtusing an example authorizing gtgiving credit to bolster own point appeal to ethos borrowinggtusing someone elses idea for own purpose taking a term or idea use for Cronon extendinggt borrowing with a twist don t need to use it Thesis should be found in first paragraphs intro claim heart of what you re arguing thesis why it s important significancegtso what Who cares Why does this matter should be concise 31 Nature is a cultural contruct this is harmful to people address whether u agree articulate significance takes stases stance of value gt lensframework bring in Cronon around second paragraphgt layout Cronon claim return to question of value conclusion pg 178 Buell 6 Pastoral correspondence projectgtgoing into nature can make u learn about God simplicity pg 181 Naturalist landscape aesthetics microenvironmentsgtcorresponding to seasons gt proto understanding of ecology ecosystems 7 develops more into an environmentalist as he spends more time in nature spiritual as well as material significance had a life long appeal to Thoreau although he increasingly took an empirical and quotscientificquot approach to nature after 1850 Explanation of the some of the ways Thoreau related to nature We will try to ask the question quotIn what ways is Thoreau an environmentalist or someone whose work leads to environmentalist ideasquot It may not be obvious on first reading Please read pages 172 175 and then go on to p 178 in the middle where it says quotIndeedquot and continue to the end This may seem hard to understand but we39ll review it in class 32 doesn t have a good background in agriculture so it didn t come easy to him but nevertheless he s an environmentalist through his struggles he gained a deep understanding for which he is still remembered today but ironically was critical of it recounts all about Thoreau spirituality and defining nature structure Transcendentalism of himself as well as nature transitional struggles of life the Ponds quotthe engineer does not forget at night or his nature does not that he has beheld this vision of serenity and purity once at least during the dayquot W 1923 Walden has been transformed back into a pristine sanctuary again interesting QUOTE About Thoreau I hesitate to say these things but it is not because of the subject I care not how obscene my words are but because I cannot speak of them without betraying my impurity We discourse freely without shame of one form of sensuality and are silent about another We are so degraded that we cannot speak simply of the necessary functions of human nature In earlier ages in some countries every function was reverently spoken of and regulated by law Nothing was too trivial for the Hindoo lawgiver however offensive it may be to modern taste He teaches how to eat drink cohabit void excrement and urine and the like elevating what is mean and does not falsely excuse himself by calling these things trifles pg 16 This is what he truly thinks and contradicts a part of what he previously had said but focuses on going back to basics and back in history 33 Every man is the builder of a temple called his body to the god he worships after a style purely his own nor can he get off by hammering marble instead We are all sculptors and painters and our material is our own flesh and blood and bones Any nobleness begins at once to refine a man39s features any meanness or sensuality to imbrute them People s perceptions too highly of themselves can cause this effect one must humble themselves more From exertion come wisdom and purity from sloth ignorance and sensuality In the student sensuality is a sluggish habit of mind An unclean person is universally a slothful one one who sits by a stove whom the sun shines on prostrate who reposes without being fatigued If you would avoid uncleanness and all the sins work earnestly though it be at cleaning a stable Nature is hard to be overcome but she must be overcome How exactly do we overcome and why do we need to to overcome these impure perceptions pastoral vs individualist tone mean cheap living in a basic way he s so anticonformity he s very opinionated and could offend people vegetarians connected to moral development not worth it opiniondisrespectful animal nature vs higher nature test of charactergt so let young kids hunt to learn from eating meat that it s not necessary sport overpopulation leads to preservation spend time with naturein nature a way to enjoy nature nature threatened by society going out into nature can help understand it to value sublime and serene of nature by observance in natural habitat instead of shooting them gt transition 34 how hunting leads to environmental consciousness FEATcame from history talks about how researchers access use resource limitations can be in more than one category primary gt 1st hand account like interview diary letters memoir must have been written exactly at the time photos videos audiotype journals using direct words secondary gt biography using primary source to deduct what original person meant relies on primary source gov t docs history textbook critical arguments about them tertiary gt like encyclopedias Ffact use to establish setting Eexhibit quote and analyze Aargument come to terms with argument Ttheory lensframework how to handle sources gt Leopold and Berrygt in between and focuses on pastoral pg 10 Cronon sublime romanticism gt Douglasgt wants convince that swamps need protection too Cronon lens Leopoldgt Pastoral gt through imagery 35 Cranegt paleological patent of nobility bc they re graceful bc royal people hunt them and they re enduring and have a unique resilience are cooperative bc they travel together symbol of untamable paths amp old witness to history lived in mutual benefit w humans gt in arcadian age amp had mutual benefits majesty trumpet of evolution strength bc they stay prominentunchanging in a changingevolving environment visual depictionpersonification lived millions of years so the trappers that came weren t that long ago farms cause people to think of economic development cranes represent wildness incarnate idea of wilderness prairie catches fire cranberries could be economic utility gt but land gets poor so reflood marshes urge to develop economically caused change Aesthetics of cranes gt shows the superficial x and y are atoms X goes through transformation in the Carbon cyclefood chain cycles through many more times bc old prarie was richer in a tree flower acorn deer Indian soil follows THEN finally ends in the sea 36 Y goes through different transitions goes through much fasterflushes through in a wheat field bc when humans arrive bio diversity decreased because humans only try to save oxen only care about things that are directly useful signify that all creatures are related ironic that fire caused him to come backgtsecondary succession bc changes compositio Why did the wheat empireeconomy collapse Major environmental problem that causes this is soil erosion gtwears out Nitrogen and land so try to change what they grow to alfalfa but didn t work New perspective through inanimate objects plays with scale small focus microcosm can represent macrocosm of the world biotic drama gt sees them as connected ecosystems fundamental building blocks both are continuous shows the continuity of nature gtfinding beauty in atoms personifies and aesthetisizes these atoms Thinking like a mountain story He sees a wolf die cowman hasn t learned to think like a conflict between desires of a man nature killing of the wolfhunter s paradise humans interrupt patterns of natural harmony brutal attack of wolvesgt irony use of pathos emotion w looking at green eyes moment of realization 37 color imagery green Earth life killing wolves more deer mountain Mountain big picture semi timeless motionless stationary sublime sees more understands its territory better aware of environmental changes after it idea of hunting making hunter feel guilty Land ethic starts with allusion of Odysseus how ethics can change over time sense of right vs wrong progress definition of right needs to preserve integrity beauty amp stability transition from scary to domesticated secularized sublime ecology is always shifting transition of conqueror destruction ownership domination sets rules selfcentered death total control exploitation to citizen membership contribution follows rules and has a hand in creating them preservation building upcreative openminded participation engagement mutual benefitrespect self governing RESEARCH databases at gw use scholarly sources only sourciography 38 walmart amp kmart gt ProQuest amp how to narrow search gormet databases can have articles read out in another language pick topic pesticides DDT ect use interlibrary loan with the library of congress Fact Exhibit Example Argument Theory Harris differences of how to treat E and A sources counteringgtdisagreeing ESSAY 2 comparecontrast structure gt2 primary sources texts 1 scholarly argument that s the lens has citationsnot from newspapergtcome to terms with Leopold and Douglasgt can bring in movies and children s books can bring in images as topics newspaper Grist has good topics 39 look through a theme techniques of protest gt like shock or empathy FOCUS ON SIGNIFICANCE how change in genre affect the messages of both thesis at beginning Argument source is not author making an argument but explaining someone else s argument Berrygt Manifesto MFLF liberation front political revolutionary declaration call to attentionaction ideology statement of goalsclaims conscould be seen as too strong POV open to misinterpretation not a roadmap could be too radical prosmore objective good attention grabber sa ncal crazy Marxist communist manifesto contrarian 1973counter culture goes against the norms frustrationoppression attitude cropsforest harvestleaves Pery pro amp cons subjective abstract emotional openended ambiguous anticonformity 4o not really a manifesto cold war timeframe reject society return to traditional land use Christian ideals plant flowers in the forest ecofem strain trust nature act different better towards nature grammar in command form causes urgency involves readers Biblical quality emphasizes resistance frustration list quality turn from traditional to more modern Carson Silent Springmarine ecologist 1968 A fable for tomorrow sets out serene scene of perfect little town then brings up fishing and history of how it was settled how it changed and became messed up through evil spell made shallows of deathgt explains how the ppl harmed the perfect landturning it into this dump uses the microcosm of this imaginary land to show the overall macrocosm of what we re doing to the world on the larger global scale she s trying to explain exactly how this happenedis happening throughout shock valuegt ethos appealed to different people credibility with stats emotions significance of Eagle DDT is not a miracle 41 biological magnification at each ecosystem level debunking science leading to progress starts with pastoral setting through all the seasons gtcoexistence prosperous middle of america flowers and how everything lived in harmony white clouds and serene evoking history maple birch mystic quality it s a myth fable signifies teaches morals lessons composite town people can see themselves in the town relatable toxicsgt shadow of death evoking fear Biblical reference idea of inescapability uncontrollable don t know when and why no reasoning children bring innocence can t be explained effects reproduction losing essential value no future counteracts the vision of americagt lost sense of valuestrikesattacks the heart of America natural essentials are gone silence is creepy spring is a rebirth time but not happening now toxins are like powder visible but seems inacuous And no birds sing robins and another American bird are on the verge of extinction 42 insecticides are shown responsible for dwindling Eagle population they migrategt found after studying them on West coast of Fl by Everglades bc of bottleneck migration bythrough Hawk mountain through Appalachians DDT lowered their reproductivity rates significantly goes through accounts of multiple other species affected and history pesticidegtrunoff from farmsgtwatergtfishgtbirdsgteggs compare to Leopold uses scientific factsgtgives evidencecredibility to argument wants readers to understand the science behind to truly understand effects uses him so people won t reject her ideas as radical more practical bc he works more first hand so has expertise gives full stories to better incorporate statistics lists of diversity of species affecteddestroyed firsthand accounts from observation responsible not only for national effect but also mass effect on humanity and globally unpredictability gt reproductivity appeal to pathosbc birds mate for life pic of the first public test of DDTunethical 2nd Essay DouglasampLeopold article gtalso can add Muiramp Pinchot amp mayb Thoreau gt what how they show something technique Paper 2 should be in same axis Carson uses pastoral and McKibben uses shock both use the work of scientists compare and combine 2 theses don t fragment by mixingalternating quotes from each focus on one author at a time then a final comparecontrast after restating thesis transition from 1st author A to 2nd author B 43 must state differing significances for each transition talk about last idea then next old information first then new later in chronological order directional flow come to terms with sources don t just use quotes just to establish facts gtincorporate more include functions environmental justice Audience of the New Yorker affluent educated progressive The Fog majority of population are blue collared workers so uneducated and working and living in the same toxic environment so are first affected more primitive have low social structure not as much knowledge no stationary hospital doctors overwhelmed bc minority lack emergency responses lack reserves long interviews generate empathyestablish credibilityethosgive diffPOV vivid shows event s impact on them emotional impact compare to Carson avoid evaluative thesis subjective amp difficult to back up bc immeasurable offer more significance more measurable reasons and why Carson goes from positive to negative R just starts with negative Carson starts with a fake fictional town vs his setting the real town of Donora 44 Carson focuses on effects of animals vs Roueche focuses on the toxic effects on humans compare both show effects of toxins in the air DDT environments vs factory toxins setting farm setting vs industrial city Carson talks about rest of world international whereas Roueche only focuses on US domestic both use shock value both appeal to loss of austhetic effect both Pennsylvania Carson focuses on human responsibilitygt R doesn t blame that much but just shows after effects farm vs industry different time setting Carson is more educated bc nature writer so effect on nature Roueche takes more medical standpoint so humans effect Both toxics but diff in way they re depicted diff threats silent spring kids older adults Di Chiro 45 first hand account of what information Robin Cannon got access to in EIR effects of a waste incinerator toxins from waste burning in South central LA lowincome again seeing effects on lower classes bc don t have resources to stop it from happening and most likely don t know either bringing in that women organized the response dispelled stereotypes that lowincome couldn t now harmful effects and step up for themselves successful grassroots effort human nature inerelations and social as well socialculturaleconomic structuresorganization thesis what ppl living in the area perceived of nature and environmental prac social justice stability sustainability env justice first in US in mid1980s group demographics set it apart from historically dividing where humans reside in nature political aim of worldwide global environmental awareness advocacy and protection to create one movement that fully addresses and encompasses all finds root humans are integral part of merging social justice and environmental interests society and nature constructs organizational structure urban vs wildnatural hostile dichotomies 46 Some scholars reject dark portrait of Jefferson article Master of the Mountain gt fails as scholarship work shows hatred of Jefferson and focuses on his slave ownership To bolster his argument Mr Wiencek points to a note in the margins of a 1792 report to George Washington that he believes shows Jefferson then serving as secretary of state calculating the birth of slave children as delivering a reliable return on capital of 4 percent per annum a note he claims that no writer on Jefferson has ever mentioned counted them as capital assets Bullard race class take more active roles in resistance focuses on blaming the polluters importance of blame similarities local examples of global problems Walker 1 frames or lenses 2 context of MLK day speech 3 race 4 gender Thoreau scholar Why are humans amp nature at opposite poles 47 Why does he go to Walden What is the proper relationship between man and nature How is his view in Walden the samedifferent compared to others How does life inform his work How did his work depart from earlier authors How does his use of language convey his message How influential was he People in other disciplines What did people think about vegetarianism in the late 19th C conceptions of native americans in american literature what was the significance of the sublime in the 19th century preservation notions of farming and sustainability history lens can use different subject lenses psychological sociological religious ect What was early American environmentalism what did 19th C naturalists think Walker Scholar critical biography how she uses race and gender People in other disciplines state of civilized movements in the 80s what was the logging industry relationship of native americans and their reservations how do writers choose better 48 role of native americans in environmentalism and history What role does significance of speech given on MLK day leads to significance trees view people monolithically MLK changes a stereotypical view extending political rights to people who didn t have them all humans should be treated equally Walkereverything is a human being denying rights to nature is equally serious imagine what it s like to be oppressed empathy RACE imagining racial oppression negative associations w n word poverty gender race connected w earth powerful native americans gt earth uses Wasichu to establish opposing force and identify w POV of native americans undermines stereotypes just take the fatNA use everything exploit and take only for their own benefit and waste much romanticising native americans gender was taught to be afraid of snakes nwords genders nature but would undermine equality 49 human being analogy respect Essay 3 must do rhetorical amp do research on 3 pieces speaker Terry Tempest Williams audience ppl interested in env justice ppl living in Utah Mormons women adult audience 30s amp 40s educated spiritually inclined reasonpurpose antinucs birdssmall animals env causing cancer exigence her family is affected lake is rising lawsuits context feminist movement antinuclear movement at end of cold war beginning of awareness of climate change and cancer scares Love Canal already happenedproblematic waste silent springstart of modern env movement scientific articles on the issues she s writing about links between environmental issues and policies how ethos and pathos influence the piece env justice critical biography connecting mormon amp env love canal and effect on others american attitude to understand audience role of gender in env movement ecofeminism family structures in mormonism looking into genre unwritten rules beliefs of clean living berry has also been on the land for a long time 90sgt breakdown of traditional family unit family cultivates a love for outdoors grandmas role gt values birds ecofeminismgt women oppression amp env injustice closer to Earth as a motherfinds out about testing after mom s death 50 connection of mormonism amp motherhood feminism marked off as separateone breasted women ongoing shockvalue memoir linking 2 env issues through family equality feminists amp difference feminism Louis Gibbsgt Aaron brockwich showing significance of Love Canal Speaker LG everyday woman humble audience authorities ppl who care about env issues moms purpose raise awareness warning signs for prevention legislative change roadmapgt rallying community political organizing exigence illnessdeath timeframecontext 70 sgtBrownfield act genre autobiographymemoir cons subjectivity bias only showing one side of storynot birds eye view lacks logos pros narrative first hand account appeal to empathy gtgoes in order from beginning to end Issue objective background to Love Canal gov regulation response to love canal development of EPA role of gender in env issues grassroots movements in env advocacy autobiography as a genre history of toxic waste treatment muckraking 51 decision making of school boards political context of 70s why some ppl take action psychological factors lit advocacy empathy frame appeal to pathoseffect on children credible motive was protecting her kids establish ethos not for profit takes her free time motherhood s role Williams is more explicit about gender equality feminist Gibbs doesn t advocate for gender more subtle but breaking some rules of SAHM differential feminist brackets issues role of class Upperclass experts are dismissive can t move options limited doing grassroots bc doesn t have the budget for it focuses on middle to middle lower class showing how it effects them to her implicitbut yet real plain voice is accessible to knowledge personal anecdotes to make audience feel same she did transition from indifference to strong advocate making change ambiguoustransparentopen to interpretation has modestrealdown to earth stance admits her flaws and is down to earth but shows experts flaws and their response makes it expose condescending and flawed officials 52
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