Psych 379 Final Exam Study Guide
Psych 379 Final Exam Study Guide 379
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PSY 379 Final Exam Study Guide Exam 1 Ch. 1The Study of Human Development What are the goals of developmental research? Describe change, Explain change, predict the future, and intervene to improve quality of life. Qualitative vs Quantitative change Qualitative is discontinuous while quantitative is continuous Philosophical Roots Children are born selfish/sinful (biology) St. Augustine of Hippo need to overcome internal drives you struggle to overcome moral implications just think of how it influenes you Children are born good/innocent (biology) JeanJacques Rousseau emphasis on children, environment interferes with or encourages growth Children are born a blank slate/tabula rasa (environment) John Locke Individual differences are due to experience, children are passive recipients of environmental experiences Darwin and baby biographies/first studies of development Evolution theory (both genetics and adaptation influence development), detailed records of his own children’s early years Guiding Principles of developmental science There is an interplay of biology and the environment, there is a multilayered context that affect each other, there is a dynamic, reciprocal process between child and environment, it is cumulative across a lifespan Periods of development What is a theory? Vs Hypothesis? A theory describes what it is trying to talk about, explain/predict something, provides tenets from understanding It is an overarching idea of how something works (not a statement of fact) A hypothesis is derived from a theory and is what’s actually tested Psychoanalytic Theory Freud social and emotional how relationships and attachments affect development, more about cognition Psychosocial Development Theory Erikson One’s interactions with society and peers influences how they develop depends on cultural norms . Learning Theories0 learn from envi and you imitate others Behaviorism Pavlov and Watson Classical is association Operant All about rewards and punishments in order to increase or decrease a behavior Social Learning Theory copying someone you look up to Imitation of adults influences behavior CognitiveDevelopment Theory What is assimilation and what is accommodation? Assimilation is when you have an idea of what something is, but when you are introduced to this idea you have to tweak your idea to fit reality (classroom example) Accommodation is when you have an idea about something, but when you’re introduced to that thing, you have to completely change your idea to fit reality How does equilibrium play a role in these two processes? Equilibrium is a state of balance in which one feels like they understand the world through assimilation and accommodation it shows good sensorimotor intelligence because you can refine ideas based off of the experiences of one’s senses and motor actions Role of child in development Child plays an active role in his/her development because the amount they are engaged in the world drives how they develop. Contemporary theories Ecological perspective Theory in which one’s immediate environment such as family and one’s neighborhood affect development. Sociocultural perspective Theory in which all of the environments, and how they affect each other, affects the development of the individual. Behavioral Genetics The theory of which the weight environment and genetics play in development (genes affects ___% of anger and aggression in a child) Evolutionary perspective How our evolution and adaptation over time affects our development Dynamic Systems Perspective An ever changing system with multiple layers and contexts which all influence each other at the same time. Scientific Method Ask a question, do background research, formulate a hypothesis, tes the hypothesis, analyze results, and write a conclusion Observational Methods Naturalistic observation involves recording and then analysing a situation or event which has not been influenced by outside forces. NATURAL CREEP Participant observation a trained viewer enters the group under analysis as a member, while avoiding a conspicuous role which would change the group procedures and bias the information. UNDERCOVER CREEP Structured observation Within structured observation, often the observer intervenes in order to cause an event to occur, or to “set up” a situation so that events can be more easily recorded than they would be without intervention CREEP MAKES A SCENE Reliability and Validity Reliability is the ability for a test’s results to be consistent. Validity is accuracy, does it measure what it is intended to measure? Based off of sensitivity and Specificity Independent and Dependent variables Dependent variable is the outcome of interest, independent variable is the element the researcher introduces or manipulates. Research Design Case study An intensive study of one or a small number of individuals of families allow the researcher to improvise (not limited to a certain set of questions) Correlational study A study in which the researcher examines two or more variables to see if they are linked in any way Experimental study Establishes cause and effect Natural experiment Research design that takes advantage of naturally occurring events that affect some individuals but not others, or that makes use of an opportunity to measure development before and after a naturally occurring event has occurred. Longitudinal study When the same subjects in which data is collected in intervals over time can take decades Crosssectional study Data is collected from one population at the same point in time like a survey Accelerated longitudinal study (sequential) Combination of both cross sectional and longitudinal designs when different age groups are followed over time Ethnography social and cultural norms Research Ethics Beneficence should eventually should benefit participant Respect for Persons Justice Ethical standards of child development research won’t hurt the child physically or psychologically Application of Developmental Science to the real world Ch. 2Nature with Nurture Nature vs Nurture debate Nativism the idea that intelligence and other characteristics are innate or inborn, not acquired native to self Preformationism 17 century theory of inheritance that hypothesized that all the characteristics of an adult were prefigured in miniature within either the sperm of the ovum. Genetic determinism (eugenics) The idea that human qualities are genetically determined and cannot be changed by nature or education Eugenics The use of controlled breeding to encourage desirable traits or discourage undesirable traits Genes and human diversity Genome/Genotype Your genotype is the actual DNA your cells have, it influences phenotype Phenotype Your physical appearance and behavior based off of your genotype Chromosomes and alleles Long strands of DNA coiled up they are present in every cell and contain a complete set of directions for the development of the unique human being Alleles a certain section of DNA that codes for a certain protein being made from a gene Mitosis Cell replication in normal cells, every copy is exactly the same if there are no replication errors, has the diploid number (2n) of chromosomes (46 sets) Meiosis Cell replication in gametes (sex cells), there is a shuffling, or mixing, of chromosomes before replication so each gamete is unique, contains the haploid number (1n) of chromosomes (23 sets) in each cell Gametes sex cells, haploid number, all are unique Heritability Studies Shared environment Aspects of the environment that people living together will share and make them similar than just genetics alone. Nonshared environment When two people live in different environments and develop to be dissimilar due to different environments. Additive heredity The process of genetic transmission that results in a phenotype that is a mixture of the mother’s and father’s traits Epigenesis Darwin and Hall gradual process of development increases (builds on itself, little is predetermined) Plasticity The capacity of the brain to be modified by experiences (infancy and puberty) Canalization The inflexibility of developmental trajectories what our brains are hard wired to learn (a.k.a. walking) Regulator genes Do not influence traits, but the act as a switch plate for other genes Mutations Copying errors help with human diversity Theory of evolution Survival of the fittest Darwin’s idea of evolution The idea that the individuals with the most favorable and best equipped to survive in a given context are more likely to reproduce genes will survive Natural selection Process through which adaptive traits that are heritable become more common Importance of being cute (as babies) Attracts interest from caregivers, Receives more attention, Increases receptivity to environmental learning Ecological Perspective Microsystem A setting in which the child interacts with others face to face (ex. Family or classroom) Mesosystem System of interconnected microsystems (how children are reared at home affects how they behave in preschool, attitudes teens get from one another affects how they interact with their parents) Exosystem The layer of context that includes settings children only know in part (neighborhood), and settings in which children themselves do not participate (such as parents’ workplace) Macrosystem Includes larger forces that define a society at a particular point in time including culture, politics, economics, the mass media and historical events. Familism Placing a high value on the interests of the family rather than the individual Proximal vs Distal context/environment Gene and Environment Interactions Gene expression The process through which genes influence the production of specific proteins, which in turn influence phenotype Reaction range An array of phenotypeic possibilities that a genotype has the potential to produce as a result of the conext in which the organism develops (basically the ranges of phenotypes per gene the phenotype that is expressed is determined by the environment) Passive geneenvironment correlation Similarity between the results of genetic and environmental influences due to the fact that the same parents provide both genes and environments for their children (child doesn’t do anything parents reading bedtime stories are better in school) Evocative geneenvironment correlation Similarity between the results of genetic and environmental influences due to the fact that genotypically different individuals elicit different responses from their environments (an outgoing and positive person usually elicits a positive reaction from others around them) Active geneenvironment correlation Occur because individuals select contexts that they find stimulating and rewarding also called nichepicking (a kid that is genetically athletic will be inclines to pick friends who enjoy athletic stuff too) Nichepicking ↑ Ch. 3Conception, Prenatal Development, and Birth Periods of Gestation (zygote, embryo, fetus) Zygote happens right after conception and it changes over into an embryo are within the first month. By the second month (8 weeks) it becomes a fetus it already has most of the structures (whether fully functional or not). Multifactorial inheritance multiple things going on which affect how genes are expressed ex: Fetus in a harsh environment, that might affect the sensitivity of certain receptors in the baby’s brain which can affect neuronal growth and later influence growth/development Genetic disorders Conception Ovulation needed for a healthy conception happens on day 14 of a regular period schedule Fertilization sperm fertilizes an ovum either the first day or 48 hours after Implantation if all goes well, the zygote implants on the uterine wall and becomes an embryo Embryo Three layers of embryo cells Ectoderm= outer layer Turns into the skin, nerves, sense organs Mesoderm= Middle layer turns into the muscles, bones, circulatory system, organs Endoderm= inner layer forms the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands Amniotic sac Forms during weeks 38 of gestation, protective membrane filled with warm liquid that cushions the tiny embryo, around 1220 weeks you can take an amniotic fluid sample to do simple screening for certain diseases. Neurogenesis The time in which the neurons begin to develop and is considered a critical time in development because neurons control everything. Fetus Quickening The first fetal movement a mother can feel, happens during the second trimester Behavior Rapid fetal growth and movements during the first trimester the fetus’ digestive system is “practicing” by urinating the amniotic fluid that the baby swallows. By the end of the second trimester the fetus can breathe, cry, and it starts to develop a sleepwake pattern. In the third trimester the fetus can hiccup, suck its thumb, it is less active but when it moves it is more vigorous, sleepwake pattern is more developed Growth The fetus goes from ¼ of an ounce to up to an average of 7lbs in weight, it also growth from 1in to an average 20in in length. A premie is viable at 24 weeks, however the biggest danger at this point in time is the lung development, so premature births at 24 weeks usually have respiratory distress. It is full term at week 37, but it is ideal to have a baby at 40 weeks. Learning Gender development Stages Zygote contains XX or XY but is unisex if there is a Y chromosome, testosterone is released and will stimulate creation of sex organs external genitalia form, but gender isn’t official until 20 weeks ovulation is suppressed in males Turner’s syndrome when the zygote has one X chromosome (develops into a female), Testicular feminization is when there is a formation of testes but the testosterone is suppressed so external female genitalia form Ultrasound imaging the use of sound waves to create an image of the fetus (3D is the black and white th version, 4D is the 3 dimensional picture (4 dimension is time) Amniocentesis a fetal test that requires a small sample of amniotic fluid Chorionic Villi sampling a fetal test that removes a small piece of the villi (attaches amniotic sac to the wall of the uterus) Influence of maternal characteristics Spina bifida A neural tube defect in which the spinal cord doesn’t fuse completely Anencephaly when a part of the brain doesn’t develop Teratogen anything that can harm the baby (drugs, viruses, tobacco, alcohol, malnutrition, and age) SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) an unexplained death, usually during the night, of an infant under 1yo Sensitive period the period in which the organism is especially vulnerable to experience Sleeper effects an outcome that is displaced in time from a cause (brain development could be displaced due to malnutrition during infancy) Childbirth Stages of birth Cervix dilates and thins baby enters birth canal and is born placenta and umbilical cord are “birthed” (ew) Oxytocin induces contractions and birth Anoxia one of the most serious birth complications, supply of oxygen through the U cord is cut off before the baby can breathe independently (due to unnatural position before birth) csection surgical removal of the baby through an incision in the mother’s abdomen Newborns Preterm born before 37 weeks, viable after 27 weeks Low birth weight (LBW) <2,500g or 5.5lbs, usually born in between 27 and 37 weeks, have higher risks of dying in the first year, but survival rate is up from 50% to 90% Respiratory distress syndrome suffered by premature babies because their lungs are not fully developed they don’t produce enough surfactin (carries O2 and CO2) APGAR test assesses newborn on a scale of 02 in Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration NBAS (Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale) A test for newborns that uses reflexes and social interaction to assess their overall wellbeing Motor skills, state (i.e. alertness), attention, central nervous system stability Ch. 4Infant Physical Development General principles of growth Growth reflects nutritional adequacy, health status, and economic and other environmental influences on the family o slight weight variations in growth rate can result from illness, teething, inappropriate feeding position, or family disruption. babies must be weight naked measuring is a two man job, one holds the head while the other holds the legs straight Growth norms Fetuses grow from ¼ oz to an average of 7lbs Fetuses grow from 1in to about 20in in length Within the first 6 months, infants will double their birthweight, and in one year they will triple their birthweight Central Nervous System division of the nervous system (brain and spinal cord) that process information and directs behavior Subcortical structures o Subcortical structures that control state (asleep, awake, etc. ) emerge first during prenatal brain development. → controls sleep/wake cycle of the fetus in the womb. Midbrain – functions of vision, hearing, sleepwake cycles, motor movement Medulla – brain stem functions of respiration, heart rate, pain sensitivity, transmitting information from the rest of the brain to the body Cortex (lobes and cortex areas) Limbic system (inner cortex) that manages emotions is next The cortex and association areas of the brain concerned with awareness, attention, memory, and the integration of information least developed at birth and emerge last do not completely develop until late adolescence/early 20s. Association areas portions of the brain that are associated with different senses (auditory, motor, touch, visual, and higher Hemispheres the two halves of the brain (right and left) Corpus callosum connects the right and left hemispheres Cerebellum maintains balance and posture, coordinates voluntary movements, language Neurons (parts and action) Synapse space between the neuron’s dendrite and its axon across which neurotransmitters move. Neurotransmitters chemicals by which neurons communicate and transmit signals across synapses Synaptogenesis creation of synapses Synaptic pruning use it or lose it the textbook uses a good example of two villages separated by a hill. There are many different pathways on, in, and around the hill, but over time, travelers have noticed that one path is more direct than the others. As a result, travelers only take this one path and the grass starts to grow again on the unused paths. Myelination The formation of insulation (myelin sheaths) around the axons of neurons that help with the speed and accurate transmission of impulses Measures of brain functioning Microelectrode EEG/ERP measures brain wave activity and patterns Experienceexpectant (canalization) and experiencedependent (use it or lose it pruning) Modifiability some development is prewired, but can change Compensation cells compensate for loss of other cells ANS Autonomic Nervous System controls things you can’t control (breathing, BP, information transmission) Sleep sleep patterns stabilize with age newborns are saints and sleep 80% of the time by 24 months, the baby will begin to sleep through the night by 6 months, the babies average around 1112 hours at night and nap for 23 hours during the day (total of 14) They have 5 states of sleep and wakefulness Alert wakefulness→ fussing → drowsiness→ REM sleep→ Deep sleep→ light sleep in which the baby may wake up→ REM sleep trying to eliminate wake up and continue with REM sleep throughout the night Influence of the environment o Sensitive caregiving o Carrying o Cosleeping (mom and baby sleep together Reflexes and motor skills (norms) Sensing and Perceiving Seeing & Visual perception of emotions Age Visual and Perception skills 1 month vision is blurry at birth, can track slow moving images scan edges of faces (hairline and chin) Red, Blue and Green colors distinguished 23 months color discrimination is improving scan internal facial features (mostly focus on eyes) can Identify changes in emotional expression 69 months rapid improvements in vision infants can interpret and respond to facial expressions 12 months infants can respond to a wider range of emotions (happy vs. sad vs. angry) Hearing Age Hearing Skills 3 months of fetus can respond to sound Gestation mom’s abdominal wall and uterus muffle the sound, but change other characteristics of the sound very little Birth newborns are sensitive to the frequencies of human voices 3 months sounds have to be louder to be heard 4 months infants can reach in the direction of sound 6 months infant’s ability to detect source of sound is as good as adults Touch infants use the sense of touch to learn about their world. by 6 months, babies reach for everything Infants react to a change in shape of the object by rotating it more, they respond to change in texture by touching it more. they throw, push away and drop new objects less often than familiar ones they study more complex objects more with less time getting distracted than observing simpler objects touch is important for establishing and maintaining intimacy and infantparent attraction stronger motivator than food Depth perception Old findings 6mo/o babies will not cross visual cliff, recently: 1mo/o have some depth precption Multimodal perception use many modes for perception. Role of experience babies learn from experience falling down when they walk and crawl helps them learn their limits Health and Wellness Breastfeeding vs bottle feeding Breastfeeding Bottle feeding nutritionally the best because the mother’s milk has everything the may be needed as a supplement baby needs leads to a more rapid weight gain and size for preterm babies early health benefits good for immunity specialneeds formulas available Only nutrition needed for first 46 months can be high quality Good for motherbaby bonding, *however may not be possible for allows more father participation all mothers Solid food should be introduced at around 6 months Illness and Immunizations baby first picks up immunizations through breastfeeding from the mother (Natural passive immunity). Then certain vaccinations are needed at different times and intervals to protect the baby from certain diseases. Ch. 5Infant Cognitive Development Research methods Habituation Showing an infant a stimulus over and over again until he is bored of it and doesn’t look at it anymore Novelty responsiveness when an infant looks at a new stimulus longer than the habituated one Learning Imitation money see, money do Piaget – Sensorimotor Development substages Stage What’s Happening Basic Reflex mental development is minimal, but the baby is born with innate reflexes such (Birth 1mo) as rooting, sucking, and grasping Primary Circular infant discover actions pertaining to self by accident, uses trial and error until Reactions the action becomes a habit (14 mo) baby flails arms and thumb accidentally lands in mouth Secondary circular baby discovers actions pertaining to the environment by accident, trial and error reactions until it becomes a habit (48 mo) hitting a rattle makes it make noise, it’s interesting so I repeat action Coordination of Baby combines primary and secondary reflexes in order to solve a problem, Secondary… more intentional nd (812 mo) baby moves a box (2 ) so he can reach (primary) for the ball behind it Tertiary Circular babies are curious and make discoveries through trial and error to create new Reactions novel reactions (1218 mo) dropping ball at different heights to see what happens Transition to babies use more symbolic thought to solve problems using hand gestures symbolic thought baby uses hands to think about how to open a box (1824 mo) Assimilation tweaking already existing schemes Accomodation changing scheme completely Equilibrium when one is satisfied with how they aadapt their knowledge in the world shows great sensorimotor intelligence Object permanence knowing an object still exists if it isn’t visible Mental representation visualization of an idea/thing Challenges to Piaget more recent studies show that cognition develops earlier Infant memory Infantile amnesia cant remember stuff before 24yrs old Deferred imitation copying steps after 1 exposure Spelke’s approach (novelty effect) Categorization o built up over many exposures to a particular experience; help baby to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar. o Different categories 7 months at this age infants can only distinguish between superordinate categories (animals versus furniture) 12 months at this age infants can understand basic and superordinate categories but not at the same time animals that walk vs. animals that fly 24 months can use both at the same time, which hepls them understand subordinate categories dogs vs. cats vs. birds Schematic learning Organization of experiences into expectancies or “known” combinations (schemas) Sequential touching Exploratory play children play in order to discover properties and outcomes of an object Symbolic play when the children play pretend and take on the roles of others or make believe scenarios (playing “house”) Intelligence Bayley scales of Infant Development most widely used assessments of infant and early childhood development 2 scales: Mental development Index and Psychomotor Development Index they assess motor, sensation, perception, cognition, memory, language, and social behavior. Predictive validity ability of measurements to predict later outcomes (ex: infant tests and IQ scores) Scaffolding using temporary aids to help children advance Joint attention the ability to coordinate one’s own attention between an object and another person to indicate a need or to share interest hallmark of autism Language Development Phonology sounds in language that are produced and perceived Semantics the meaning of words and sentences Syntax grammar Behaviorist view one develops language from the environment Nativist view (Language Acquisition Device) we hardwired to learn to talk even if we lived in isolation, we would learn to talk Interactionist view we are born with the ability to talk and learn to through the environment Milestones/Norms By 1 month the baby just cries 12 months is cooing 67months the infant can babble with consonants (dada, mama) 910 months the baby gestures and babbles 12 months first words By 24 months the baby can speak in simple sentences Infant cries Pricilla Dunstan’s 5 newborn cries (she has an very good innate ability to hear sound, and when she had a baby she could distinguish his cries) When the infant uses the “Neh” sound it is signalling he/she is hungry by instilling the sucking reflex (tongue on the roof of the mouth) When the infant uses the “Owh” sound it is signalling he/she is sleepy by instilling the yawn reflex When the infant uses the “heh” sound to communicate discomfort (cold, itchy) When the infant uses the “Eairh” sound it means the infant is experiencing a gassy lower abdomen When the infant uses the “eh” sound it means the infant needs to burp. Comprehension (understanding the language) vs production (speaking the language) Morphemes mean length of utterance Referential (vocabularies include high proportions of nouns, and their speech provides information and refers to things in the environment (ball, kitty, apple) vs expressive style (contains more verbs and communicates feelings and desires (carry me, hungry) Building blocks of language (Social influences) infantdirected speech, turn taking, gestures Beginnings of language Holophrases a single word that stands in for a phrase and has different meanings based on context (bear can mean “I want bear” or “the bear fell”) Induction using examples to draw conclusions about new cases Fast mapping A phenomenon that refers to how easily children pick up words they have heard only a few times Whole object assumption When you name a thing and the child thinks it automatically refers to the whole and not a part (point to wheel and they think a car is a wheel) Mutual exclusivity when a child think that an object only has one given name (thinks all cups are cups, but some are mugs) Grammar (universal and learned) can detect grammar rules and regularities as to their native languages even though they vary across languages. Universal aspects of grammar that are thought to be innate in every infant’s brain Ch. 6Socioemotional Development in Infancy Emotions Expression the communication of feelings vs understanding the interpretation of emotion Primary feelings that are innate in infants (joy, surprise, sadness, anger, fear and shyness) Secondary emotions emerge later (embarrassment, pride, guilt, shame, and envy) Methods for recording emotion Visual perception of emotions Mirror neurons cells in the brain that are active when we do something (smile) and when we see someone do the same thing (pic with guy and baby with tongues out) Social referencing the tendency to use another person’s emotional expressions to interpret uncertain events. Temperament reflects stable, biologically based differences in behavior that impact the infant’s interactions with their environment Measurement two ways: 1. Ask the people who know the infant best to describe the baby’s feelings, 2. We can observe the infant ourselves and draw inferences with what we see. Positive affectivity reflects the extent to which an individual feels enthusiastic and alert Easy usually in good moods, adjust quickly Negative affectivity reflects the extent to which an individual feels fear or distress Difficult easily irritated and hard to soothe Slowtowarm/Inhbited characteristically shy, fearful, and timid Behavioral Inhibition ↑ Exuberance Frustrated Achievement Motivated Exam 2 Ch. 7Physical & Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Patterns of growth There is normative development in kids which means that there is a typical way that children of row across the globe. They're also individual differences among individuals in growth. the dramatic growth rate that arises indent the clothes in early childhood. Children continue to grow but the most noticeable changes are in their proportion. the child's torso, arm, and legs are longer. The growth curve suggests that physical development is slow and steady during early childhood on average, children grow 2.5 inches and gain 6 pounds per year during early childhood. in order to measure children's physical development is by body mass index which helps us judge whether a child’s weight is appropriate for his or her height. Obesity and how to lower risk for obesity BMI shows whether a child’s weight is appropriate for their height; obesity is over the 95 percentile. Appetite decreases from infancy Because children aren’t growing as quickly as they did in infancy; kids start to eat more “adult” foods. You can lower a child’s risk for diabetes by a variety of healthy food choices, not making food a bribe, punishment, or entertainment (teaches kids to listen to hunger cues), encouraging active play, and serving as a good role model by eating healthy and only keeping healthy foods in the house. 1/3 kids obese in kindergarten are obese later on in hs due to genetics, environment Brain development During early childhood the brain matures both structurally and functionally, a process that continues into adolescents and young adulthood. an important aspect of brain development in early childhood is establishing and finetuning communications within the brain and between the brain and the nervous system. Synaptogenesis The growth of synapses, peaks at about h1 but continues into childhood. The formation of some the synapses is genetically programmed, but the formation of other synapses depends on experience. conversing with young children, reading books, doing puzzles, and riding bikes are all activities that encourage the development of new synapses. Synaptic pruning Is the selective elimination of unused and unnecessary synapse. this is an equally important part of brain development. The overproduction and later reduction of the synapses are normal parts of brain development. the peak level is in early childhood. Myelination Myelination improve connections and communication within the brain. myelination of different areas of the brain occur sequentially, beginning prenatally and continuing into young adulthood. the areas of the brain involved with vision and movement are myelinated first. During early childhood, the fibers that connect the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex grow and myelinate these changes improve children’s balance and control of body movements. Lateralization Each hemisphere of the brain specializes in certain function. the left side of the brain detects time and sequences, processes speech, and registered external stimuli. The left hemisphere is especially active from ages 3 to 6 years, corresponding to the changes in language development in early childhood. activity in the right hemisphere increases from ages 3 to 11 with a small spurt between 8 and 10 years, corresponding to improvements in spatial skills in middle childhood. Corpus Callosum The connection between the two halves or hemispheres of the brain. Between ages 3 & 6 years the corpus callosum develops rapidly. this results in quicker and smoother communication between the two halves of the brain. incomplete or abnormal development of the corpus callosum is associated with mild to severe symptoms including retardation, seizures, and inability to initiate or control muscle movements. Brain plasticity Refers to the degree to which the brain can be altered by experience. Plasticity varies over the course of brain development. Sensitive period A time in development during which the organism is especially open to environmental influences. For example, language. Gross Motor skills The abilities required to control large movements of the arms, legs, and feet, for the whole body. these are used for running, jumping, climbing, and throwing. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development are based on norms for motor development, body control, and coordination at different ages. Fine Motor skills Involve smaller movements of the hand and fingers such as picking up small objects and tying one’s shoes. that require motor control and coordination with the nervous system. between ages 23 years children begin scribbling. Around age 3, children make spontaneous attempt to draw recognizable objects beginning with the human figure. → gross motor skills and fine motor skills are inseparable link to perception and cognition. achieving the balance needed to run or the coordination needed to color depends on perception. Milestones in normative motor development 2 GM:Kick a ball, walk up and down stairs, 2 feet at a time. years FM: build a tower with six or seven blocks, turn pages of a book one at a time turn the doorknob and untwists jar lids, washes and dries hand, uses spoon and fork well. 2.5 GM: jumps with both feet, including off the stairs, can walk on tiptoes yrs FM: Builds tower with 8 blocks, hold pencil or crayon between fingers. 3yrs GM: climbs stairs using alternate feet, can stand on one foot, ride tricycle, run well FM: Make tower with nine or ten blocks, put on shoes and socks + can button. carries a container without spilling or dropping. 4yrs GM: Child can skip on one foot. Throws a ball overhand. Jumps well from standing position FM: child can dress himself, cut with scissors, washes and dries face. 5yrs GM: hop and skip, has good balance, can skate or ride a scooter FM: dresses without help and ties shoes, prints in simple letters Injuries Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in early childhood. drowning leads the list of unintended injury death among children ages 1 to 4. Children die more of unintentional injuries because vaccines have limited deaths by infectious disease. boys 70% more likely to die from an accident→ risk taking behavior Role of dirt That exposes children to very minor bacteria which can help with their immune system. Malnutrition Malnutrition in the lives of 1/2 children under the age of 5 around the world. Increase the chances of disease, and the symptoms are more severe. Marasmus A form of malnutrition in which individuals are not receiving enough protein or enough calories. Kwashiorkor A form of malnutrition in which individuals receive adequate calories but not enough protein Sleep sleep patterns change in early childhood hours needed from sleeping 12 to 13 hours at ages 2 & 3, 10 to 11 hours at ages 46. toddler’s need for an afternoon nap fade around age four or five. problems Night problems are common in young children. Some have difficulty falling asleep and call their parents, while others “curtain call” after lights out. about half are awakened by nightmares, while some have night terrors. Chronic inability to fall asleep or frequent nightmares can be signs of distress and a call for help. role of sleep Twitches or muscle spasms during sleep can tell the brain what is out there in the body, sleep can also recharge the brain and store memories for kids. Sleep is also essential for physical growth because that is when growth happens. Piaget: Preoperational period The second stage and cognitive development during ages 2 to 7 during which children acquire a mental storage of images and symbols, especially spoken and written word. symbolic representation children are able to represent previous experiences to themselves mentally. Can take form of internalized activities, images, or words. Playing pretend is another example of how we know children have symbolic representations (objects in the room serve as extravagant things) reversibility understanding that an item that as been changed can be turned back to its original version by reversing the process→ not yet done in children. classification the ability to divide or sort objects into different sets and subsets, and to consider the interrelationships. (that your teacher is both a teacher and a mom) conservation (tasks used in research) a child’s inability to grasp conservation (the idea that characteristics of objects do not change despite changes in form or appearance) is a huge gap in pre operational thinking. (We were shown a video in which a glass of water was poured into a different glass and it looks like the volume was different). → How? 1st seduced by appearances; if it looks different, it must be different. 2nd, their thinking is one dimensional. 3rd, they focus on one feature egocentric (perspective taking tasks in research) During the preoperational stage children do not consider different points of view. This does not mean that Piaget thanks that kids are selfish, but he thinks that children see the world from their own perspective and not realize that other people have different points of view. → You can see this in play when you show them a three dimensional model of a mountain and ask What The Observer on the other side of the table sees In every case that children describes what they see in front of them. animism Young children think that inanimate object have wishes, motives, and feelings just as people do. Piaget vs contemporary views In general, scientists have found that the stages of cognitive development are not as clear cut as Piaget believed. Contemporary scientists think cognitive development is better described as a series of overlapping waves then as discrete and distinctly different periods. Children understand more than Piaget credited them for. Theory of Mind (tasks used in laboratory) The ability to attribute mental states beliefs, intents, desires, knowledge to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that are different than one’s own.(Knowing there are different point of views of how people see the world) → 3 and 4 year old use shorter sentences and simple vocabulary when talking to babies this shows that kids understand to capture the baby’s attention and they don’t understand complex sentences; they also can tell the difference between real and pretend events. changes across preschool years A child who is 3 years old received a box labeled bandy. When asked what they think is inside they replied Sandy's however when they open the box there are crayons. when An observer asked the kid what another might guess, the kid says crayon (no theory of the mid yet). A 4 year old, however, will say that the other will be fooled too (Theory of the Mind) . Information Processing (encoding, storage, retrieval) Deals with basic questions about how people acquire, encode, store, and use information. Encoding is the process of acquiring information (filling in study guide) storage is the process of retaining information (studying the study guide) retrieve all of the process of recovery of information (taking the test) selective attention Attention consists of focusing on particular information while ignoring other information Continuous Performance Task In this exercise, the child has asked to push a button whenever a particular object appears on a computer screen. The researcher flashes a series of pictures over a 7 minute period. → Maintaining attention takes a lot of effort . improvements are linked to maturation of the brain (prefrontal cortex/basal ganglia) 34 poor, 45 get most right, 6 makes few mistakes (shows maturation of the mind) Inhibitory control (stroop task) responding counter to the tendency you are predisposed to answer (saying night when you see a sun) Memory There are three steps in memory processing. sensory memory This is the entryway. It is a subconscious process of picking up sensory information from the environment via sights, sounds, smells, and touch. Sensory memory consists of fleeting impressions. → forgotten or transferred to working memory. Parts of the reasons for the improvements in working memory is biological; Part, social. bio The prefrontal cortex and corpus callosum, which provide the hardware for short term memory, are developing during early childhood and provides the capacity that supports an expanded working memory. longterm memory While working memory only last for a few minutes, longterm memory has a potentially unlimited capacity and no time limitations. generic memory Begin around age 2, and is a script for general outline of what happens, based on experience (have an idea of what a birthday party is, but all parties will be a little different). episodic memory Recall the particular incident on a specific time and place. autobiographical memory recall of individual episodes that are personally meaningful, begins at around age 4 and may last for decades. Emergent Literacy milestones→ 2yr: Plurals; “What’s that?”...3yr: Conjunctions; “Why?”...4yr: Peak of “Why?” “How?” “When?”... 6yr: Complex; asks about social differences (male/female, old/young) a typical 3yr old can hold and turn the pages of a book, listens when read to, understands the pictures and names of characters in the books, may distinguish pictures from print and even recognize a few letters. a typical 4yr old can recite the alphabet and recognize some letters, relates stories to “real life”, enjoys rhymes, a typical 5yr old may track the print when being read a simple, familiar book; spontaneously talks about the content of the story, can identify and write most letters, can spell some simple words, but mostly uses inventive spelling when sounding out words. Mathematical thinking concepts (magnitude, numbers, counting) magnitude 3 year olds understand the meaning of “a lot” and which of the two groups of object has more numbers 2 & 3 year olds can recite numbers, though not always in the right order. counting 2 and 3 year old can count very small set. 3 year olds understand the basic rules of counting (onetoone principle→ Only one number should be assigned to an object), stable order principle ( Number words should be said in the same order all of the time), cardinality principle (The last number in the counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set), and order irrelevance principle (Counting can begin with any item in a set as long as each item is counted once and only once) 34 yr olds can add and subtract simple numbers Child care Parents play an important role in children effective and language development, including memory, attention, conceptual development and emerging literacy, but they aren’t the only people. Inhome care Occurs in the child's own home. In some cases and caregiver is related to the child, in another she is a nanny or babysitter. In home care provides a familiar, safe place where the caregiver can provide individual attention to 1 or more siblings . *It does not provide professionally trained educators or frequent opportunity to interact with other children.* childcare home (aka Daycare) Give a child a home setting, a mother figure, and interaction with other children. child care centers Preferred by the majority of parents of children ages 3 to 5. Usually children are divided into classes for group of sameage children, and activities are designed for their particular level of development. Educators tend to have more education and training in early childhood development process and structural quality Structural quality referred to character of the childcare setting, such as number of children or adults, group size or how many children there were in the classroom or care setting, the level of the caregiver education and specialized training. Process quality is children's experiences with caregivers, peers, and materials High process quality care is characterized by sensitive and warm interactions with adults, rich conversation, & a variety of stimulating materials and activities. role and effectiveness of early education intervention programs 2/3 of poor children not ready to learn Perry Preschool Project (MI) Abecedarian Project (NC) Chicago ParentChild Centers Head Start (1965) – national scale a comprehensive program designed to provide children with medical and dental care, nutritious meals, and centertype experiences to foster learning and good classroom behavior. Prekindergarten programs Economically disadvantaged Developmentally disadvantaged Universal programs Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory describes learning as a social process and the origination of human intelligence in society or culture. The major theme of Vygotsky's theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. (child actively embedded in social context constantly putting themselves in social atmosphere and that's how they learn) zone of proximal development the potential for cognitive development is limited to a "zone of proximal development" which is the area of exploration for which the student is cognitively prepared, but requires help and social interaction to fully develop. scaffolding Any help the child receives Guided participation (Rogoff) He expanded on V’s social cultural theory… R said the way children learn their society's values and practices through participation in family and community activities, goes beyond instructional activities to her family interactions (not being commanded). across different cultures there’s different ways to participate in communities to learn known answered question knows the answer but questions to fit in listening vs. speaking learns when to speak Ch. 8Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood Attachment (Bowlby) Internal working model a child’s evaluation of his or her own worth as a person, growing out of attachment relationships. links to later relationships When parents are sensitive, supported, warm, and emotionally available, children are more likely to become securely attached. They also develop a working model of self as a person of values, believes they are worthy of love. On the other hand, when parents are rejecting, remote, or interference, children are likely to develop insecure attachment. Their internal working model of self is one who is unworthy of love. abused and severely neglected children have less self awareness and less coherent selfconcept than other children. Selfconceptions Evaluative judgments about specific areas of competence i.e. physical (I am a fast runner), observable characters ( I am big), specific skills, preferences . Conception around three years old tend to be unrealistically → all or none goood at everything or suck at life. Selfesteem Refers to more global assessment of self worth, selfesteem sets the tone for internal experiences and outward behavior Revealed in behavior children high in self esteem are confident, curious, and independent. They take initiative and settle independently, enjoy challenges, explore and ask questions, and he surely try new things. They describe themselves in a positive light and take pride in their accomplishments and adapt well to change or stress. Initiative vs Guilt (Erikson) children develop a sense of self during early childhood. mastering new skill becomes a primary goal, and young children want to do things for themselves (initiative), and if they can’t= guilt. Children whose parents accept and encourage their effort, without pushing or interfere in, try new activities. These children develop a sense of themselves as capable of initiative. Gender development gender awareness Gender awareness developed early before they can even walk and talk, infants discriminate between males and females. By 2, children can select pictures of boys and girls. They also look longer as gender inconsistent pictures. by 2 ½ most children can label themselves and others by sex. gender identity Sense of male or female, But at this age gender is only skin deep. age 3 acting in the gender you are and hanging with your own sex (boys more physical and girls are more cooperative) gender schema 56yrs Beliefs and expectations about male vs female that women cook and dad's work gender constancy By age 6 or 7, children believe gender is permanent and immutable. (Girl can wear overalls and a hard hat and still be a girl) Emotion labeling By 2 3 years children begin to label and others feelings. They also develop more sophisticated understanding for causes and consequences of emotions when you ask Sally why Johnny is sad, she will say because his toy broke secondary/selfconscious emotions These are emotions such as pride, guilt, shame, and embarrassment. one needs a sense of self and other, behavioral standard, and a sense of responsibility. Emotional intelligence The ability to monitor one's own and others feelings and use that information to guide thinking and action. there is individual variation, when parents talk about emotions, it enhances emotional understanding. Regulating emotions Emotional regulation refers to the ability to inhibit, enhance, maintain, and Modulate emotional arousal to accomplish a goal. We see important gains in early childhood In children's emotional regulation. Parents and caregivers play a key role in helping infants and toddlers to regulate their emotions. How can you tell the ycan regulate emotions? The way they react, physiology (sweaty, red), behavior, thoug
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