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Date Created: 03/09/15
Week 4 Third Wave SlutWalks 02102015 Third Wave Feminism Post feminist and third wave feminist Postfeminist issues are resolved Third wave return to feminism but tailoring it to their own realities Both grow up with the power of a movement without realizing that it is part of a larger social movement Focus on global transnational transversal issues Internal changes within feminism 1990 s debaters of quotmothers and daughtersquot between second and third wave Third wave addresses injustices within the feminist moment itself Inconsistencies within second wave feminism Coming to age within a conservative environment of the 1980 s Triangulated rebellion More classically feminist than postfeminists More accepting of difference and contradiction than the second wave Multicultural multiissued diverse Shock tactics and radical approaches Less politically correct Multiplicity of o Identities 0 Political ideologies o Sexualities 0 Positions 0 quotincluding more than excluding exploring more than de ning searching more than arrivingquot SIutWaIks Radical and Transnational Movements o SIutWaIks as transnational movements 0 Born in Toronto 0 Most successful movement in 20 years 0 Goals of SIutWaIks 0 Politics of reappropriation Reclaim derogatory terms Empowerment and agency of marginalized groups to rede nelanguage Language determines value and meaning in society 0 What does quotslutquot mean 0 quotShe was asking for itquot rhetoric o Victimblaming women who are victims of sexual assault andor harassment What could quotslutquot mean 0 Women should be safe in society regardless of their actions or dress 0 Characteristics of SIutWaIks 0 Online to streets Organized by younger women Organized via the internet and social media 000 O Events go viral Grassroots organic Local to global Sustained interest and participation High media attention 0 Strategies of SlutWalks O O O O In your face tactics Offensive terminology Performative protest quotembodied performancequot Dress and paint on bodies Suggestive clothing controversial clothing Intended to make a point Adapted to local cultures and political environments Movements may be more or less conservative in different countries Proactive style of the movement Not the defensive style of reproductive rights Not mainstream movements or organizations These rely on donations legislative in uence etc Less radical messages More palatable tactics SlutWalk as a Transnational Movement Transnational feminist movements 0 Issues that cut across global divides 0 Issues that touch upon the lived realities of women regardless of culture Organizing internationallytransnationally o Movements and ideas move from local to global 0 Then back again from global to local 0 Adapted to local context elsewhere Creation of dense feminist networks of activism Sharing resources strategies experiences etc How do local movements bene t from transnational activism 0 Contact with transnational movements shapes identity Reaffirm a political identity Establish bonds of solidarity with other women Connection of stigmatized identities worldwide 0 Contact with transnational movements shapes the frames of local activists Powerful quothuman rightsquot frame Argue in favor of human rights and equality spiral of human rights 0 Contact with transnational movements creates policy change International pressures from transnational coalitions NGO s governmental actors Exert pressure on powerful states to improve the status of women Boomerang effect of change 0 Problems 0 Potential problems with transnational politics Are all ideas appropriate Are all ideas given the same status when adapted n Attention to hierarchy and power in this process SlutWalk Delhi 0 Resistance to SlutWalk in India 0 Terminology of quotslutquot o Protest that was quotWestern 0 Narrow focus on clothing 0 Existing network of feminist movements and networks in India to combat violence 0 New protest seen as irrelevant and undermining to existing events 0 Failure to connect with Indian variety of feminism Resulted in a tempered down version of original ideas 0 Organizers encourages more moderate dress 0 Message 0 lncluded the notion of shame during organizing o Focused on overcoming victim blaming for sexual violence 0 Did not advance the quotpolitics of reappropriationquot of slut Critiques of SlutWalk H M urbanquot and elite 0 Western movement 0 Engagement of an issue that affects a speci c segment of women Englisheducated middle class urban 0 Lack of connection to reality of Indian women focused on practical interest 0 Western media in uence delegitimized the action 0 Terminology o Is it possible to reappropriate the term quotslutquot 0 Language that demeans us makes us vulnerable 0 But makes possible quotsocial existencequot Being recognized in society 0 And agency to struggle against these labels 0 Women as candidates 0 Last week political representation 0 What explains low representation in elected of ce 0 Discrimination o Pipeline o Ambition This week women as candidates Attitudes towards women in politics 0 Women must be candidates before they can become elected of cials 0 Voter attitudes important when considering women candidates 0 What is public opinion like towards the ideas of 0 Women in society 0 Women in of ce Women in Society 0 What is the proper role of women in society 0 Politics and public life historically seen as a male sphere o Egalitarian attitudes necessary for advances in women s po calsuccess These attitudes focus on equality in several aspects of life 0 Usually placed in opposition to authoritarian values 0 Accept hierarchical structures in life 0 Le male leadership is appropriate or even preferable o What is the trend of public opinion here 0 quotconsistent movement in the direction of people expressing support for an egalitarian positionquot 0 quotShould women have an equal role in running business industry and government or whether their place is in the homequot 1972 47 equal 29 home 19 middle 2008 84 equal 7 home 8 middle 0 Overall for women and society 0 There is no signi cant difference between men and women of different party identi cation on these opinions Would you prefer more women in of ce 0 Gender and party have an impact Women democrats 75 prefer more women Men democrats 65 Women republicans 55 Men republicans 40 0 Baseline gender preference 0 An underlying preference to be represented by a man or woman in office women dems 75 prefer rep by woman male dems 60 pref rep by man women repub 50 pref rep by woman male repub 75 pref rep by man Affinity Effects 0 Do women support women candidates 0 Based on an idea of group identity 0 Women voters have positive feelings toward women candidates beyond shared constituency o Shaped by other factors race party level of office Subgroups of women more like to support women African American liberal feminist well educated However incumbency effect and party identi cation more important in all voter choice than gender Stereotypes About Women Stereotypes as sets of expectations about how people think and behave Evaluations from gendered prospective 0 Using stereotypes to evaluate their political candidacies Ascribing stereotypes to candidates in areas of 0 Personality traits Compassionate honest warm expressive good with constituents Masculine traits evaluated more important in politics than feminine traits Especially as level of office moves up 0 Issue position competencies Assumed to be more interested and more effective in dealing with n Childcare poverty education health care women s issues environment 0 ldeology Women perceives as more liberal than they really are by voters Thus if the average voter is moderate n Perceptions of ideology moves a Democratic women further to the left more radical away from moderate a Republican women further to the left closer to moderate Party and Stereotypes o What is the interaction of political party with gender and these stereotypes 0 Political parties also carry stereotypes 0 Political parties carry issue areas 0 Democrats better able to handle social issues and poverty 0 Republicans better able to handle economy and military 0 Do these stereotypes reinforce one another Democratic women 0 Or offset one another Republican women 0 In general partisan cues overwhelm other sources of information about candidate beliefs and positions Conservative Women 0 Republican women provide mixed cues to voters Republican voters prefer women who are mothers as candidates to those who do not have children Campaigning on a maternal platform 0 Increase in conservatism in republican party elites leads to more conservative female candidates 0 Moderate female candidates opt out of election because of mismatch with party ID Looking at 2014 Candidates 0 What are the gender cues in these ads 0 What are the issue competencies stacked out in these ads 0 How do these women embrace or mitigate these genderbased stereotypes
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