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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by isabel Notetaker on Monday March 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to H_D 300 at Washington State University taught by Dr.Margaret Young in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 182 views. For similar materials see Child abuse and neglect in Human Development at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/09/15
Demographics 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 60 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 Sexual abuse cuts across all socioeconomics levels Offenders 97 Victims 77 1 in 3 molester by age 18 Sexual abuse of males is under reported Reported in 1 in 7 molested by age 18 The rate may be as high as that for girls Estimated cases of SA in US 250000 to 300000 per year gt HHS report 2011 35592 reported in 2010 Median Age is 910 gt Children of all ages are vulnerablebirth through adolescence are more likely to be victims of incest are more likely to be victims of perpetrators outside of the family SA most common within families incest gt Estimated one in ten homes incestuous AdultChild lncest gt Number wise biological fatherdaughter most common gt Percentage wise stepfathers or mother39s boyfriend and the daughter most common Sibling incest is more common overall gt I more common than fatherdaughter incest Sexual Abuse 6 60 6 60 Includes much more than sexual intercourse Often begins innocuously and may not progress to sexual intercourse for a long time Types of Sexual Abuse 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 Voyeurism peeping tom Exposure ashing Suggestive or dirty talk Pornography gt Showing or involving child FondHng Masturbation gt Masturbating in front of the child gt Masturbating the child gt Having child masturbate the perpetrator Rubbing genitals on the child Penetration Rape gt Any sexual activity in which force threats of force or threats in general are used Penetration have to occur Preconditions 60 The offender must Have sexual feelings toward children Overcome internal inhibitions Overcome external inhibitions Overcome the child s resistance VVVV The Perpetrator 60 Compared to the victim the perpetrator gt Possesses more knowledge about sex gt More powerful than the victim gt Is generally older 60 The act is primarily for the sexual grati cation of the offender The Issue of Consent 0 Informed consent means the child must have a understanding of the signi cance of the sexual encounter oz A child cannot give informed consent gt Not developmentally mature enough to have a full understanding gt Is not really free to say no 00 Since the perpetrator uses illegitimate power when initiating sexual contact submission on the part of the child cannot be viewed as voluntary lncest oz Legally de ned as sexual intercourse between two persons so closely related that marriage is prohibited by law gt Sex between step parents and children or between step siblings is viewed as incest oz For every reported cause of incest an estimated 25 cases go unreported oz Also undertreated Myths about Incest 60 It is limited to rural sections of the country 60 It is one or two time occurrence and only involves a single child in the family 60 It is another normal deviation in a varied sex life open families oz The incest taboo limits incest oz Incest is less traumatic to the child than sexual assault by a stranger 6 60 Children may be responsible for the incestuous encounter Factors Contributing to Sexual Abuse 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 0 06 Childhood experiences of the offender gt An estimated 70 of male sex offenders were molested when they were children Cultural norms that gt Sanction the right of adults to impose their will on children gt Support male dominance gt Any related to male sexuality Vulnerable role relationships gt Step foster and adopted children gt Noncustodial or single parents Partner Characteristics gt Rejection ridicule and de ance by a partner gt In delity gt Withholding sex Factors that make the child readily available to the abuser gt Crowded living conditions gt Sleeping arrangements gt Parents working different shifts gt Child care arrangements Factors affecting selfesteem of perpetrator Loss of a job Unemployment Injuries or illness Disabilities Rejection by peers or family members VVVVV Who has been sexually abused in the past Who is neglected or deprived Comes from a single parent family With mental disabilities Who has few friends VVVVV Family problems Parental incapacity Marital status Family characteristics Alcoholism or drug dependency Authoritarian fathers Socio isolation of the family VVVV Categories of lncestuous families 60 Normal families that are generally not known to the public system 60 Multiproblem families with a long history of public agency involvement 60 The quotsingle eventquot family Patters of Sexual Abuse oz Dyadic gt The most common pattern 1 perpetrator 1 victim2 people oz Group Sex gt Single offender and more than one victim gt More than one offender and or victim 60 Sexual exploitation gt Children are used to produce pornography or are sold as prostitutes 60 Sex Rings gt Boys are more likely to be victimized gt Generally developed by pedophiles oz Ritualistic sexual abuse gt Private occurs frequently and in the same manner gt Group involves more than two persons and is likely to include occult practices Defense Mechanisms 0 Behavioral gt Feign sleep gt Hide gt Withdrawal gt Submission gt Some children will report the abuse oz Psychological Denial Repression Regression Rationalization Dissociation multiple personalityDissociative Identity Disorder DID PTSD VVVVVV Child incest victims oz Internal and external behavior problems oz Psychological problems oz Physical symptoms gt Walkquotfunnyquot gt Odor Blood or other drainage on underwear STD39s Pregnancy Bruisinglacerations genitalia rectal areas inner thighs oz Age inappropriate sexual behaviors oz Reluctance to be with a certain persons VVVV Adult survivors kt Almost every known psychiatric syndrome has been reported in association with past child secxual abuse including Frigidity or promiscuity Deanuency Depression Suicidal ideation attempts completion Phobias Psychosis including postpartum Eating disorders PTSD Dissociative disorders gt95 problems VVVVVVVVV Reporting oz Disclosure is problematic The absence of visible scars The tendency of the victim to accept responsibility for the abuse The strong emotional bond between the child and the perpetrator Identi cation is contingent upon the action of the victim or family members VVVV Video Clip 00 Andrew Vachss interview In order to forgive you mustget angry 3 types of offendersinadequate crazy evil What is a chicken hawkadults wait around for kids to prostitute them The perp identi es and threatens what a source of love The least safe place for a child hisher own home To feel is To act is Sickevil VVVVVV gt Children of the secret there are enough survivors of abuse that they would make a huge voting block but they have not said anything to public Crime for which you are likely to be arrested incest Oprah law child protection law convicted sexual felons go on a national registration VV lntroduction 30 Children are gt Vulnerable to sexual abuse from many individuals gt Often place at risk by inadequate parental supervision orjudgment 30 More juveniles are offending gt Approximately 50 of victims report their offender was under the age of 20 gt 5070 of perpetrators begin offending in their teens 0 Females molested outside of the home gt 15 strangers Pedophilia oz Term derived from two Greek words gt Philia love gt Pedeiktos young children kt Individuals who have a sexual interest in children oz Choose careers that put them in contact with children gt Teachers scout leaders camp counselors etc oz Hang out in places where children congregate gt Malls arcades parks playgrounds etc oz Seek relationships with children because gt View children as noncon ictual partners gt Think children can satisfy their emotional needs gt Sexual orientationgrati cation is associated with children kt Start offending early kt Many do not limit their offences to one type of victim multiple paraphilia39s kt No one typical child molester personality pro le gt Present with a number of personality styles and psychopathology oz Pedophilia may have biological basis gt Genetic gt Hormonal gt Endocrine oz Offenders tend to project blame and fail to take responsibility for their actions Pollock and Hashmall 1991 gt 5 levels of denial Denial of fact responsibility sexual intent wrongfulness self determination Treatment oz Effectiveness of treatment questioned gt Behavior may be altered underlying pathology resistant to treatment General consensus is that pedophilia cannot be quotcuredquot oz Recidivism rates gt Lower for those who have been treated gt Rates increase over time gt Range from Types of Pedophiles oz Situational molester regressed gt No interest in children until adult relationships break down gt Often married gt Usually prefer an adult partner gt Offending may be associated with a crisis gt Abuse is less frequent oz Preference molester xated gt Longterm interest in children gt Becomes emotionally involved with children gt Ineffective in adult relationships gt Often acts out fantasies gt May see the child as the initiator Types of Preference Molester39s oz Mysopedic offender gt Vicious gt Offends for the thrill of it 60 Child rapist gt May mutilate and murder the victim 0 lnfantophile gt Attracted to children under age two 60 Hebophile gt Attracted to pubescent children Either sex 60 Ephobophile gt Interested in adolescent males Types of preference molestors Cont oz Pedarists gt Pederasty abuse of boys by an older male Sexually function as adolescents Attracted to youthfulness of their victims See themselves as protectors mentors and friends Assume that victims can give informed consent Consider their activity normal NAMBLA North American man boy love association VVVVVV Female Perpetrators oz Approximately 5 of molesters are female could be higher oz Are less likely to be reported gt Mask their behavior through normal caregiving behaviors gt Victims are more dependent on women esp mothers gt Targets are more often boys who are reluctant to report Technophilia 3930 Internet sex offenders 30 Those who prey on children online 00 Compared to other pedophiles gt More psychological problems gt Less likely to be convicted of sex offenders more hidden Growing up online oz Handout on angel Sexual abuse in the school setting oz Most teachers do not molest oz Actual number much higher than documented oz Most identi ed cases are either ignored or are not given serious attention Research ndings schools Shakeshaft and Cohan kt System is rigged against the child oz Seriousness is not acknowledged by school authorities oz Teachers and administrators appear to care more about their careers oz Goal is to quotmake the case go awayquot kt Tendency to make the most minimal action possible oz Teaching licenses revoked in only of the 200 cases studied oz Policy is to quotpass the trashquot oz Other researcher outcomes for boys as serious as that for girls Handouts on angel kt Protecting the child oz Teachers lntroduction to global exploitation 6 60 Bullying Bullying 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 Demographics gt gt8million per year in US 30 of teens report incidents 1 in 10 is a victim of extreme bullying Boys physical Girls emotional Bullying hides under the cover of quotteasingquot Bullying is illegal in some states Description gt Using power to diminish victim gt Can involve physical emotional or sexual assault Bullies gt Often victims at home gt Bullying gives them power Victim characteristics gt No physical characteristics sets children apart to be bullied gt Bullies seek two types of victims The child who is sensitive and passive The provocative child who invited bullying Consequences gt Lack of selfesteem con dence and belief in themselves gt Experience aloneness pain sadness fear and feeling left out gt May lead to suicidal ideation attempts or completion gt May drive a child to commit homicide against the perpetrators Warning signs that a child is possibly being bullied Aggressive Withdrawn Physically ill Anxious Unable to concentrate Grades drop doesn39t want to go to school Advice to parents and teachers gt Telling the child to quotfight backquot is a mistake Escalates the violence Can be dangerous gt Establish a climate that lets the child know that bullying is not acceptable behavior At home or school gt Role play gt Help children Learn con ict resolution VVVVV VVVVVV Deal with anger Understand what behavior is acceptable and what is not kt Why the attention on bullying now gt Bullying now involves Bringing weapons to school Forced sexual activity Intimidation to the point that the child does not want to attend school Cyber bullying gt Deep and long lasting consequences Child labor unicef report kt Unicef state of the worlds children gt 1 in 4 children in developing countries is a child laborer gt Approximately 190 million children between 1014 are working gt Approx 250 million between ages 514 are working international labor organization gt 70 work six days a week or more gt 50 work nine hours a day or more Documentary oz Child labor Child labor Unicef report kt What is child labor Full time work at too early an age Too many hours spent working Work that exerts undue psychical social or psychological stress Work and life on the streets in bad conditions Inadequate pay Too much responsibility Work that hampers access to education Work that undermines child39s dignity and selfesteem slavery bonded labor sexual exploitation gt Work that is detrimental to full social and psychological development Child labor ILO report VVVVVVVV kt Generally work from 6AM to midnight oz Often forced to eat sleep and work in the same stuffy overcrowded room oz Locked in to prevent escape oz Exposed to pesticides dust asbestos and other hazardous fumes oz Noise levels in some factories cause deafness oz Exposed to dangerous conditions kt Half of the world39s child workers live in Asia oz In Africa 13 of the children are laborers kt In Latin America 1 in 5 children works 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 5 of children work in sweat shops Most work for local economies farm labor selling on the streets domestic labor Most child labor occurs in developing countries However child labor is increasing in developed countries as well Slavery or child bondage is still practiced The ILO has called a ban on the harshest forms of child labor slavery prostitution and work in hazardous industries Sexual Exploitation 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 Found in virtually every country but is especially prevalent in third world developing countries and Asian countries such as Thailand gt The center for the protection of children39s rights estimates that there are 800000 child prostitutes in Thailand about 10 of whom are boys Girls or boys may be sold by their parents into prostitution Children may be kidnapped for sexual exploitation in their own country or transported to another country STD39s including HIV and AIDS are not uncommon in these children Child prostitutes may be beaten or tortured by their pimps or clients Trafficking between countries It ourishes in spite of an international outcry against it War save the children report 6 60 6 60 6 60 Children are more likely than soldiers to be killed in wars During the past 1015 years gt 15 million children died in war zones gt 4 million children were permanently injured gt More than 200000 children including girls have been recruited as soldiers in 35 countries Over the past 1015 years gt gt10 million children 1 in 20 throughout the world have been traumatized by the effects of war and need help to overcome emotional distress gt12 million children have lost their homes gt10 million children are refugees gt5 million have been forced to live in refugee camps gt1 million children are separated from their families Millions of children suffer from starvation VV VV Poverty 6 60 Children39s Defense Fund Report gt Children living in poverty are 2x more likely to die from birth defects 3x more likely to die from all causes 4x more likely to die in res 5x more likely to die from infectious diseases 6x more likely to die from other diseases Every 53 minutes an American child dies because of poverty Socialy Toxic Environment James Gambino 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 Random violence gt In America 10 children die and 30 children are wounded by rearms Television Abduction Drugs Vulgarity nastiness Summary 6 60 6 60 It is dif cult being a child We have not done very well as a world community in providing a safe environment for children Too many children are Abused inside and outside of the home Bullied Enslaved Traf cked Wounded or killed in wars VVVVV Emotional Abuse 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 Handout on angel A problem by itself but it is always associated with the other types of abuse The most dif cult ambiguous form of maltreatment most dif cult to de ne Refers to acts of omission that jeopardize the development of gt Self esteem gt Social competence gt Capacity for intimacy Dif cult to identify gt No laws to prove that it exists gt No standards to determine how serious it is Repeated pattern An extreme incident No quotrealquot evidence Hidden quality Considered quotnormalquot behavior ramatically underreported UVVV
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