Sociology Test 1 Study Guide
Sociology Test 1 Study Guide Soc101
Popular in Sociology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
HIST 121 Owen Bradley-History of the U.S. Since Reconstruction
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Sociology
verified elite notetaker
This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Susan Weng on Tuesday March 10, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Soc101 at University at Buffalo taught by Dr. Sampson Blair in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Sociology in Sociology at University at Buffalo.
Reviews for Sociology Test 1 Study Guide
If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/10/15
Sociology What is Sociology Sociology is the systematic and objective study of society and social behavior Understanding norms of certain groups in society how to act in particular social norms EX We re all sitting up straight and taking notes without being told Understanding sociology Kai Erikson and the tragedy at Buffalo Creek working class community mining Dam exploded and 60 ft of water hit the small town at 70 MPH Many died and 3000 families were left homeless Survivors decided to sue and hired Kai Erikson Sociologists saw that after a tragedy people were no longer kind or generous There was an increase in crimes People went from being a helpful community to quotevery man for himselfquot Social norms in the community before the ood were lost and norms like lives can never be replaced Erving Goffman and behavior in public places He was very interested in studying quotcivil inatentionquot Civil inatention recognize presence of others with respect Goffman believed that just like cars with headlights people could do it too 0 From a considerable distance make eye contact 0 Then avert eye contact to the side and go in direction of eyes Argues that norms are stronger than laws even though norms are never mentioned or written you observe others and decide what to do seems normal Suicide one of the biggest reasons of suicide is body self image Winter big coats no one can see what you look like Summer fewer coats more skin Men attempt to commit suicide more frequently 0 Women attempt to commit suicide more frequently guns vs pills Why do men prefer guns and women prefer pills Their idea of violence How do women and men approach it 0 Has to do with gender roles Elderly suicide rate is 2X that of young adults because their quality of life decreases African American suicide rates is 12 that of whites Suicide rate is higher in modern industrialized countries 0 Developing countries have more people struggling to survive and people depend on each other 0 Developed countries already have necessities met and focus more on external needs feelings Suicide rates are higher in upper higher classes 0 Upper class has a different de nition of the quality of life Suicide risk category is more about social class not race 18th century The enlightenment had many advances Political shift revolutions and was on the verge of the modern age science is improving the quality of life 18205 The industrial revolution change in the means of production Introduction of machine labor and mechanized production Factories needed 1 a labor force town or city close by 2 Easily obtained transportation routes During the 16005 17005 18005 most people lived in rural areas but the population shifted to a primarily urban area in 18205 Massive migration from rural to urban areas Extreme population in cities 0 Led to disease crime terrible living conditions 0 People began wondering how things got this way the start of sociology Count Henri de Saint Simon 17601825 First scholar believed that understanding structure of human society can help improve it Wanted to get ride of current politicians and get more scholars Auguste Comte 17981857 and Positivism Positivism Apply the scienti c method to the social world Found SOCIOLOGY Analyzed social order Stressed scienti c method but did not apply it ldea5 were eventually discarded Herbert Spencer 1820 1903 Second founder of sociology and social Darwinism Coined quotsurvival of the ttestquot who produce most capable members of society Proposed that helping the poor was wrong 0 Social Darwinism society that adapt and evolve will be better off and survive Karl Marx and class con ict 18181883 Contributed to understanding of how society is out together Believed roots 0 human suffering is class con ict a small group controlled the means of productions and exploits those who are not in control Proposed change through revolution Marx saw wealthy factory owners taking advantage of workers 0 Simple exploitation of the labor force 0 Was a wealthy man himself World s rst communist o Marx saw the difference between the proletarian Proletariat working class and the bourgeoisie capitalists Emily Durkheim 18681917 Contributed to recognition of sociology as separate academic discipline Conducted European suicide study Demonstrated how social forces affect behavior 0 Social integration social cohesion the degree to which people are tied to their social group 0 Interested in suicide l suggests that suicide is a form of deviance o l Huge difference in suicide rates in rural and urban areas 0 In rural areas the rate is low and in urban areas the rate is high 0 DEVIANCE difference from the norms In rural areas you know a lot of people and you are less likely to o something shameful since people will talk In urban areas there is a tremendous sense of amenity Max Weber 1864 1920 He proposed that religion gave rise to or engendered capitalism Protestant ethic Spirit of capitalism Used innovative materials to trace and to determine mechanisms and impacts of social groups Interested in why people really wanted to be rich 0 Believed that capitalism would only survive because of religion 0 Saw work as a means of salvation working hard will get people into heaven 0 FREE VALUE SOCIOLOGY set aside materialistic things Theoretical things in sociology logically explain observed phenomenon 1 Structural functionalism 2 Social con ict 3 Symbolic interactionism Foci of analysis in sociology 1 Macrosociology examine large scale patterns of society 2 Microsociology or social interaction what people do when they are in one another s presence 1 Structural functionalismharmony of social institutions Functional analysis idea that society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together Back to Spencer social Darwinism survival of the ttest embodies Spencensideas Tries to identify existing social structures Tries to identify speci c existing functions of those structures Works together to keep society alive 5 existing institutions are a part of society each one is vital for a society to survive 2 Social Con ict Karl Marx Con ict competition and exploitation are present in ever social relationship When the opportunity appears you will take advantage of others 3 Symbolic internationalism most abstract We live in a symbolic environment which is more meaningful than the physical environment People create symbolic meanings on physical objects If you re not in the relationship involving the object you do not understand the symbolic meaning Research Methology A system of rules principles and procedures that guides a scienti c investigation Cause and effect 0 Key Assumptions 1 Every event has a cause 2 Under the same circumstance the same cause will have the same effect 0 Variable Any characteristic that can change or differ from one thing to another 0 Independent variable one that in uences another variable 0 Dependent variable the effect one that is in uenced by another 0 lVDV ex Drunk driving Traf c accidents How to establish a cause and effect relationship 1 Establish a correlation A relationship between variables that occurs regularly 2 Application of controls ways of excluding the possibility that some other factors may might be in uencing that relationship 3 Logical assessment of order Timing one thing has to logically precede the order Spurious correlation one that is merely coincidental There is a third variable ex Increase in icecream sales increase in crime rates Research Methologies 1 Experimental methods 2 Survey methods 3 Observational studies 4 Existing source methods The Experiment technique for studying the relationships under carefully controlled variables situation The experimental group is exposed to all factors and the independent variable Control groups is exposed to all factors except the independent variable The Hawthorne effect wanted to increase worker productivity He made changes and noticed that there was a tremendous increase in productivity But there was a contamination in the experiment The participant s assumptions about what the researcher is trying to discover made them behave and act different Surveys used for systematically obtaining standardized information about the attitudes behaviors or other characteristics of a population What sociology is all about Population the total group of people the researcher is interested in Sample a small of individuals drawn from the larger population has to be randomly drawn Respondents the actual participants of the survey US census calculated the number of people in the United States I For representation Observational Studies the researcher is intensely observing a group or behavior Detached observation researcher remains separate from the group or behavior being studied Participant Studies the researcher becomes directly involved with the group or behavior being studied Goffman l wanted to study relationship between doctors and patients but he was not allowed inside the hospitals He admitted himself into the hospital PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION Field work Was able to experience what goes on rst hand Wrote about what he saw inside the day to day treatment of patients and also the mistreatment of patients His research brought about a positive change in mental hospitals throughout the United States IS THIS ETHICAL Existing sources Government records Newspapers magazines Fim video audio recordings Diaries journals Culture What is the difference between a group of college students and a group of chimps The Bothnas culture live n groups use tools and communicate with clicking sounds Culture the system of values normal and believes shared by a group or society including the embodiment of those values norms beliefs in material objects Evolution of Culture evolution of the human species 3 million years ago people australopithecines hunted for food Big game hunting and the evolution of culture people hunted animals in groups They worked together and developed communication skills Couldn t hunt animals if they could not communicate Evolution of Culture 40000 years ago Human used clothing constructed shelters buried their dead cooked with re and showed evidence of religious rituals 12000 years ago Humans produced their own food used domesticated animals for labor 5000 years ago Human developed government in the form of citystates 4000 years ago Humans began to cultivate crops producing surpluses of food begins commerce trade routes sale and exchanges 200 years ago advent of the industrial revolution Components of culture personality of a given society represents a population 1 Symbols anything which can meaningfully represent something else l Allows us to understand abstract concepts Used to represent something else above and beyond the physical object itself Colors represent good or bad gures The meaning of colors William and Stabler I symbolic meaning of black and white colors Study of children s perception of color Children associated good behavior with the white gure and bad behavior with the black gure Sapir Whorf hypothesis Argues that languages force the native speakers to think in particular ways Language forces you to think about the world around you in a particular way l Makes you think about each tense ex Hopi Indians their language has no words to describe future or past tense different way of thinking We think they re strange but they feel the same about us the language that we speak forces us to think in a speci c way English language is very exible Language is affected but the physical environment ex Eskimos has 2 dozen words to describe SNOW l suggests that the physical environment of the people shapes language 2 Values Ideas shaped by people ina society about what is good and bad right and wrong desirable and undesirable l Usually come sin pairs ie Diligent l Lazy There is a good value and a bad value 0 Values are accompanied by Norms How do people respond when you violate the norms Folkways l Norms that are not strictly enforced the least important type of norms Mores l Norms that are essential to our core value conformity is mandated Core Value values that are shared by most groups that make up US society Sanctions rewards or punishment that are intended to either maintain or alter individual behavior l Could be positive or negative Positive reward Negative punishment Positive sanction expresses approval for following a norm Negative sanction disapproval for breaking a norm I Could be formal or informal Formal performed by an authority gure parents teachers police of cers Material Culture Represents a culture s identity l Embodiment produced by the population Everything that is used or produced by a culture clothing that people wear is symbolic to the culture to which they belong We associate things and items to speci c cultures Nonmaterial culture a group s way of thinking and doing Novaho Basket very intricate design and spiritual meaning for the Novaho people But to other people it is just a pretty basket Ethnocentrism and Orientations to life Ethnocentrism tendency to evaluate other cultures in terms of your own l Uses personal culture to judge ways of other individuals or groups Generally leads to negative evaluation of values norms and behaviors of others Can lead to ingroup loyalties Ethnocentrism can become a problem Cultural relativism understanding a culture on its own terms Idea that you have to accept a different culture on its own terms Examining how elements of a culture t together without judgment Subcultures and counter cultures Subcultures refers to the part of the population that adheres to the majority culture but has certain characteristics that are distinct from the rest ie Hippies Countercultures segment of population that directly challenges the culture of the majority of the population ie Amish Group that is opposed of the majority culture could be benign or malignant Cultural Change 1 Innovation 2 Acculation Social Structure 0 Typical pattern of group that guides behavior of individuals and groups 0 How units of a group or society relate to one another 0 Exists apart from individuals 0 People change in societies but the rules remain the same 0 Le Students in classes change but the rules for the student remain the same Ex Taking notes behaving etc The units of social structure are broken into 5 different elements 1 Status 2 Roles 3 Groups 4 Institutions 5 Society 1 Status and status symbols socially de ned position within a group or society Ascribed statuses involuntary often inherited at birth or received involuntarily later in life ex Gender relationship with relatives religion etc o Achieved statuses voluntary something that is gained can be positive or negative ex College graduate 0 Status symbols Things that identify status Ways that one dresses acts etc May be misleading because it is based on what we see 0 Master Status cuts across or dominates statuses of others 0 Can be ascribed and achieved 0 Mater statuses overshadows other statuses 0 Ex Stephen Hawking l master status could be a man with a disability or world class physicist Status inconsistency mismatch among their statuses ex A 14 yearold college student how do you react to him Like a teenager or college classmate Each status has multiple roles associated with it 2 Roles you OCCUPY a status but PLAY a role l Expectations of behavior attached to a particular status Example role of a student paying attention taking notes be quiet etc Role strain when opposing demands are built into the same role Role con ict when opposing demands are made on a person by 2 or more roles 3 Groups two or more people who have a common identity unity and who share certain similar goals 0 Social categories Share a particular trait but have no coherent structure ex Being blond Recurrent groups Aggregate spontaneously formed with a temporary structure ex People in line for the bus people in line for the cash register etc 0 Organizations formed with a speci c set of goals and well de ned statuses and role The degree of intimacv in drouos Primary Groups tend to be small and unspecialized with open and intimate communications and relationships ex Family relatives Secondary groups tend to be large and highly specialized with limited and impersonal relationships there is emotional distance ex Coworkers classmates people who live in your apartment 4 Social institutions stable clusters of social structures that are organized to meet the basic needs of societies Social structures contains basic institutions 1 Family Provides a lot of necessary things child bearing provides emotional support 2 Education Provides learning and the transmission of knowledge and skills fro one generation to the next 3 Religion is the moral code what s right and wrong l Provides for spiritual needs and answers to unanswerable questions ex Why did he die 4 Economy provides for both the production and distribution of goods and services in a society 5 Political responsible for both the allocation and application of power in a society Power ability to make others do what you want them to do also includes the military police 5 Society a comprehensive social grouping which includes all of the basic institutions required to meet basic social needs Gerhard Lenski39s typology of societies based upon their mode of subsistence how majority of society survives 1 Hunting and gathering societies This type of society skill exists and is relatively small It contains about a 100 people or less l Survives through hunting small animals and gathering vegetation l The family is usually the only social institution there are no schools no economy and very few specialized roles l Few personal possessions no accumulation of wealth 2 Pastoral societies Tends to have small populations around 1001000 lSurvives through herding animals and using every part of the animal First appeared approx 12000 years ago Typically nomadic they have no permanent home moves with their herds l Often systematic trading with other pastoral societies 3 Horticultural societies mode of subsistence relies on domesticated plants Limitation how many people can they successfully feed Populations tend to be larger Survive through the hoe cultivation of domesticated plants Relies primarily on the slash and burn techniques for growing crops Have relatively permanent settlements lSince food surpluses exists specialization of roles do exist 4 Agricultural societies those reply on the combination of plows and draft animals l Tend to have large populations lSurvive through the cultivation of crops through the use of plows and draft animals l Appeared over 6000 years ago Have very specialized roles lDeveloped distinct social classes due to the acquisition of wealth and property Problem Manpower 5 Industrial Societies began to appear in the 18205 Tend to have large populations lSurvive only through the mechanized production of manufactured goods Only a small percentage of the population is involved in farming l Highly specialized roles All major social institutions appear particularly the economy and education Sexual inequality appears on a social scale l urbanization 6 Post industrialized societies Majority of work force provides services Tend to have extremely large populations lSurvives through the production of services and information Technological knowledge becomes highly valued Educational attainment becomes key to personal and family success Social mobility is easier Chapters 1245 Sociological perspective stresses the social context in which people live Society A group of people who share a culture and a territory Social Location the corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society Sociologist C Wright Mills sociological imagination enables us to grasp the connection between history and biography History each society is located in a broad stream of events Biography Our experiences within these historical settings which give us our orientations to life WEB DU Bois First African American to earn a doctorate at Harvard attended lectures by Max Weber Jane Adams Sociologist and social reformer she tried to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor Basic Sociology analyzing some aspect of society with no goal other than gaining knowledge Applied Sociology Using sociology to solve problems Public sociology middle ground between research and reform harnessing sociological perspective for the bene t of the public Theory general statement about how some parts of the world t together and how they work explains how 2 or more facts relate to one another Close ended questions followed by a list of possible answers Openended questions allows a person to answer in their own words Rapport establishing a feeling of trust with respondents so they can open up about personal issues such as rape and other crimes that occurred Case Study A single event situation or individual Secondary analysis analyzing data that others have collected Objectivity value neutrality should be hallmark of social research If values in uenced research then ndings would be biased Culture shock unable to use nonmaterial culture to make sense of the world Symbolic culture often referred to as nonmaterial culture Language Symbols that can be combined in an in nite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought Pluralistic society made up of different groups ex USA Cultural Lag Not all parts of a culture change at the same pace Cultural diffusion Groups are open to changes and eager to adopt things from other cultures Biotech society Centers on applying and altering genetic structures both plant and animals to produce food medicine and materials Division of labor different kinds of work for different people Mechanical solidarity people who performed similar tasks develop a shared consciousness Organic solidarity people depended on each other and the different task that each person performed created a form of unity Gemeinschaft intimate community describes village life type of society where everyone knows everyone else Gesellschaft quotimpersonal associationquot the lives to people no longer entered around intimate ties between family and friends Dramaturgy social life is like a drama or stage play Impression management our efforts to manage the impressions that others receive from us Facesaving behavior allows the performance to go one to ignore something that wasn t planned Ethnomethodology found by Harold Gar nkol study of how people use commonsense understandings to make sense of life Background assumptions your ideas about the way life is and the ways things ought to work Thomas Theorem the de nition of a situation Social construction of reality society affects the way we view reality ex Our society reveals that germs are real Hitler is bad etc Voluntary Associations A group made of volunteers who organize on the basis of some mutual interest Clique clusters within a group Reference group the groups we refer to when we evaluate ourselves may be family teachers classmates neighbors coworkers Rationalization of society powerful form of social organization that Max Weber predicted would come to dominate social life Goal Displacement Even when an organization achieves its goal and no longer has a reason to continues it still continues Alienation Many workers feeling more like objects than people Peter Principle Each employee of a bureaucracy is promoted to his or her level of incompetence Corporate culture stereotypes and their powerful effects on workers remain hidden to everyone even the bosses Selfful lling stereotypes stereotypes can produce the very characteristic they are built around Dyad the smallest group possible consisting of 2 people Ex Couples close friendships Most intense intimate of human groups Triad Group of 3 people The addition of the third person fundamentally changes the group It can create a strain on the rst two people ex A couple giving birth to a child pushes their focus on the child and the interaction between husband and wife diminishes Coalitions In a triad 2 members can align themselves against one The third member can feel left out and excluded Leaders people who in uence the behaviors Instrumental leader tries to keep the group moving towards its goals Expressive leader Not recognized as a leader but certainly is one Heshe does things to help life a group s morale Authoritarian leader one who gives orders Democratic leader one who tries to gain a consensus Laissez fair leader one who is highly permissive Groupthink Collective tunnel visions that group members sometimes develop They become convinced that there is only one right viewpoint and a single course of action to follow
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'