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COM 113 Media Culture & Society Notes - Weeks 12 & 13

by: Justin Hynes

COM 113 Media Culture & Society Notes - Weeks 12 & 13 COM 113

Marketplace > Pace University > Journalism and Mass Communications > COM 113 > COM 113 Media Culture Society Notes Weeks 12 13
Justin Hynes
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover the topics: Active Audience Culture Jamming Globalization
Media, Culture, & Society
Marcella Szablewicz
Communications, Media, Culture, Society, COM113, PaceUniversity
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Justin Hynes on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to COM 113 at Pace University taught by Marcella Szablewicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Media, Culture, & Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at Pace University.

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Date Created: 04/26/16
04/14 – Active Audience Social Contexts of Media Use • Reading the Romance (1984) - Janice Radway • Why do women watch/read “lowbrow” romance novels and soap operas? • David Morley Family Television (1986) • Watching television with the family (differences in gender) ◦ Differences in gender ◦ Men focus on the content and are attentive ◦ Women see viewing as a social act accompanied by conversation and other household activities ◦ Women talk about TV more than men Resistance and Identity • Angela McRobbie (1984) ‘Dance and Social Fantasy” • McRobbie studies teenage girls’ relations to the film Flashdance • “Rather than reading the film as a story about a woman who marries her boss’s son, using her sexuality to please men in the process of becoming a successful dancer, the girls in McRobbie’s study decoded the film in ways that highlighted their own autonomy and sexuality” Media Fans • Fans, not as fanatic or eccentric • Fan activities “Fandom is a vehicle for marginalized subcultural groups (some, the young, gays, etc.) to pry open space for their cultural concerns within dominant representations; it is a way of appropriating media texts and rereading them in a fashion that serves different interests, a way of transforming mass culture into a popular culture” (Henry Jenkins) Examples? "Fan fiction can help to broaden interest in a series by pulling its content toward fantasies that are unlikely to gain widespread distribution” The Harry Potter Alliance • What if we approached fantasy not as escape from our world but as invitation to go deeper into it • My question to the fan community was, if Harry Potter was in our world, wouldn’t he do more than simply talk about Harry Potter? Slack said, “Wouldn’t he fight for justice in our world as he fights for justice in his?” Odds in Our Favor • If economic inequality is at the core of The Hunger Games, the “release of the Catching Fire film represents a perfect opportunity to establish a dialogue about our own problems and set the wheels in motion for positive change,” the campaign explains on its website. “Instead, Catching Fire is being used as an opportunity to sell makeup and fast-food sandwiches” Active Audience and Interpretive Resistance • Oppositional readings of popular media texts • Audiences can be “Semiological guerrillas” who fight “a daily war against the symbolic power of the media industry” 04/19 – Culture Jamming Parody or criticism of mainstream culture Pranking A “climate of semiotic Robin Hoodism” (284) Brandalism? 82 Artists Install 600 Fake Ads Across Paris to Protest the COP21 Climate Talks The Yesmen Fix the World Bhopal Chemical Disaster December 2-3, 1984 • Union Carbide Pesticide Plant • 45 tons of the dangerous gas methyl isocyanate escaped from the plant • Death toll estimates range from 15,000-20,000 (Encyclopedia Britannica) 04/21 - Globalization • Globalization is “the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of ideas through communication. transportation, and trade” • McLuhan’s vision: “Global Village” 1 “We have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace. We have become irrevocably involved with, and responsible for, each other” Globalization and Interdependence • Crossing the limits of time and space • Crossing cultural boundaries • The globalization of music? Global products, centralized ownership Ownership and control of media production are largely centralized in a few mega corporations Sony, Universal, Warner Microsoft, Apple Globalization of reality TV shows: Big Brother, Who Wants to be a Millionaire, Dancing with the Stars The case for Newscorp From Australia to Europe to the United States & Asia See pas. 340-341 for a list of the global holdings of NewsCorp Global Media Content • What is cultural imperialism? • The idea that “Western media products introduced into other countries, especially ‘developing’ countries, contributed to a decline in local traditional values and promoted, instead, values associated with capitalism” (Croteau & Hoynes, p.254) The Cultural Imperialism Debate • Westernization/Americanization 1 Products of Western cultures contain messages, values, and ideologies that may erode the unique identities of other nations 2 In 2012, 62% of cinema-goers in the EU went to see U.S. productions 3 European films accounted for less than 7% of North America film market share (in 2010) Cultural Exception • Among European countries, there is a “widespread belief that a ‘cultural exception’ is needed to protect locally produced cultural goods in an era of global free trade policies” (344) • European Union has stipulated that 51% of all broadcast programming must be produced within the EU. French television stations must air at least 40% French-produced content New Markets: The Chinese Film Indsutry • As of 2014, China only permits 34 foreign films to be shown in theaters each year. • Chines box office should bring in $5 billion in revenue this year (compared to $10.9 billion for the U.S. in 2013) (Source: Appealing to the Chinese Market Transformers<———> The Flowers of War “Glocalization” Case Study MTV Problems with the Cultural Imperialism Thesis What are the problems with the “cultural imperialism” thesis? Do things really work this way? • It does not distinguish between different types of media ◦ U.S. is dominant only in some media sectors • It assumes a passive audience ◦ Non-Western audiences bring their own filters as they interpret Western media products • It underestimates the role played by local media ◦ Bollywood, South Korean film industry, etc. 04/26 – Globalization (CONTINUED) Challenging the Cultural Imperialism Thesis • Scholar Koichi Iwabuchi (2002) suggests that we need to “re- center globalization” • Rather than a one way flow of media culture from the west to the rest, we might consider the presence of multiple local media centers, which share a sense of cultural proximity Bollywood According to Forbes • India’s film industry produced 1602 films in 2012 alone • 2.6 billion tickets sold (compared to 1.36 billion by Hollywood in the U.S.) • Revenue: 1.6 Billion (Hollywood’s was 10.8 billion) Other Regional Entertainment Clusters: Nollywood (Nigerian Hollywood) • Nollywood s a 3.3 billion sector, with 1844 movies produced in 2013 alone • Of the industry’s 3 billion valuation, less than 1 percent was tracked from ticket sales. • The rest came from pirated reproductions sold by unauthorized vendors for roughly $2 each The Korean Wave (Hallyu) “according to the Ministry of Culture, Sports, and Tourism, the nation exported about 1.4 billion worth of entertainment products last year” (2008) *the pop star/actor Rain (Jung Ji-Hoon)* - one of the most globally recognized superstars The Global Spread of Korean Pop? Gangnam Style K-pop groups The rise of K-Dramas The Japanese and Korean Wave, Taiwan & Hong Kong Fever • Aside from the consumer lifestyle being modeled, the series retain certain elements that have an Asian appeal: family presence is still noticeable (unlike US shows such as Sex and the City) Also, sexuality is toned down…. • How do these different regional pockets of media challenge the cultural imperialism thesis?


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