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In Class Notes

by: Natalie Neugebauer

In Class Notes PSYC 2070

Natalie Neugebauer

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These are in class notes on everything from week 1 through week 6
Intro to Human Sexuality
Psychology, human sexuality
75 ?




Popular in Intro to Human Sexuality

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Natalie Neugebauer on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 2070 at Georgia State University taught by Ferguson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Sexuality in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 04/26/16
Psychology of Human Sexuality In Class Notes 08/23/2016 What is Human Sexuality?  Feelings, behaviors, biological functioning, cultural context and attitudes surrounding sex The class will embody…  Diversity  Multiple topics and perspectives Why study Human Sexuality?  Every human being has a sexual orientation  Better understanding of yourself and others  Better conversations about sex  Smarter and safer sex  Possibility of educating others and raising awareness  Increase sexual fulfillment 08/25/2016 Exploring Human Sexuality Early evolution of human sexuality: Change in Posture Change in emphasized focus on body parts, various and sexual Increase in sensuality The Hebrews (1000-200BC)  Hebrew Bible had explicit rules - Forbade adultery - Forbade male homosexual intercourse - Forbade incestuous relations  Many attitudes adopted by bible and present in modern day society The Greeks (1000-200BC)  More sexually permissive than Hebrews  Pederasty - Sexual relationships b/w adult men and post-pubescent boys The Romans (500BC-700AD)  Permissive towards homo- & bisexuality  Marriage and sex were ways of improving social standing  Extramarital sex was encouraged India (beginning ca. 400BC)  Hinduism - Karma: cycle of birth and rebirth - Goal: live a just life, marry and procreate  Patriarchal social system  Kamasutra - Nature of love and family - Sex Positions Early Christianity (ca. 50AD)  Jesus – liberal in thinking about sexuality and its’ punishment for transgressions  Later followers (e.g. St. Paul) established the dominant western view of condemnation - Highest love is that for God - Celibacy & Chastity idealized - Association of sexuality with sin Middle Ages (500-1400 AD)  Church’s influence grows  1050-1150: Sexuality was liberalized  1215: Church began confession and penance - Women changed from a temptress (Eve) to a wife - Men shouldn’t ejaculate other than when making a baby with their wife Islam: A New Religion (ca. 500 AD)  Spread across Asia, Africa and parts of Europe  Patriarchal - Emphasized modesty - Sex during marriage strongly encouraged The U.S. (1600s - 1800s)  The liberalization of sex (1700s) - Right to pursue happiness - Brothels, contraception, abortion: all became more common - Sex embraced within marriage  Slavery - Female indentured servants and slaves commonly raped - Antimicsegenation laws passed - Sexuality of minorities was used to oppress them  Myth of slave promiscuity th Milestones in 19 Century America  1820s: free love movement  1852-1904: Mormon’s practiced polygamy  Late 1800s: Medical model of sexuality - Women ruled by their wombs; overectomies - Homosexuality seen as an illness, not sin  Comstock Act of 1873: Prohibited mailing obscene writings and ads Social Hygiene Movement (begun 1905)  Promiscuous husbands transmitted STIs to their wives after sleeping with prostitutes  Blood tests prior to marriage; Rise in antibiotics Sexology (early-mid. 20 Century)  1920s: Revolution began in Europe and moved to U.S.  1960s: - Feels good, Do it! - Discovery of antibiotics & development of contraception pill - Pornography became more acceptable Feminism (1900s – Present)  Margaret Sanger: “Women should do what she wants with her body” - Published birth control literature, violating Comstock Act - Opened birth control clinic that became Planned Parenthood Gay Liberation & LGBTQ movement (mid 1900s)  Homosexuals viewed as perverts, preying on youth  Many medical “cures” attempted  1969: Police vs. Stonewall  1973: Homosexuality Removed from DSM  1970s: “ GOLDEN” age  1980s: AIDS epidemic 08/30/16 Understanding Human Sexuality: Psychoanalytical Theory Conscious vs. Unconscious Freud - 2 drives - Libido - Thanatos  Components of Personality - ID= Pleasure -Ego= Realism - Superego= Conscience/ Morality Controversy - Psychosexual development - Erogenous zones; fixation  Oral (0-18 mths)  Anal (18mths – 3yrs)  Phallic (Oedipus & Electra; superegos develop)  Latency (6-12 yrs)  Genital (12 yrs – end of puberty) - Social context - Methological issues  untestable Behavioral Theory  Observe & measure to understand behavior  Classical & operant conditioning - Classical: Pavlov’s Dogs - Operant: Reinforcements & punishments  Behavior Modification  Aversion therapy Social Learning Theory  Grew from behaviorism - Includes thoughts & feelings  Modeling - Imitation & Identification - These behaviors are then reinforced/ punished Cognitive Theory  Differ in how we process information  Personality/ Behavior = how we perceive & conceptualize world  Brain= Biggest sexual organ Humanistic Theory  Striving for self-actualization - Unconditional positive regard  Kids suppress/ ignore parts that parents don’t accept  Drive = Things that make us feel good about ourselves Biological Theory Sexuality = Bio process - Not social or psycho problems  Problems are psychological - Require medical intervention Evolutionary Theory  Focuses on species over time  What maximizes chances of passing on genes?  Sexuality is about reproduction  Orgasms are evolutionary mechanism Sociological Theory  Interested in how society influences sexual behavior - Managaia (South Pacific) vs. Iris Beag (Ireland)  Social forces  What is “right” & “wrong”? - Family, religion, economy, medicine, law, media, …  NOT in book… - Cultural psychology  Margaret Mead  Variations in attractiveness  Commonalities Feminist Theory  Society influences understanding of sexuality - White, male, heterosexual power structure  Based on male power over females (Patriarchy) - Keeps females submissive - Rape, sexual abuse & harassments, pornography, prostitution… - “Real” sex= penis in vagina Queer Theory  Interested in spectrum of gender, sex, sexuality  Abandon categories - Culturally constructed & limiting  Interested in complete overall understanding  Activism  Judith Butler - Gender is not binary - Fluid Sexuality Early Sex Research  Positions as sex research (beginning 1920s in Europe)  Social Hygiene Movement  Limited Funding Recent Sexuality Research  Ethical Issues - Informed consent & confidentiality  Volunteer Bias - Differences between volunteers & non-volunteers = poor generalizability  Sampling problems - Convenience samples  Reliability - Changes over time & memory issues 09/01/2016 The importance of communication: Chapter 3  Social Penetration Theory: “Onion”-Theory of communication  Early in a relationship we discuss more impersonal issues  Relationship problems often due to poor communication, creating anger & frustration  Also due to a couple’s unwillingness to acknowledge an issue  Good communication = Happier, more satisfied, longer relationships Goals of Communication:  Communicate the message (explicit)  Relational goal (implicit)  Identity management (implicit) Types of Communication:  Verbal vs. Nonverbal Communication  compromises the bulk of our communication  often more powerful than verbal  give us context for verbal messages  easily misunderstood & culturally bound  Women are better at deciphering nonverbal communication  Result of status/power rather than gender  Not in the book: Paraverbal communication  tone of voice (How you say what you say) Communication Differences and Similarities:  Communication & Gender  Mixed sex conversations are typically harder than same sex conversations  Why?  Genderlects are fundamental differences in how men and women communicate  Report-talk vs. Rapport-talk  Women do speak differently than men  Tag questions; disclaimers; question statements; hedge words  Criticism: One-Dimensional Theory Theories about Gender Differences:  Men & women come from different “sociolinguistic subcultures”  Learn different rules from same-gender friends as children  Example: Women not head to sow agreement so they see men who do not nod as agreeing Communication & Sexual Orientation  Most communication research has been with heterosexuals  Gay men’s speech differs from heterosexual men’s speech  Lesbian’s speech differs from gay men’s speech  Similar to heterosexual couples, the differences seen are likely due to power/ status of gender roles Sexual Communication  Positive self-image and feeling good  Fears about body image & attractiveness negatively influence sexual experience  Body image affects how attractive we feel  Media creates “Ideal body” st  Talking to partner might be 1 step to addressing issues  Self-disclosure  Deepens intimacy & feelings of love as you share & grow as a couple  Critical in healthy relationships  Too much disclosure too soon is risky  Trusting your partner  One of the most important ingredients in a relationship  Family/ Past experiences contribute to ability to trust  Self-disclosure MUCH easier when trust partner  Trusting partners more optimistic about future of relationship  Nonverbal Communication  Can be a fun/sexy way to express your desires and reinforces verbal messages  Don’t rely on it exclusively The Importance of Listening  If A=B and B=C, then A=C  Sex is better when your relationship is better  Relationships are better when communication is better  Communications is better when listening is better  Therefore, Sex is better when listening is better Do NOT do these things:  Interrupt  Call names  Take the low blow  Overgeneralize  “Kitchen-Sink” your partner  Have hostile attribution bias  Get defensive  Deny, cross-complain, make excuses, act righteously, indignant Do these things:  Be an active listener  make eye contact  use non-verbal’s to show you’re listening  Summarize/ paraphrase what your partner said  Validate your partner (you do not have to agree)  Take turns talking  Choose your words carefully  Negatives “weigh” more than positives 09/06/2016 Early Promoters of Sexuality and Research Richard von Kraft-Ebing  Psychopathia Sexualis  Sexually deviant behaviors/ paraphilias  Masturbation & Sexual pathology Magnus Hirschelf  The instate for sexology  Sexual orientation & biological causes  Early advocate for homosexual rights  Data destroyed by Nazis - Sexuality Research in the U.S.- Clelia Mosher  1 to ask women about their sexual behavior  Help married women have more satisfying sex Katherine Bement Davis  Superintended of prison  Interested in prostitution, STIs  Lesbianism not pathological Evelyn Hooker  Compared heterosexual/homosexual men  Collected info on both groups  Distinguish between groups on data  Study led to removal of homosexuality from book - Large-Scale Sexuality Research in U.S. – Alfred Kinsey (1844-1956)  Most influential modern sexuality researcher  He had 3 colleges interview 18,000  Taxonomic approach in biology  Zoologist Kinsey Studies  53,000 white males  5,940 white females  Most were younger w/ some college education  Methods:  Face-to-Face in depth interviews  Trained interviewers  On average 300 questions (up to 521)  Acquiescence bias  Social desirability bias Alfred Kinsey  1947 established Institute for Sex Research  Found many unacceptable activities to be practiced  The Kinsey Hetero-Homosexual Rating Scale  You’re neither straight nor gay  There is a scale  Incidental Homosexual behavior  More than incidental homosexual behavior  1 one to start saying that there is more going on in U.S.  William Masters & Virginia Johnson  In 1954, began to study the anatomy and physiology of intercourse in the laboratory  Penile strain gauges  Photoplethysmographs – tampon that measures blood flow  Masters & Johnson  Human Sexuality Response (1966)  Four stage model  Women may have multiple orgasms  Sexuality stays w/ us as we age  Large-Scale sexuality research  National Survey of Sexual Health & Behavior (2010)  Privately-funded large-scale study  Online polling to ensure privacy  Condom use should still be a public-health initiative  1 in 4 acts of vaginal intercourse (2x as often in casual sex as w/ relationship partners)  National Survey of Sexual Health & Behavior  People engaging in wide variety of sexual behaviors across the lifespan  Youth & Risk Behavior Survey  Government-funded large-scale study  Began in 1991  Ongoing study of health risks among youth & young adults  47.7% of students had ever had sex  Among the 33.7% of currently sexually active students  60.2% reported that either they have or their partner had used a condom during the last sex  23.3% reported that either they or their partner had another form of birth control during last intercourse  12.9% had not used any method to prevent pregnancy during the last sex  22.1% had drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sex Methods & Considerations:  Reliability  Validity  Generalizability  Case Studies  Interviews  Questionnaires & Surveys  Direct Observation  Participant Observation  Experimental Methods – cause & effect type of data  Correlational Methods  Internet-Based research methods Sexuality Research across cultures  Commonalities  Marshall & Suggs (1971)  Global Study of Sexual Attitudes & Behaviors (2002) - Sex and Intimacy are both very important in relationships - 09/08/2016 Guest Lecture on STDs Bacterial: Crabs  Visible to human eye  Over the counter treatable (f.e. creams)  Highly contagious “Clap”/Gonorrhea  Bacterial infection, 820.000/year  Mucous membranes  Higher incidence among black men and women  Highest rates in southern states  Urethral discharge, painful urination, increase in frequency/ urgency of urination  Typically asymptomatic in women  Treated w/ antibiotics Syphilis  55.400/year  High incidence among young black men st  1 ndage o infection: chancres (10-90 days)  2 stage: chancres disappear, then infection goes into nervous system  swollen lymph nodes, rashes rd  3 stage: symptoms go away  still contagious and fatal  Treatable with antibiotics Chlamydia  Most common bacterial infection is U.S. with 2.860.000 cases/year  Higher rates in South  Usually asymptomatic  Burning urination, pain in lower abdominal region  Called “silent disease”  Untreated over years can lead to ectopic pregnancies, infertility etc.  Treatable w/ antibiotics Viral: Herpes  Oral & genital herpes - HSV-1 (mouth & face) - HSV-2 (genitals): 1 in 5 adults have it in U.S.  Highly contagious, even when non-visible - skin-to-skin contact  Oral herpes usually transmitted before sexually active  Many people do not experience blisters or sires  Not curable, only manage symptoms HPV  Very common: Most common STI in U.S. with 60.000 cases/year  No symptoms mostly  Some can cause cervical cancer etc. and genital warts  Preventative vaccines (starting age 11)  3 sets of shots HIV/AIDS  1.1 million people infected in U.S., 50.000-60.000/year  Out of those w/ HIV: 55% are gay men, 40% AAs  HIV: transmitted through bodily fluids, semen, pregnancy, breast milk  No cure, just treatment  Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAAT) drug cocktails  Untreated HIV (after 8-10 years) turns into AIDS Prevention:  Female condoms  Dental Dams  Male condoms  Pill (Lowers Risk of Infection) 09/13/2016 Defining Rape & Sexual Assault Rape: Physically or psychologically forced sexual intercourse Sexual assault: Any type of sexual contact or behavior that occurs w/o consent from the unwanted recipient  Incl. penetration, forced oral sex, masturbation, touching, fondling, or kissing Common myths:  Any healthy woman can resist rape if she really wants to  Women like a man who is pushy/forceful  In the majority of rapes, the victim is promiscuous or has a bad reputation  A man cannot really tell when a woman means no b/c women means yes when saying no  “A real man” pushes even when the partner says no  An aroused man, cannot control himself etc. What we know:  Rape vs. Sexual assault  1 in 4 or 1 in 5 women  Highly underrepresented  Rape trauma syndrome  “Date rape” vs. “Stranger rape”  Rape on college campuses  Alcohol’s impact on perception  Alcohol Myopia  Alcohol & Difficulty communicating  College students’ attitudes when alcohol is involved in the situation  Double standard  Teaching girls to protect themselves  Teaching men not to rape  Rape as dominance (power)  Aggression  Corrective rape  Male, single, 15-30 year old, sexist, aggressive  sexist views about women  traditional male role norms  rape myth acceptance  Victim blaming  rape culture  Marital rape & law in U.S. Vulnerable Population:  Lesbians & Bisexuals  Older Women  May be more traumatized due to more conservative attitudes, physical change, less social support  Women w/ disabilities  May be more vulnerable b/c they are less able to fight back, lack of sexual knowledge, may not realize rights have been violated (2x more likely)  Prostitutes Often treated w/ disdain and disbelieve  Trans men and women When men are rape victims:  Male rape is more underreported than female rape  Male victim likely to be young AA man  Rape of men by women  By men (Anal & Oral penetration)  Homosexual men raped more often  Shame, embarrassment, depression etc. Rape of Men:  By women…  By men…  Higher rates in homosexual men  Shame, embarrassment, self-blame, hostility, depression Prison Rape: 18% of inmates report sexual threat  8% report sexual assault  Males= More typically, Females= Penetration with a variety of objects  Prison staff most often victimizes females  Complicating Factors - Inmates must continue to interact w/ their assailants - Often lack access to rape crisis center and don’t receive sympathy from employees Reporting Rape:  Factors related to earlier reports - Violence - Stranger  Factors related to delayed reports - Victim knows perpetrator - Doesn’t fit stereotypical rape - Men are less likely to report if they feel like they are compromising masculinity  Most of the time, better outcomes  Less likely if questions sexual orientation Pressing Charges:  Secondary victimization  Charges are often pressed b/c victim is angry, wants to help others etc.  3 situations in which evidence of rape complainant’s sexual history is admissible  Physical evidence  Excluding evidence  Accepting evidence Coping:  Rape is only violent crime where we expect victim to fight back  Strategies have been helpful  Trying to escape  Screaming  Empathy  Negotiation  Long term consequences  Rape trauma syndrome  Silent rape reaction 09/15/2016 Where does rape come from?  Rapist Psychopathology: A Disease Model o Men rape because of something inherently wrong with them o Disease or alcohol leads to men to rape o Not good research to back this up  Victim Precipitation: Blaming the Victim o If you make bad decisions it does not give someone the right to violate you o Rape is not a rapist’s responsibility; it’s a victims responsibility. Victims shouldn’t. o Men are more likely to believe this theory than women o This line of thinking adds to victims guilt  lowers likelihood of reporting  Evolutionary: Product of Evolution o Males and females differ in their reproductive strategies o It does not explain assaults on some of the most vulnerable populations  Disabled people  Elderly  Adolescent boys  Menopause  Feminist: Keeping women in their place o Keeping women in their place, power over sexual drive o Rape and the threat of rape are used by society to keep women in a position subordinate to men’s o Sex role stereotyping encourages rape  Sociological: Balance of Power o Rape is an expression of power differentials in society o Rape is about more than sex  Treating Rapists: o Treatments have been tested o Decreasing rape myth acceptance o Main goal: have perpetrator accept responsibility for their actions  Support & Accountability groups  Behavioral & Individual therapy  Depo-Provera: Reduces male testosterone to make males not feel the urge to rape, assuming all rape has to do with sexual desire  Electroshock treatment: Used for severe depression  Empathy training: Try to train person whose been convicted through empathy, but letting them see the other’s point of view o Results are inconclusive  Attitude change but unsure of behavior change  Repeat offenders do not get as much out of treatment as one time offenders  6 times is average for repeated offenders  What Can We DO? o Secondary victimization o Just listen o Validate what they’re saying and what they’re feeling. Don’t assume what’s best for them o Do not judge: Maybe you shouldn’t have worn that or shouldn’t have been there o Let them make their own decisions o Give them time: Let people open up to you in their own time o Be genuine, don’t hide your feelings  If shocked and horrified, show it. Help make the best decision they can. Movie: Brave Miss World 09/20/2016 Test 1 09/22/2016 Chapter 5: Female Anatomy & Physiology External Genitalia: More than just a “vagina”  Vulva or pudendum – entire region of external female sex organs (“crotch”)  Mons veneris/pubis – protective, fatty cushion over the pubic bone  Labia majora – “outer lips”, engorge with blood when excited Outer: covered w/ pubic hair, pigmented Inner: hairless, oil glands  Labia minora – no hair, many oil glands Join at clitoris to form prepuce or “hood”, enclose vestibule External Genitalia: Within the Vestibule  Clitoris: Glans vs. Shaft, much larger than most realize Female circumcision/ Genital mutilation  Genital circumcision o Not aseptic  Can lead to a lot of UTIs  Can make urination a lot more painful  The woman who experiences circumcision can obtain less experience out of sex  Can actually be painful rather than pleasurable o Function?  Tradition: a lot of patriarchal values go into this  Reduction of female sexual pleasure  Clitoridectomy: glans, shaft, and hood removed  Infibulation o Clitoridectomy & removal of labia minora o Labia majora fused together w/ small opening for menses/ urination External Genitalia: Vestibule  Introitus: Entrance of the vaginal canal o Sometimes partially covered by hymen  Hymen o Typically at least partially o Variation in size & form o May tear during 1 intercourse o Other activities can lead to tearing  Virginity “testing” and hymenoplasty o Hymen’s don’t really “pop”  There’s already a hole there  Urethral Meatus: Opening of Urethra o Short Urethra: Increased risk of urinary tract infections (E.Coli)  B/C urethra will be closer to the body  Poor wiping: scented hygiene product, waiting to urinate  Bacteria forced into vagina during sex  Perineum – B/W introitus and anus o Wiping direction is still important Internal Genitalia: Vagina  Vagina o Very elastic (2-3.5 inch at rest) o Lubricant secreted from vaginal wall when engorged o Outer 1/3 contains many nerve endings and is tighter and more muscular o Has “friendly” lactobacilli that keep things in balance  Prevents many other bacteria from growing o Has fungi that can overgrow  No douching please (NO soap, scented products, etc.)  Grafenberg Spot (G-Spot) o Small spot in the outer third of anterior vaginal wall  Sensitive area for a minority of women  Generates an urge to urinate but may have triggered orgasm possibly w/ fluid Internal Genitalia: Uterus • Uterus- "womb" (nutrition) & menstruation o hollow, muscular organ • Path for sperm • Implantation of fetus ; contracts to expel fetus during birth • Contracts to expel menses during menstruation • Thick wall: 3 uterine layers o Perimetrium: outer; like most abdominal areas o Myometrium: smooth muscle layer; involuntary contractions o Endometrium: inner lining shed during menses; site of fetus implantation  Cervix – Secretes mucus to help (ovulation) or impede sperm  Os – Opening leading into the uterus o Dilates and softens during childbirth  Uterus – Pathology o cervical cancer  13K women/year in US; 4,400 deaths/year in US  Predisposition via human papillomavirus (HPV), chlamidya, smoking, immune system dysfunction  75% drop in death rate since 1950's due to Pap test during pelvic exam; looking for pre-cancerous cells  Treatment via hysterectomy: remove uterus + radiation/chemo treatment; perhaps other organs o Prolapse: sagging of uterus into vagina  weakening of ligaments connecting to pelvic floor muscles  older women w/ more births; obesity; smoking  treated surgically or via insertion of ring; Kegel exercises Internal Genitalia: Fallopian Tubes • Inner surface has cilia ("hairs") o beating motion that moves egg toward uterus • Ampulla- typical site of fertilization Internal Genitalia: Ovaries • Repository of oocytes or eggs (250,000 per ovary) • Ovulation happens in one ovary or the other • Typically release one oocyte per ovulation (period) • Ovarian cancer o 22k/yr in US o Risk factors: old age; heredity; early onset of menstruation (menarche); late menopause; no children; obesity; prolonged hormone replacement therapy o Long-term (5+ yrs) oral contraceptives decreases risk by 60% o Treatment: removal + chemotherapy o Usually detected late: 50% survive 5 yrs • Ovarian cysts: fluid-filled sacs o Usually un-ovulated follicles o Can be cancer marker if found pre-puberty & post-menopausal Breasts • Breasts (mammary glands) -modified sweat glands that produce milk + fatty tissue • Nipples in center of areola; darkened skin containing sebaceous glands • Breast cancer: factors o Genes  One first-degree relative = 2x risk: 2 relatives = 5x risk  Mutations at BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes = 80% risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer • Age: 85% are in women over 50 • Reproductive history o Early menarche increases risk o Late menopause increases risk o No children or 1st child after 30 increases risk o Prolonged breast feeding reduces risk • Lifestyle o 2-5 drinks/day = 1.5 fold increase in risk o Obesity (waist fat) increases risk o Exercise (several hours/week) halves risk • Hormones o Slight increase in risk in young women on BCP o Risk is gone ten yrs after BCP stops o No risk for older women on BCP o Post-menopausal estrogen slightly increases risk • Breast cancer: treatment o Mastectomy: remove breast o External support or breast reconstruction o Saline/silicone implants: safe despite successful lawsuits to the contrary o Female sexuality impacted  grief/fear of cancer  cancer treatment debilitating  hormonal effects on libido & arousal  feel a lack of attractiveness o but not for long...  most report no change in sex life  80% happy w/ reconstruction Menstruation • Menstruation: cyclical vaginal discharge of endometrial tissue o Attitudes about menstruation  historically, men have viewed it negatively  traditional Judaic-Christian-Muslim: no sex during menstruation  Current Western thinking: 70-80% avoid sex during menstruation o Abolishing menstruation?  not physically painful o Toxic Shock Syndrome  tampons are really absorbent. if you leave it in for too long.. can lead to high fever, decrease in blood pressure, vomiting, diarrhea  can also cause sepsis • Cycle is variable: 24-35 days typical o 28 days is the avrg o Most variable right after puberty before and after menopause o varies across cycles: varies across women o menstrual synchronicity o ovulation phase (day 14)  cervical mucus is "thin and stretchy" o Luteal Phase (uterus prep)  Cervical mucus is "thick" (sperm negative) o Menstrual Phase  Menstruation 3-7 days  Anemia


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Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.