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Notes Up to Exam 1

by: Kylie Kreischer

Notes Up to Exam 1 GEOG:1090

Marketplace > University of Iowa > Geography > GEOG:1090 > Notes Up to Exam 1
Kylie Kreischer
GPA 3.96
Globalization and Geographic Diversity
C. E. Pavlik

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Globalization and Geographic Diversity
C. E. Pavlik
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This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Saturday March 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to GEOG:1090 at University of Iowa taught by C. E. Pavlik in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Globalization and Geographic Diversity in Geography at University of Iowa.


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Date Created: 03/14/15
Globalization and Geographic Diversity Notes for Exam 1 Chapter 1 Concepts of World Geography Diversity a tension between the global and local the handmaiden of globalization Converging Currents of Globalization 0 Globalization the increasing interconnectedness of people and places through covering economic political and cultural activities 0 Regions are now linked through converging economic political and cultural activities 0 Economic activity is the major force behind it 0 Consequences affect all aspects of land and life Economic Globalization 0 Causes 0 Global communication 0 Transportation systems 0 Transnational business strategies 0 New and exible forms of capital accumulation 0 International nancial institutions 0 Global agreements that promote free trade 0 Market economies and private enterprises have replaced statecontrolled economies Abundance of planetary goods and serves 0 Migration caused by economic disparities 0 International workers managers and execs Economic growth has taken place in many areas but not all 0 Economic interconnectivity can also increase economic vulnerability Globalization and Changing Human Geographies Economic changes also trigger cultural changes 0 Globalization frequently hurts local economies 0 Can create cultural tensions 0 Fast food franchises are changing diets 0 Language is also spreading 0 Social values 0 Human rights 0 Role of women 0 Intervention of nongovernmental organizations 0 Hybridization spread of one culture that is then melded with local culture 0 Criminal element of terrorism drug traf cking pornography slavery and prostitution Geopolitics and Globalization 0 Essential dimension of globalization no restrictions of territorial or national boundaries 0 ex creation of the UN creating an international governmental structure 0 Argument that it has weakened the political power of individual states by strengthening the power of regional economic and political organizations such as the European Union and World Trade Organization The Environment and Globalization 0 Creating and intensifying environmental issues 0 Global warming 0 Air pollution 0 Water pollution Deforestation Controversy About Globalization 0 Some believe it will lead to rising prosperity for all 0 Some say it makes the rich richer and the poor poorer 0 Generally applauded by corporate leaders and economists 0 Opposition is widespread in labor and environmental movements ProGlobalization Arguments Forces national productivity Enhances geographic specialization Economic convergence the world s poor countries will gradually catch up with the more advances economies Support large multinational organizations that facilitate the ow of goods and capital across international boundaries 0 World Bank Primary function make loans to poor countries so they can invest in infrastructure and build more modern economic foundations 0 International Monetary Fund Primary function making shortterm loans to countries that are in nancial difficulty and making interest payments on loans they had previously taken 0 World Trade Organization Primary function works to reduce trade barriers between countries to enhance economic globalization and tries to mediate between countries and trading blocs during trade disputes 0 Countries who have been open to trade have been more successful Critics of Globalization 0 Not a natural process 0 Product promoted by capitalist countries and freetrade advocates at the expense of localized sustainable activities 0 Worry the system is unstable 0 Bubble economy a highly in ated economy that cannot be sustained Diversity in a Globalizing World 0 Common view that the world will become blandly homogenous Diversity is dangerous to live without Geography Matters Environments Regions Langscapes 0 Geography describing the Earthquot 0 Parts to geography 0 Physical 0 Human geography Thematic or systematic geography 0 Regional geography Areal Differentiation and Integration Areal differentiation the geographic term for description and analysis of how physical or human traits differ within a spatial unit or area of the surface of Earth Areal integration study of how places interact with one another Regions Formal Functional and Vernacular 0 Regions geographic concept of areal or spatial similar large or small 0 Unifying threads can be physical economic cultural etc 0 Spatial stereotypequot 3 types of regions 0 Formal region de ned by some aspect of physical form ie mountain range valley climate or cultural features ie language 0 Functional region where a certain activity takes place ie a speci c economic activity sports fan region 0 Vernacular region de ned soley in people s minds as spatial stereotypes that have no visible boundaries in the physical landscape ie Midwest southern California New England The Cultural Landscape Space into Place 0 Cultural landscape the visible material eXpresso of human settlement past and present tangible eXpression of the human habitat Re ects most basic needs shelter food work 0 Brings people together and keeps them apart 0 Uniqueness of places being eroded by homogeneous landscapes of globalization shopping malls fast food outlets towers Geographer s Toolbox Location Maps Remote Sending and GIS Latitude and Longitude 0 Absolute locations 0 Parallels lines of latitude 0 Run eastwest 0 Used to locate places north and south of the equator which is 0 degrees latitude 0 Lines of latitude denote where the Sun is directly overhead at noon on the solar solstices in June and December Meridians lines of longitude 0 Run from the north pole 0 located at 90 degrees south latitude 0 Locate places east or west of the prime meridian 0 Prime meridian 0 degrees longitude way in which locations east and west are measures in a system of latitude and longitude International Date Line where each new solar day begins lies along the 180 degree longitude line 0 De ne tropics Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Polar regions eXperience 24 hours of daylight in these summer and 24 hours of darkness in the winter 0 Global Positioning Systems GPS 2 satellitebased systems that use time signals sent from a location to a satellite and back to your receiver to calcite precise coordinates of latitude and longitude Map Projections Cartographers those who make maps 0 Map projections different ways maps are projected onto a at service 0 This book uses the Robinson projection Map Scale 0 Map scale mathematical ratio between the map and the surface area being mapped 0 Representative fraction cartographic term for the ration between the map and the area being mapped Graphic or linear scale visually depicted horizontal bar that shows distance units Map Patterns and Map Legends 0 Reference map shows the location of certain features Thematic map displays more complicated spatial phenomena 0 Choropleth maps map that shows different levels of intensity of date 0 ex per capita income population density Aerial Photos and Remote Sensing 0 Remote sensing information about the Earth that comes from electromagnetic images taken from aircraft or satellites 0 Can monitor loss of rain forests biological health of cops and woodlands and ocean suface temperatures Geographic Information Systems GIS 0 Geographic Information Systems a computerized mapping and information system that analyzes vast amounts of data that may include many layers of specific kinds of information such as microclimates hydrology vegetation or land use Themes and Issues in World Regional Geography 0 Different regions 0 North America 0 Latin America 0 Caribbean 0 Africa 0 Middle East 0 Europe 0 Russia 0 Asia 0 Australia 0 Oceania Population Growth and Change 0 High rates of population growth in developing countries 0 Some countries such as Italy have no natural growth 0 Most rapid rates of urbanization are in developing countries 0 Rate of natural increase RNI provides annual growth rate for a country or region as a percent produced by subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births Demographers divide the gross numbers of births and deaths by the total population producing a number per 1000 of the population crude birth or death rate 0 Total fertility rate an arti cial and synthetic number that measures the fertility of a statistically ctitious yet average group of women moving through childbearing years 0 Population pyramid graph that depicts the percentage of a population that is male or female in different age classes from young to old 0 Can capture structural changes in population 0 Can display gender differences 0 Life eXpectancy also an important indicator 0 In uence by health services nutrition and sanitation 0 Demographic transition model a conceptualization that tracked the changes in birthrates and death rates over time 0 Takes place as countries become industrialized 0 Stage 1 high birthrates and high death rates low rate of natural increase 0 Stage 2 death rates fall birthrates remain high 0 Stage 3 birthrate and death rate drop total population is rising 0 Stage 4 low birthrates and low death rates 0 Stage 5 Postindustrial Global Migration Much of global migration is directly linked to globalized economy Push and pull forces 0 Push 39 CiVil Strife Environmental degradation Unemployment 0 Pull Better economic opportunities Health serVices Attraction to certain locations 0 Informational networks Connects push and pull 0 Net migration rates a statistic that indicates whether more people are entering or leaVing a country 0 Highest rates can be found in countries that depend heaVily on migrants for their labor force Settlement Geography 0 Population density the average number of people per area unit 0 Urbanized population percentage of a country s population liVing in cities 0 Half the world s population now lives in cities Cultural Coherence and Diversity The Geography of Change and Tradition Culture in a Globalizing World 0 Culture learned not innate behaVior help in common by a group of people empowering them with what is commonly called a way of life 0 Abstract and material dimensions 0 Cultural imperialism the active promotion of one cultural system as the expense of another 0 Most seyere examples occurred in colonial period with European culture 0 Cultural nationalism the reaction against cultural imperialism 0 Cultural syncretism or hybridization most common product of cultural collision is the blending forces to form a new synergistic form of culture Gender and Globalization 0 Gender sociocultural construct linked to the values and traditions of speci c cultural groups that differentiate the characteristics of the two biological sexes male and female 0 Gender roles the cultural guidelines that de ne appropriate behaVior for each gender within a speci c context 0 Gender quality is spreading Language and Culture in Global Context 0 Language is often a major characteristic in what de nes a culture 0 Language branches and groups subfamilies are closely related subsets within a language family 0 Dialects associated with speci c regions 0 Lingua franca an agreed upon third language to serve as a common tongue for different cultural groups that cannot communicate directly in their native languages The Geography of World Religions Universalizing religions religions that attempt to appeal to all people regards of location or culture Christinaity Islam Buddhism 0 Ethnic religions religions that are identi ed closely with a speci c ethnic tribal or national group Judaism Hinduism Secularism people who consider themselves either nonreligous or atheist Geopolitical Framework Unity of Fragmentation Geopolitics the close link between geography and politics The NationState Revisited NationState a relatively homogeneous cultural group nation with its own political territory state 0 ex France England Egypt Japan Korea 0 Nationalism the sociopolitical eXpression of identity and allegiance to the shared values and oaks of the nationstate Colonialism Decolonialization and Neocolonialism Colonialism the formal establishment of rule over a foreign population 0 Decolonialization the process of a colony s gaining control over its own terrify and establishing a separate independent government 0 Neocolonialism the characterization of the many ways that newly independent states particularly those in Africa felt the containing control of Western powers especially in economic and political matters Global Con ict Insurgency challenges to a centralized political state or authority as a part of global geopolitics as rebellious and separatist groups seek independence autonomy and territorial control 0 Terrorism violence directed at nonmilitary targets 0 Counterinsurgency the suppression of a rebellion or insurgency by both military and political means while includes not just armed warfare but also winning the support of local people by improving local infrastructure 0 Non military actions often referred to as nationbuilding 0 Ex US in Iraq and Afghanistan Economic and Social Development The Geography of Wealth and Poverty 0 Pace of global economic and development has accelerated dramatically 0 Generally accepted as desirable Half the people in this word live on less than 2 a day More and Less Developed Countries 0 Coreperiphery model a conceptualization of the world into two economic spheres the developed counties of western Europe North America and Japan form the dominant core the lessdeveloped countries making up the periphery core gained wealth at the expense of peripheral countries 0 Third world developing country has changed to LDC less developing country and more developing country MDC Indicators of Economic Development Development vs Growth 0 Development both qualitative and quantitive dimensions 0 Growth increase in the size of a system 0 Gross Domestic Product GDP measure of the size of a country s economy measured by the value of all nal goods and serves produced within its borders 0 Gross National Income GNI GDP combined with net income from outside its borders through trade and other forms of income 0 Snapshot of a country s economy at a speci c moment in time GNI per capita country s population divided by GNI 0 Better comparison 0 Purchasing power parity an important quali cation to these GNA per capita data is the concept of adjustment through PPP an adjustment that takes into account the strength or weakness of local currencies GNI might be in ated or undervalued without PPP adjustment Indicators of Social Development 0 Gender equity discrimination against women 0 Human Development IndeX HDI combines data on life eXpectant literacy educational attainment gender equity and income 0 Fairly accurate sometimes criticized for overlooking the diversity of development within a country 0 Poverty and mortality 0 Deep poverty living off less than 1 a day 0 Under age 5 mortality rate number of children who die per 1000 Re ects availability of food health services and public sanitation 0 Adult literacy 20 of those over 15 lack ability to read and write Chapter 2 The Changing Global Environment Geology A Restless Earth Plate Tectonics 0 Plate tectonics a geophysical theory that Earth is comprised of large geologic platforms or plates that move slowly across its surface 0 Driven by heat exchange deep within Earth 0 Most volcanos and earth quakes found along tectonic plates 0 Colliding plate boundary two tectonic plates that are converging or being forced together by convention cells circulating in different directions deep within Earth s mantle Subduction zone a region that is characterized by regional tectonic warping Happens in collision zones where one tectonic plate sinks below another 0 Divergent plate boundaries areas where tectonic plates move away from each other in opposite directions 0 As the plates diverge magma ows from Earth s interior creating mountain ranges and active volcanoes 0 Over time Pangea broke apart Geologic Hazards Kills many people 0 Volcanoes can provide some bene t 0 In Iceland New Zealand and Italy geothermal acuity produces energy to heat homes and factories Volcanic ash can enrich soil 0 Local economies bene t from tours Global Climates AWorrisome Forecast Climate Controls 0 Solar energy is the most important factor affecting world climates Drives important processes Global pressure systems Winds Ocean currents Insolation short wave solar energy that passes through the atmosphere and is absorber by Earth s land and water surfaces As surfaces warm they radiate heat back into the lower atmosphere as infrared long wave energy that is then absorbed by water moisture and atmospheric gases such as C02 Produces an envelope of warmth that makes life possible 0 Greenhouse effect the natural process of lower atmospheric heating that results from trapping of incoming and reradiated solar energy by water moisture clouds and other atmospheric gases Latitude 0 Unit of solar energy is more intense in the tropics than at higher latitudes both north and south of the equator forms a right angle 0 Causes a build up in heat Heat is redistributed through Global pressure Wind systems Ocean currents Tropical typhoons Hurricanes Interaction between land and water 0 Land areas heat and cool faster than water 0 Continentality inland climates with hot summers and cold snowy winters Maritime climates climates of those who are close to the ocean with moderate temperatures in both summer and winter 0 Global pressure systems 0 Uneven heating causes high and low pressure cells which produces the world s wind and storm systems 0 Subtropical zones have large oceanic cells of high pressure that cause rainless summers 0 Global wind patters 0 Also caused by high and low pressure systems Flow away from highpressure and towards lowpressure cells 0 Topography Cooler temperatures are associated with higher elevations Topography in uences precipitation patterns 0 Air temperature are warmer closer to the Earth s surface and cooler as you move up in elevation because the heat in stored in the ground Adiabatic lapse rate rate of cooling increasing altitude within the lower atmosphere 0 Orographic effect topography wrings moisture out of storms by forcing moving air masses to cool as they are forced up and over mountain ranges 0 Rain shadow a drier area of precipitin usually on the leeward or downward side of a mouton range that receives less rain and snowfall than the windward or upwind side Caused by the warming of air as it descends down a mouton range Warming increase the ability of an air mass to hold moisture World Climate Regions 0 Weather short term Climate long term 0 Climographs graphic representations of monthly average high and low temperatures along with monthly precipitin amounts for a speci c location Global Climate Change Human activity primarily economic development and industrialization is chaining the world s climate Anthropogenic landscape a landscape heavily transformed by human agency 0 Anthropogenic human caused pollution of the lower atmosphere is increasing the natural greenhouse effect so that worldwide global warming is taking place Global warming an increase in the Earth s average atmospheric temperature International debate on limiting emissions 0 Phase I Earth Summit 167 countries signed an agreement to limit GHG emissions but none of them reached their target reduction voluntary Phase 2 Kyoto Protocol 30 industrialized countries agreed to reduce emissions had the force of international law Did not include emission reduction for China India or Brazil because of the carbon inequity concern China now has surpassed US in GHG emissions Became clear industrialized countries were not going to achieve their emission reaction targets Carbon inequity position taken by developing countries such as Cina and India which argue that because Western industrial countries in North American and Europe have been burning large amounts of fossil fuels since the mid 19th century and because C02 stays in the atmosphere for hundreds of years these countries caused the global warming problem and therefor should fix it Phase 3 Durban Agreement includes all countries new emission goals 100 billion Green Fund REDD program Water A Scarce World Resource Water Scarcity Water stress map that shows where water problems eXist and also predicts where future problems will occur generated by calculating the amount of freshwater available in relation to current and future population Half the world s population lives in areas where water shortages are common 70 of freshwater is locked up in polar ice caps Food shortages would then follow Water Sanitation People will use polluted water which will lead to sickness and death Half of the world s hospital beds are lled with people suffering from illness linked to polluted water More people die each year from polluted water than anything else Bioregions The Globalization of Nature Bioregion assemblage of local plants and animals Tropical rain forests Found along the equator High average annual temperatures Abundant sunlight Copious rainfall Covers 7 of the world s lad area More than half of the world s known plant and animal species live in the tropical rain forest most diverse Tropical seasonal forests 0 North and south of the equator 0 Have a distinct dry season 0 Half the rainfall of a rainforest Deciduous trees shed their leaves during the harsh dry season in order to slow or complete halt growth 0 Subject to regular res Tropical savannas 0 Dry season lasts half the year or longer 0 Fewer frees Onethird of the rainfall of a rainforest Climatic savanna one created by natural climatic conditions 0 Derived savanna one produced by human manipulation Deforestation of tropical forest 0 Releases huge amount of C02 0 20 of GHG emissions are from deforestation Caused by Wood industries Cattle farming Palm oil plantations Deserts and Grasslands Arid and semiarid climates Onethird of the Earth s land is desert 0 Wet season is semiarid climates Praire grasslands covered by think long grasses Steppes shorter less dense grasslands Desertification creation of truly arid desert lands in what were formerly grasslands Mediterranean Shrubs and Woodlands Prolonged summereason drought of 34 months 0 Found around the Mediterranean Sea 0 Combination of grasslands and low droughtresistant shrubs Woodlands consist of oak and pine Temperate Deciduous Forests Precipitation falls yearround Summers are warm winters are cold 0 Maple oak elm ash and beech Difficult to mill for lumber hardwoods 0 Evergreen needleleaf Softwoods 0 Region has been cleared extensively for agriculture because of rich soil Evergreen forests Fir pine spruce Boreal forest near arctic location 0 Taiga vast coniferous forest of Russia that stretches from the Urals to the Paci c Ocean main forest species are fir spruce and larch 0 High domestic demand for lumber 0 Protection of habitat for endangered species Tundra 0 Arctic tundra Far northern hemisphere 0 Alpine tundra Found at high elevations in mountainous areas 0 Primarily treeless 0 Moisture limited 0 Low shrubs reindeer moss sedge and grasses 0 Stores vast amounts of methane Chapter 3 North America Post industrial economy human geographies are shaped by modern technology innovative information services and a popular culture that dominates both North America and the world beyond North America 0 US 0 Canada Environmental Geography A Threatened Land of Plenty Costs of Human Modi cation 0 Energy consumption high 0 Environmental and economic costs from pollution Hydraulic fracturing drilling techniques may lead to polluted ground water 0 Transforming soils and vegetation 0 Arrival of Europeans new species including wheat cattle and horses 0 Managing water 0 Waters of Ogallala Aquifer are being depleted 0 Water pollution Altering atmosphere 0 Results in changing local and regional climates and composition of the atmosphere 0 Urban heat island effect development associated with cities often produces nighttime temperatures warmer than those of nearby rural areas 0 Acid rain industrially produced sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere that damage forests poison lakes and kill sh 0 Air pollution Growing Environmental Awareness 0 Sustainable agriculture organic farming principles limited use of chemicals and an integrated plan of crop and livestock management combine to offer both producers and consumers environmentally friendly alternatives 0 Renewable energy sources an energy source that is known for its enduring availability and its potentially lower environmental costs 0 ex hydroelectric solar wind geothermal Diverse Physical Setting Lowlands bordered with mountainous ranges Costal ranges on the east and west Patterns of Climate and Vegetation 0 Very diverse due to region s size latitudinal range and varied terrain Boreal forest coniferous evergreen forest 0 Tundra arctic region with a mixture of low shrubs grasses and owering herbs hat grow brie y in the short growing seasons of the high latitudes Prairie region with fertile soils dominated with tall grasslands in the East and short grasses and stub vegetation in the West Climate Change 0 High altitude and alpine environments are participially vulnerable to global warming 0 Sea levels have increased coastal erosion coasts very vulnerable In mountains pine beetle populations are rapidly infesting pine forests 0 North American glaciers are disappearing Population and Settlement Reshaping a Continental Landscape Modern and Spatial Demographic Patterns 0 Megalopolis largest settlement cluster in the US New England area 0 Baby boom 19461965 0 Birth rates rose Predicting the region s population will be 464 million by 2050 Occupying the Land 0 North America populated for at least 12000 years before the Europeans came 0 Native American population 1500 CE was about 44 million 0 90 of population died off from European disease 0 First stage of European settled created a series of colonies 16001750 0 Secana stage was the settlement of better agricultural lands in the eastern half of the continent 1 75 0 1 850 Westward across the Appalachians 0 Third stage settlement accelerated and most of the region s remaining agricultural lands were settled by a mix of nativeborn and immigrant farmers Attracted by opportunities of Cali and other western states 0 Gold and silver discoveries 0 Development of Midwest North Americans on the Move 0 Westward moving population 0 Move fueled new job creation in high technology energy and service industries 0 Blacks reminded economically tied to the rural South after Civil War 0 Many started to migrate because the declining demands for labor in agricultural and growing demands for industrial opportunity 0 Sun Belt jobs and federal civil rights attracted northern blacks to the south Rural to urban migration 0 New employment opportunities in the city 0 Nonmetropolitan growth people leave large cities and move to smaller towns and rural areas Settlement Geographies The Decentralized Metropolis 0 Urban decentralization metropolitan areas sprawl in all directions and suburbs take on many characteristics of traditional downtowns Evolution of the city in the US 0 19203 production of cars expanded middle class to suburbs 0 Edge cities activity moved from inner city to suburbs where strips of retail and of ce complexes still exist these cities have fewer functional connections with the central city than they have with suburban center 0 Consequence of sprawl 0 Inner cities lost population increased their levels of crime poverty and unemployment increased and had a shrinking tax base 0 Gentri cation process involving the displacement of lowerincome residents of central city neighborhoods by higherincome residents 0 New urbanism urban design movement stressing higherdensity mixeduse pedestrian scaled neighborhoods where residents can walk to work school and entertainment Settlement Geographies Rural North America Origins early European settlement 0 Changed by commercial farming and technology Cultural Coherence and Diversity Shifting Patterns of Pluralism Roots of Cultural Identity 0 Anglo roots as a result of Great Britain ruling 0 Separation of church and state 0 Representative government 0 Liberal individualism 0 Social mobility Coexists with pluralism the persistence and assertion of distinctive cultural identities Ethnicity people with common background and history identify with one another often as a minority group within a larger society 0 ex Canada with French colonization in Quebec Peopling North America 0 Region of immigrants Cultural assimilation process in which immigrants were absorbed by the larger host society 0 Migration to the US 0 Phase 1 prior to 1820 English and African in uences dominated slaves contributed to cultural in uence in the South 0 Phase 2 18201870 Northwest Europe was main source of immigrants emphasis shifted away from English immigrants and Irish and German dominated 0 Phase 3 18701920 Southern and eastern Europeans push factor of political strife and poor economies in Europe pull factor of industrialization 0 Phase 4 19201970 Immigrants from neighbors Latin American and Canada 0 Phase 5 1970now Latin American specially hispanic and Asia Undocumented immigrants grew 1112 million 0 Canadian pattern 0 French arrival and European immigration 0 Next came Britain Ireland and US 0 Now many Asians 60 of immigrants Culture and Place in North America 0 Cultural homeland culturally distinctive settlement in a wellde ned geographic area ethnicity survived over time stamping with a landscape of enduring personality 0 ex French in Quebec Mosaic of ethnic neighborhoods Globalization of American Culture North Americans living globally 0 Key issue is language barriers ie creation of Spanglish 0 Internet access 0 Ethnic restaurants 0 Fashion 0 Global diffusion of US culture 0 Popularity of English language 0 Skyscrapers Corporations 0 Technologies Geopolitical Framework Patterns of Dominance and Division 0 Creating Political Space 0 Breaking from Great Britain 0 Clean and swift from US 0 Longer for Canada 0 Continental Neighbors 0 Boundary Waters Treaty St Lawrence Seaway opened for better global trade connections Cleaned up the Great Lakes 0 North American Free Trade Agreement Also extended to Mexico 0 Political con icts with concern on environmental issues 0 Legacy of Federalism 0 Federal states both nations allocate considerable political power to units of government beneath the national level Other states like France are unitary states power is centralized at the national level 0 Quebec s challenge Political status remains a major issue in Canada Anglo vs French 0 Native peoples and national politics North American and Inuit populations 0 Politics of US immigration issues 1 Disagreement on how many immigrants should be allowed into the country 2 Tightening daily ows of undocumented immigrants 3 Relations with Mexico have soured due to drugrelated violence 4 No political consensus on a policy to deal with editing undocumented workers Economic and Social Development Geographies of Abundance and Af uence An Abundant Resource Base 0 Opportunities for agriculture 0 Commercialized mechanized and specialized Impacted by 0 Diverse environment 0 Varied continental and global markets for food 0 Historical patterns of settlement and agricultural evolution 0 Energy and industrial raw materials 0 Regional production of fossil fuels on a rise 0 However US still imports more than 10 million barrels of oil a day 0 Most abundant fossil fuel in the US coal 0 Other energy sources Wind 39 Solar Nuclear Biofuel Creating a Continental Economy 0 Connectivity and economic growth 0 Connectivity how well a regions different locations become linked with one another though improved transportation and communication networks 0 Railroads Telegraph 0 Automobiles and mechanized farm equipment 0 Highways air links 0 Etc 0 Sectorial Transformation the evolution of a nation s labor fore from one dependent on the primary sector natural resource extraction to one with more employment in the secondary manufacturing or industrial tertiary services and guaternary information processing sectors Tertiary and quaternary employ more than 70 of labor force 0 Regional economic patterns 0 Location factors varied in uence that explain why an economic activity is located where it is Proximity to natural resources Connectivity Productive labor Market demand Capital investment Government spending Access to innovation and research Agglomeration economies Lifestyle amenities Persistent Social Issues 0 Wealth and poverty 0 US unemployment 8510 African Americans and Hispanics had it worst 0 Real estate values fell 0 Lost homes to foreclosure 0 Gap between wealthy and poor 0 Increase in health care and education costs 0 Gender equity 0 Gender gap Women only earn 078 to men s 1 Political power mainly in men s hands 0 Health care and aging 15 GDP North America and the Global Economy 0 Creating a modern global economy 0 World Trade Organization157 member states dedicated to reducing global trade barriers 0 Group of Eight collection of economically powerful countries than meet to discuss key global economic and political issues Attracting skilled immigrants 0 Doing business globally 3 recent shifts in broader patterns of globalization Adoption of a new more globally integrated model Multinational corporations based elsewhere are buying companies and assets once controlled by North American or European capital Same multinational companies are making sizable investments of their own in other portions of less developed world 0 Outsourcing a business practice that transfers portions of a company s production and service activities to lowercost settings often overseas Chapter 4 Latin America Overview 0 Mexico to the south tip of Latin America central and south America 0 Amerindian and Iberian in uences Interregional trade within Latin America Mercosur Southern Cone Common Market NAFTAlt and CAFTA 0 Larger and faster growing population of 550 million 0 Brazil 200 million people 0 Mexico 116 million 0 12 live on less than 2 a day 0 Very urban Megacities Sao Paulo Mexico City Buenos Aires and Rio de J aneiro 0 All hav 10 million 0 Home to Earth s largest rainforest 0 Biological diversity Environmental Geography Neotropical Diversity and Degradation Neotropics tropical ecosystems of the western hemisphere Biggest environmental concerns deforestation A lot of land still untouched Big opportunity avoid many environmental mistakes seen throughout the world Destruction of Tropical Rain Forests 50 of the world s species are found in this biome 0 Driven by hardwood business search for gold and production of coca leaf for cocaine 0 In the past 40 years US of Brazilian Amazon has been deforested criticized the most and 60 of the state has been deforested Grassification conversion of tropical forest into pasture Urban Environmental Challenges Air pollution 0 Especially Santiago and Mexico City 0 Water availability and quality 0 Garbage removal Western Mountains and Eastern Lowlands 0 Very diverse landforms 0 Movement of tectonic plates explains the topography Shields humid lowlands interspersed with large upland plateaus 0 Brazilian Shield is the largest The Andes 0 Mountain range that extends 5000 miles 0 Altiplano treeless high plain of Peru and Bolivia 0 The Uplands of Mexico and Central America 0 Mexican Plateau Mexico s megalopolis Volcanic Axis of Central America 40 volcanos Eastern Shields 0 Brazilian shield Patagonian shield River basins 0 Amazon 0 Plata Orinoco Climate and Climate Change in Latin America Precipitation varies and creates wet and dry seasons Altitudinal zonation the relationship between cooler temperatures at higher elevations and changes in vegetation 0 Environmental lapse rate temperature declines approximately 35 degrees F for every 1000 feet in higher elevation 0 Most relevant in the Andes 0 El Nino weather phenomena that occurs when a warm Paci c current arrives along the normally cold coastal waters of Ecuador and Peru in December 0 Happens every couple of years 0 Torrential rains Flooding o Droughts Impacts of climate change 0 Highland areas particularly vulnerable to global warming 0 Rise of dengue fever Population and Settlement Dominance of Cities Latin American City 0 34 of population lives in cities 0 Cultural and economic preference 0 Urban primacy a condition in which a country has a primate city three to four times larger than any other city in the country 0 ex Mexico city 0 Latin American cities are noted for high levels of this 0 Urban form 0 Residential quality declines moving out from the center 0 Best residential zones are outside the spine That extends from the colonial core to newer parts of the city 0 Squatter settlements place where many of the urban poor live in selfbuilt housing on land that does not belong to them Patterns of Rural Settlement Divided by extremes of poverty and wealth Uneven distribution of arable land 0 Rural landholdings Latifundia longobserved practice of maintaining large estates 0 Minifunsia peasants farming small plots for their substance can lead to permanent or shifting cultivation Agrarian reform peasants demeaning its redistributions of land ownership Population Growth and Movement 0 High growth rates with natural increase European migration 0 Mestizo people of mixed European and Indian ancestry Asian migration Latino Migration and Hemispheric Change 0 Civil wars 0 Job opportunity 0 Seen as a region of emigration Remittances monies sent back home continues in next section of the class Chapter 14 Australia and Oceania Oceania collection of islands that reaches from New Guinea and New Zealand to the US state of Hawaii Nauru Demonstrates mixed consequences of globalization Small island in the Paci c Granted mining rights to Australia and had an economic boom 0 Small population enjoys of the world s highest per capita incomes 0 Has one of the highest rates of diabetes after importing junk food rather than eating shell sh fruits and vegetables Phosphate resources are now exhausted Tried to capitalize on global mobility by building a prison for Australia 0 Now has become a poster child for mixed bene ts of globalization Overview of the Region Polynesia quotmany islandsquot 0 New Zealand 0 Melanesia western part of Oceania dark islands Micronesia more culturally diverse region small islands Environmental Geography A Varied Natural and Human Habitat Global Resource Pressures Mining operations Deforestation Climate Change in Oceania Bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef 0 Has not rati ed the Kyoto Protocol possibly because they are the leading exporter of coal Degrading shing problems from warmer sea water temperatures Australia and New Zealand Climates One of the most urbanized societies 0 Outback a sparsely settled land of sweeping distances and stubby vegetation Landform regions 0 Western Plateau 0 Interior Lowland Basins 0 Great Dividing Range 0 Great Barrier Reef 0 Paci c Ring of Fire 0 Climate 0 Wet and dry season 0 Malle vegetation that is a scrubby eucalyptus woodland Environments of Oceania 0 Creating island landforms Volcanic eruptions Earthquakes Tsunamis earthquake induced sea waves 0 High islands formed by volcanos 0 Hot spot where slowly moving oceanic curst passes over a vast supply of magma from Earth s interior thus creating a chain of volcanic islands Atoll combination of narrow sandy islands barrier coral reefs and show central lagoons Island climates Abundant precipitation Dense tropical forest Population and Settlement A Diverse Cultural Landscape European settlement 0 Contemporary population patterns 0 One of the most urbanized populations in the world Historical Settlement New Guinea and Australia were settled in rst 0 Aborigine ancestors of today s native Australian European colonization Place where convicts were eXiled Lure of gold agriculture and stockraising potential Aborigines displaced Lush and fertile lands of New Zealand also attracted British settlers European whalers arrived Settlement Lanscapes Mixture of local and global in uences 0 Urban transformation 0 Western style urban environments 0 Rural scene 0 Most is too dry for farming Viticulture grape cultivation New Zealand rural scene characterized by livestock 0 Rural Ocean characterized by fishing Diverse Demographic Paths 0 Rapid growth from natural increase in 20th century 0 Now grown takes place from immigration 0 Controversy over whether Australia has a population crisis and whether it is too much or not enough Cultural Coherence and Diversity A Global Crossroads Multicultural Australia Dominated by colonial European roots 0 Aboriginal imprints indigenous people of Australia 0 People used to live in tribal groups that were isolated led to many languages spoke 0 Many languages still spoken today 0 Land of immigrants 70 of Australian population is British or Irish heritage Kankas Paci c island laborers 0 White Australia Policy nonwhite migrations to the country were strictly limited 0 Today 25 of Australia s population is foreign born 0 Cultural Patterns in New Zealand 0 Maori native people 0 Largely British heritage Tied very close to Australia the US and Europe Mosaic of Paci c culture 0 Language geography Austronesian language family that encompasses most of the Oceania languages 0 Village life External Cultural In uences and Interactions Haoles light skinned European and American foreigners American Football Connection Geopolitical Framework A region of Dynamic Polities Roads to Independence Microstates usually independent states that are small in both area and population 0 Slowly areas have gained their independence 0 Australia and New Zealand rst to gain their rights Persistent Geopolitical Tensions 0 Native Rights in Australia and New Zealand 0 Native Title Bill compensated Aborigines for lands already given up and gave them the right to gain title to unclaimed lands they still occupied


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