COM201 Packet COM 201
Popular in Introduction to Communication I
Popular in Communication Studies
This 40 page Bundle was uploaded by Annika Curren on Monday March 16, 2015. The Bundle belongs to COM 201 at University of Washington taught by Randal Beam in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication I in Communication Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 03/16/15
INTRO TO COMMUNICATION 31615 130 PM Media representations of people are selective and imperfect Social Construction of Reality 0 Social actors creating 4 Representations of social world that are 4 Purposeful goal driven o Aka news show comedy show 0 Raw materialsquot are gathered 0 Rules procedures customs are followed through creation and use of raw materials Exchanged for something of value 0 Money attention Summary lead summarize main point of article in 1 or 2 sentences What factors affect the ways social world is represented in media 0 Representations power Hierarchy of Influences Individuallevel characteristics 0 Person interest of content makers Media routines practices 0 False balance of media way they write headlines Organizational goals characteristics 0 Having a political agenda Extramediaquot groups institutions 0 Advertisers audience outside creators yet still have influence on it Social systems culture 0 ex Aunt Jemima Hierarchy of influences I Individuallevel characteristics I Media routines practices I Organizational go Is quot l 39 i characteristics i 39 f i I Extramedia39 groups quotI It I institutions quot39 Social systems Shoemaker amp Reese model Mass Media Content 31615 130 PM Mass Medium Large audience Diverse heterogeneous audience Receivers audience members not known to the sender creator of messages sender not in same placequot as receiver Messages tend to be uniform o It doesn t change per person to fit their culture etc o BUT digital technology allows for customization ex Ads Feedback loop is not immediate o BUT commenting on media posts allows immediacy FOR CLASS media creators shape consumers and how they interpret things 2 Perspectives on Nature of Media Info Window on the world perfect picture of what world is Fractured glass imperfect representation biased The source of the media s power being selective The media are an agent of socialization Structure vs agency Structure recurring patterns social organization 0 Typically act as constraints Agency unregulated human action 0 Capacity to act yet constrained by structure Legal Rights for Publishing 31615 130 PM Laws legal rules decided on by an elective body ie city council attempt to regulate behavior Regulations used to regulate behavior like a law Civil vs criminal 0 Civil you robbed me 9 you vs me 0 Criminal you vs state Case laws Court precedents that are set from a judge s decision 0 Libel came from case law First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the gov t for redress of g evances 0 Covers expression by anyone or any entity 0 Why its unusual bc there are few other countries that allow that much freedom covers so much in one amendment 0 Modern meaning of press Congress 0 When it says Congress it means anything schools etc Limitations of free expression 0 Protected speech it s constitutional Unprotected o Obscene but not indecent such as child porn 0 Expression violating time place manner restrictions 0 On private property 0 False advertising 2 types of speech 0 Political speech much broader protection 0 Opinions on football teams teachers etc 0 Commercial speech not as many protections having to do with commercial things 0 Advertising Legal Rights for Publishing 31615 130 PM Prior restraint NOT ALLOWED in US 0 It is prepublication censorship by a gov t agency Gov t insisting on giving its approval before expression occurs Exceptions to prior restraint rare Permits to hold rallies timeplacemanner restrictions High school newspapers students 0 Legit pedagogical concerns 0 Sexually suggestive expression Personal security that s at risk spy s identity National security troop movements Business secrets formula for Diet Coke THE IMPORTANT POINT ABOUT PRIOR RESTRAINT damages are always paid for after the fact Libel and defamation Statements harmful to someone s reputation Lowers respect that other people have for person Slander is spoken defamation Both people and organizations can be subject to Libel Elements of or requirements for a successful libel claim 0 Publication distributed to 1 people 0 Identification must be clear who is being defamed Harm pay was lowered fired etc o Falsity not just statements of opinion Defenses Consent Truth Qualified privilege or neutral reportage came from a gov t proceeding Fair commentopinion Opinions are always allowed 0 Statements of fact are sketchier something that can be proved Public OfficialsFigures Actual malice Can get away with titles saying He s Gayquot because they can say they thought it was true from the source they got it from Influences that are most powerful in hierarchy of influences model outside ones Free ExpressionMedia Economics 31615 130 PM Fighting Words Doctrine Trying to excite violence FCC Federal Communications Commission 0 Regulates interstateinternational communications by radio TV wires satellite cable 0 5 members appointed by president amp confirmed by Senate Authority on expression 0 Limited regulation most of what it does is set standards 0 Can regulate indecent content on broadcast TVradio but not cable 0 Can regulate children programs 0 At least 30 minutes a week on broadcast TVradio Regulation of indecent content When 10pm6am allowed to broadcast indecent content 0 Meant to protect children Rationale for regulation Airwaves are public property bc 2 diff entities cannot use the same frequency limited of frequencies How Levy fines like when Janet Jackson had malfunction 0 People can write complaints to FCC What is indecent content 0 Language material that in context depicts or describes in terms patently offensive as measured by the contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium sexual or excretory organs or activities 0 Offensiveness is different for everyone Unprotected obscene content won t ask these definitions on test 0 Average person applying contemporary standards finds material as whole prurient unwholesome 0 Material depicts describes in patently offensive way sexual conduct specifically defined by law 0 Material as a whole lacks serious library artistic political scientific value Should gov t regulate Supporters Parents TV Council 0 Opponents FOX NBC abc the CW Why doesn t the FCC ask TV programs to submit their content in advance for review to see if it s indecent Bc it d be prior restraint Media Economics Walt Disney Co then vs now 0 Expanded greatly with transfer to new person 0 Not even biggest company Media Economics 31615 130 PM Biggest media company Comcast ahas international influence Concentration of ownership is a widely debated topic 2 Basic Functions of Media Firms Make content 0 Making stuff you consumequot 0 Magazines TV shows etc Distribute content 0 Controls the channelsmeans to get that content to audiences 0 Television stations ESPN cable channel theaters on Broadway Vertically integration tries to control everything in its chain of production 0 Ex Producing your own an album 0 Making distributing content Horizontal only things at same level 0 Company buys other companies that do the same thing Viacom mass media company They grow primarily through vertical integration If they buy a hip hop cable channel is growth through horizontal integration Reasons corps seek to be vertically integrated More efficiency for operation 0 More money 0 More political clout Fend off potential buyers 0 Assure access to content Concerns about vertical integration Anticompetitive would put competition at disadvantage 0 Diversity of media voices shrinks concentration of ownership Media Economics amp News 31615 130 PM Rich Media Poor Democracyquot Crosspromotion Media conglomerates that create one thing and advertise it on w other avenuesuse its other properties for leverage ex Disney Channel advertising a Disney movie or product Crossproduction ex Sex and the City taking movie and making a TV show out of it taking something that was made for one purpose and having it transferred into another purpose Crossadvertising strategy used by business owners to market a business using various types of media Capacity to produce blockbusters only large companies can produce large productions movies bc they can afford it they can withstand any losses and move on Synergy Increased efficiencycapacity a business gets from combining operations with another company mergers Horwitz article 1 Why does Horwitz think others think its important to pay attention to diversity of media ownershipconcentration of media ownership 0 There s a link btwn the health of our democracy Critics think that if there is too much concentration of ownership democracy is in danger the number of competing voices shrinks 2 What s the Marketplace of Ideas How does it fit into concerns about concentration of ownership Marketplace is a metaphor different perspectives are exchanged rather than goodsservices 3 What contradiction does Horwitz see in our nation s thinking about policies on attitudes toward media ownership today 0 Gov t stand aside and let people compete Capitalism thinks competition btwn businesses are good 4 How can we measure concentration of ownership 0 Market economic standard 0 Ratios and percentages that are used to indicate how concentrated media ownership is 0 Social values standard 0 Focuses on media power power by media organizations and how many are there 5 What s too much concentration of ownership 0 Under market economic standard 0 More diversity 0 Under social values standard 0 Big media orgs are drawing more audience democracy being sHenced Useful definitions accurately characterize phenomena can be used to identify instances of that phenomena out in the world 0 Some differing definitions 0 Information about recent important events beyond our direct expe ence 0 That which journalists judge newsworthy by exercising their news sensequot Not going to focus on what is news but why that specific story is chosen 31615 130 PM Social structural constraints on production of news Conventions amp routines q5 on study guide 0 Practicestechniques widely used learned through college classes expenence Ex Beats Social Roles q8 on 59 Bundles of expectations associated with certain positions in society News values criteria journalists use to figure out whether to include or exclude what to cover Then once chosen get to choose what type of emphasis each story gets Taxonomy of news values deciding what to use as news 1 Eliteness 2 Proximity 3 Uniqueness 4 Negativity 5 Impact on audience 6 Recentness 7 Exclusivity something no one else has 8 Dramaconflict 9 Perceived significance 10 Aesthetically appealing car in flames example Source influences Journalists generally aren t there when it happens reporting on what someone told them Rolling stone article the reporter didn t get both sides and made the situation seem less credible Official source works for gov t agency speaking for formal organizations official documents experts etc Unofficial source ordinary people nonofficial documents Men and official sources have a disproportionate effect on the news Tend to be more educated rich white 0 Missing perspectives from women unorganized voicesquot people in social movements homeless youth etc o Journalists see them as more credible and authoritative 0 Have easier access to them sometimes through beats Beats where news net is cast q3 in 59 Reporters are assigned locations where they believe news will occur 0 White house police station political bus 0 Could be topics too like environmental beats Seahawks beat 0 Chances of making paper are higher efficient Advertising PR 31615 130 PM Biggest advertising moments are in February 0 Academy Awards Super Bowl for women called that because the audience is predominantly women not all 0 Super Bowl skews male it made history this year with viewers 0 Both are expensive to advertise on Super Bowl more so 0 25 Million for biggest show Watched top 3 Super Bowl ads 0 1 Always 2 Budweiser o 3 Fiat 9Another AD Domino s real advertisingquot bc it shows product 0 Called Priceanditem advertising connect you with product emphasizes transaction direct sell 0 Raise awareness of product how to get it 9Another AD Toyota Camry 7 ranked 0 Demonstrates national consumer good advertising style Capitalist realism Schudson Playing off term called socialist realism art that sought to depict what life was supposed to be like idealized 0 National consumer goods idealized capitalist world represents values that we embrace product almost stepping stone to ideal life 9Another AD Nationwide 0 Most controversial ad this year not good feedback Super Bowl Academy Awards anomalies unusual ad vehicles 1 Audience is diverse and large 2 Prestigious 3 Generates secondviews Cost per impression views CPM Raw CPM for Super Bowl is about 39 per thousand viewers Segmented markets defined the consuming public is divided into segments niches All markets today are niche markets Niche advertising tries to be efficient through advertising to only people who would possibly want their product 0 Ex Snickers ad on Super Bowl isn t efficient bc some people watching would never be customers 0 The larger the audience the higher the CPM 0 Advertisers look for an audience of potential customers magazines Video of 60 minutes segment Advertising amp PR 31615 130 PM Paid media vs unpaid media 0 Even paid media can be designed to look like news 0 Paid are like advertisements Madison amp Vine Power shift taking power out of those who distribute media content and putting it into customers hands Pushinvasive advertising model the traditional advertisement 0 30 second spot 0 Worked better before technology advanced remotes recording 3 problems for invasive model 0 1 Shifting times affects advertising 0 Ads are no longer relevant 2 Skip ads 0 3 Have to find other way to reach customers Pullinvitation model the advertiser has to try to make you 0 Want to watch it 0 OR make message hard to avoid o EXAMPLES 0 Live event programming Product placement in video games Infomercials Sponsored content Promoted tweet Product mentions 00000 5 Public Relations Activities 0 Publicity media relations 0 Public info 0 Community relations 0 Gov t relations 0 Lobbying 0 Special events Paid vs earned media Advantages paid 0 Complete control of where it iswhat message is Disadvantages paid 0 Expensive Perceived to have less credibility 0 Certain types of paid media can be avoided skipping commercials Advantages earned Relatively cheap 0 Seen as more credible Disadvantages Earned Don t control message Video Notes Toxic Sludge Is Good For You 1 What s function of PR industry 0 To convince public what you think is good 2 PR makes some voices louder than othersquot means 0 People with more money have more influence on the public 3 What role did PR play in WWI Convinced those opposed that 4 How did PR solve problem of low cigarette sales 0 Creating fake newsquot by covering a hired group of pretty women smoke cigarettes 5 Why do TV stations use VNR video news releases VNRprepackaged news story made by PR firms 0 Easer for news teams to use these less work 6 What are the clues that a story you see on TV is a VNR If video footage is from exotic placesquot like factories or beaches far away etc This is especially for local news bc they have low budget 7 What s a third party advocate 0 Taking expert views as true using their quotes featuring them in news stories having them at news desk etc 0 Big example that s widely is scientist 8 What is a front group 0 Appear neutral but funded by a government industry Essentially an illusion 0 Not real example The Save the Planet Associationquot actually is a coal production industry 31615 130 PM A press release is an example of what type of influence 9Extramedia influence 0 Because people in PR industry are trying to shape the industry What do a front group and a 3rd party advocate have in common 0 Both conceal true identity secretive Libel form of defamation Publication broadcast of any statement that injures someone s reputation Applies to people AND to organizations Common defenses for libel Truth provable 0 Qualified privilege 0 Fair comment statement of opinion okay Commercial logic of primetime TV q1 q5 on Week 6 SG 0 High audience ratings desirable audience demographics strong advertising sales high profits 0 Dualproduct market 0 Market 1 market for viewers providing them programming 0 Market 2 market for advertisers selling ads for show to advertisers Nielsen TV Ratings What s Nielsen Multibillion dollar business that gathers audience data for broadcast and cable TV along with books radio social media video games etc o Directly and indirectly influence advertisers and what is on TV 0 What are ratings 0 Estimates of sizecharacteristics of audience Gender Race Age Education Income Lifestyle characteristics Usually only for 1849 years old 0 Ratings percentage of houses w TV where tuned into show 0 SHARE percentage of houses that have TV where TV is g o 4 ways ratings gathered In home box that users control TV box that turns on when TV is on Sends out diaries for people to fill out A hybrid system that also taps into the internetsocial media 0 Sweeps 0 When diaries are sent out 0 February is a sweep month which is why stations are producing more content currently 0 O O 0 How Nielsen data are used Main uses for TV content makers To see what audience they are attracting use it to get target audience Main uses for TV content distributors q5 9CPM cost per thousand 0 Use ratings to figure out what should charge for ad 0 Use ratings to decide which shows canceled Main use for advertisers Which shows to advertise which products How do Ad Firms make money 0 Get money from clients by charging for services How do content distributors TV stationsnetworks make money 0 Collect all money from advertising 0 EX Super Bowl commercials How do content makers make money 0 Through licensing right to broadcast show Almost never able to make enough to cover the cost of the show Hollywood 31615 130 PM Review from last lecture What does a rating of 127 mean 0 127 of the US households with TV tuned to Grammys How do advertisers use ratings 0 To help pick which shows to advertise on How do distributors use ratings 0 To determine which shows cancelled and what to charge for ads Who gets the money paid to show an ad on the ABC TV network 0 The ABC TV network 5 Criticisms of Nielsen ratings 0 1 Unrepresentative sample bias occurs 0 Tends to represent older viewers 0 Don t accurately reflect characteristics of entire population 0 2 Doesn t measure out of household viewing 0 EX TV watching in bars 0 3 Doesn t measure online viewing very well 0 4 Doesn t accurately measure viewing behaviors its intended to 0 Diary isn t accurate bc recall can be skewed o Inconvenient ex If only watch 5 minutes don t want to turn on o 5 Social desirability bias 0 Changing your behavior bc you want your shows to seem more acceptable for viewing How TV industry reduces uncertainty 0 Do you fit neatly into a genre 0 Does what you propose seem familiar Spinoff Defined audience with defined ad base 0 Stars in your program Ancillary income sources 0 Music toys The longer the show runs 4 years big profits are made 80 episodes Formulaic derivative shows What will appeal is uncertain Faiure rate is high Making TV is expensive Safe familiar unimaginative EX American Idol 9 The Voice NN Quiz Review Review these parts of Madison amp Vine reading 0 Power shift 0 Push model pull model 0 Push when you can t control viewingcan t record shows 0 Pull let s you skip ads when record shows Advertiser is trying to pull you into ads 0 Product placementbrand integration 0 Branded entertainment Super Bowl is an anomaly bc diverse group of people as audience 0 Normally advertisers look for specific demographics National consumer goods ads 0 Super Bowl ads 0 More subtle way to sell VS PriceandItem Telling about product and price TV Studio s role in production 0 Place to create it 0 Money to produce it Distributor to show it Spinoff A new show based on an old show 0 NCIS 9NCIS LA Week 7 31615 130 PM Analyzing mass comm effects News values v I Advertising amp girls Profit goals 39 selfimage I I I PR in uences Contem I Social difference I Advertiser stereotyping influences I Kids amp violence I 3631 System I Political effects I TV fest I Framing effects audiences I Technology Basics Topics Types of Mass Communication effects Key terms in communication research Evidence needed to prove effect Causation independentdependent variables Conditional effects 3 common methods for studying effects Content analysis surveys experiments Categories of Media Effects They all overlap Level micro macro where happens not how big Micro effect within individual not interaction with group EX If watch TV news learn more about politics EX Do videogames make violent kids Study looks at separate kids then asks teachers how they are in school Macro effect on groups EX Has introduction of phones lead to less family communication EX How do sales of VIP games affect behavior issues in schools Timing Is it immediate or delayed EX Call in next 60 secondsquot is example of immediate timing EX Super bowl commercials have a delayed response Duration Effect persistent or go away transitory EX Horror movies are examples of transitory EX Learning attitudes from TV shows persistent Change Either alters or enforces position that already exists EX Trusting of Daily Show was altered after he lied EX Political campaigns stabilize beliefs vs try to change them Intention Effect intended or accidental EX Call in next 60 secondsquot amp someone calling is an intended effect EX Shooting copycat effect is accidental Mentalbehavioral Changing beliefsemotionscognitions effects actions EX Learning attitudes changing feeling sad mental EX Vote differently behavioral Cumulativenot effect result of repeated exposure or one EX Tornado warning 9 will go straight downstairs effect of one exposure EX Believing a stereotype after watching tons of TV gays dress this way Clicker Question EX Changing eating habits due to exposure of model photos in US 9Cumulative Behavioral Clicker Question EX Shooting copy cats due to seeing news 9Unintentional effect Behavioral 5 Key Terms Concept an abstract label that a social scientist gives to a collection of similar phenomenon or characterizes EX attention in class concentration of ownership hate love EX weight used for variation in size measure Variable a concept that s measurable with 2 values EX Weight gender Research Question generalization expressed as a q about relation between 2 concepts EX Does attention change when term gets longer Hypothesis a tentative prediction about how those things are related EX As the term gets longer attentiveness decreases Theory Set of related statements which present a systematic explanation of a social phenomenon Does so by spelling out relationship between concepts Clicker Question EX Hypotheses 9News leading to copycat effects 9Anorexia bc advertisements Hypothesis 1 exposure to this promo video independent variable will make COM 201 students aggressive dep Variable Four Standards of Evidence needed to document a microlevel mass communication effect 1 Content Standard could the content produce my hypothesized effect Plausible to argue first vid of wrestling bc it s aggressive but not for content like Mario kart where aggressive tendencies aren t displayed 2 Exposure to content have evidence that people being tested ppl that are supposed to be affected by mass communication content have actually been exposed to content 3 Documentation of Change Show change occurred bc of said exposure Measure before then intro mass com content then measure again Correlation between 2 variables positivenegative expressed as relationship Causal Relationship Change in first variable causes change in another 0 Independent variable the causestimulus affects dep variable Dependent variable the effect 3rd factorsquot ruled out Prove that independent came before dependent variable Rule out other things correlationcausation 0 Eating cheese leading to dying in bed 4 Explanation of Mechanisms Processes Theories describe explain predict 0 Social learning theory Difficult to establish all 4 things Clicker Question EX Negative Correlation 9A5 multitasking increases focus decreases Basics of Media Effects Conditional Effects a media message produces different effects for different people under different circumstances 9Contingent Condition 0 Situation that must exist for an effect to occur EXs Effect of political ad leads to effect of no candidate preference Braille reading skills leads to effect of reading Braille 9Contributory Condition Enhances a mass communication effect 0 EXs Regular reading of news has magnified effects for highly educated people repeated exposure to aggressive content is stronger for people with underlying tendencies of aggression Content Analysis Research method where describe body of content speech FB post tweet etc in systematicrigorous fashion 9Qualitative Not numeric rhetorical analysis 9Quantitative 0 Systematic objective so all can analyze in same way ex counting people in a room provides description numerically 9Survey 0 Set of Q5 asked to people in same way for everyone EX ratemyprofessorcom 9Sample Survey 0 Given to subject of larger group in order to learnestimate characteristics of small group 2 Basic Types 9Cross Sectional 0 Done at one point in time o EX Favorite Super Bowl commercial 9Longitudinal Done over time EX presidential preference Framing suggests what the issue is Process that content makers engage in o Journalists TV writers PR firms politicians Selecthighlight some aspects of reality amp play downignore other aspects Purposeeffect To increase salience of some aspects of reality for information consumer audience ANDOR journalists To define situation for info consumer to influence interpretation of series of events Where Frames Come From 0 From our individual experiences 0 Police vs jaywalkers friends 0 From media 0 McCain the Maverick 0 From our culture 0 Open internet vs net neutrality Why Framinq Matters A method to study human characteristics Conducted under controlled conditions lab Features of an Experiment 0 Random Assignment 0 Experimental groups 0 Control group 0 Manipulation of X variable 0 Experiments causality and external validity Media Politics amp Framing 31615 130 PM Framing experiment results Trying to det If independent variable X causes change in Y 0 H1 A whistleblower frame will lead to cause more positive assessments of Edward Snowden o patriotconcerned citizen gt in this condition rather than in control 0 H2 A fugitive leaker frame will lead to cause more neg assessments of ES o traitor gt in this condition rather than in control OUR RESULTS failed 0 Control Traitor 31 Patriot 69 0 Pro ES Patriot 71 0 Con ES Traitor 64 Strength of Experiments Causality 3 criteria for establishing a causal relationship 0 Correlation or change 0 Time order Eliminating other factors random assignment Weakness of Experiments external validityquot Circumstances are artificial must be natural enviro o EX Forced us to read paper Spin form of propaganda its goal is to diffuse among journalists a frame of how a candidate did 0 Done to cultivate public support 0 Candidate representatives for political candidates are spinning it 0 Initially journalists are spun but it s the audience Spinning to manage candidate s image 0 Happens in other places than just politics Media macrolevel effects on politics Politics for TV Qla 67 TV is main source for news in 2012 Telegenic candidates fare best Illusion of News Q1 o How are the media bought off 0 Techniques used to get favorable coverage 0 Eye gt ear 0 EX Nixon did better over radio while Kennedy better on TV Effects on publicvoters agenda setting Q4 0 Media is successful in telling you what to think about and what s important Representations in Media 31615 130 PM FCC endorses net neutrality FCC declares internet a public utility Bans fast lanesquot Bans intentional slowing Who likes this 0 Netflix Twitter 0 Chesscom Who doesn t like it o Comcast Wireless companies N Watched Killing Us Softly 4 Video Dimensions of effects in movie Micro and Macro level Delayed Cumulative Mentalbehavioral Intentional kind ofUnintentional Content yes Exposure yes Change Beam is less persuaded about this one 34 yes Processes 23 yes N Three Things Needed To Establish Causal Relationship 1 Documented correlation or change 2 Established time order 3 Ruled out 3rd factors 31615 130 PM Everybody knows Article Review articles summarize issues Causal risk factor defined 0 Is a variable 0 In this case exposure to ads Reliany linked with dependent variables 0 Eating disorders negative body image 0 Increases probability of dependent variable occurring 7 Criteria to Examine Status of Mass Media as Causal Risk Factor 1 Content capable of producing effect 0 ex Content exists 2 Exposure are they actually exposed ex Citizens of all ages are saturated 3 Cross sectional correlates studies done at one time o a Metaanalytic studies or metaanalyses studies about groups of studies 0 ex Correl Btwn eating disorders and watching amount Yes Many studies look at this 4 Longitudinal correlates research over time 0 ex The Australia girl study 0 Too little amounts of studies 5 Laboratory experiments manipulation 0 a External validity 6 Lab experiments prevention 7 Studies of presumed media influencequot What did they the article conclude Engagement with mass media is probably best considered a variable risk factor Difference in notions of causality 4 standards of evidence for microlevel effect 0 Is exposure THE cause of Everybody Knowsquot o Is exposure a causal risk factor for Researchers have stopped thinking about the cause of a disorder as the agentquot that directly brings about the undesirable outcome Instead they emphasize variables that are reliably and usefully associated with an increase over time in the probability of an outcome Key Points 0 A few of Kilbourne s independent dependent variables 0 Four standards of evidence for Kilbourne Causality and Kilbourne s argument 0 Types of effects and Kilbourne Crosssectional longitudinal metaanalysis Review article 0 Causal risk factor 0 Everybody purpose approach conclusion Table Example Schema Mental filing cabinetsquotcategories with things that have same general characteristics Let you process information quickly in environment Stereotypes as schema Schema are distorted reflect majority view of world 0 Can lead us to draw incorrect things about individuals Priming alters interpretation of world to fit what s consistent with our schemastereotypes Reasons Media Use Stereotypes 0 Fast to get point acrossbuild backstory Signals what people fit inmajority and who doesn t 0 Used for humor 4 Dangers of Stereotypinq 0 Setting types of people up as inferior 0 Doesn t capture full range of diversity in group 0 ex Not all gay men are effeminate Perception of limiting options for children 0 Doctor is man nurse is woman etc o Says that being who you are isn t culturally acceptable 31615 130 PM Crime news and racialized beliefs Reading Q For which reason did they do the survey 0 To study the relationship among variables in population of interestquot 0 EX The more children watch violent TV more likely to be violent Sample surveys or polls Respondents people who take part in survey Goals of survey research 0 Describe characteristics of population 0 Look at relationships betweenamong variables Types Crosssectional longitudinal Q Dixon s goal of his crosssectional sample survey with racial attitudes regarding TV were to o Generalize 0 Assess correlations Eliminate 3rd factors Sampling Population of interest pop Being tested Generalization When sampling try to learn things about large groups by using small groups Random sample every person in population of interest has an equal chance of being included in sample Nonrandomquot sample ADoesn t make that guarantee Hypothesis 3 REDD GREENID News exposure is positively related to the perception of blacks as violent Attention to crime news is positively related to perceptions of blacks as viol TV news trust is positively related to perceptions of blacks as violent Here s what he did 0 Content Analysis 0 LA Sample Survey 0 H3 for example o X exposure attention trust How much attention do you pay to news stories about crimequot 0 Y Perceptions of blacks as violent Blacks are peacefulquot 0 Control variables age gender education conservatism income racism ethnicity etc Here s what he found for H3 0 From content analysis 0 Lots of stereotyping of blacks as criminals From survey results 0 He was looking for a significant positive correlation btwn independent dependent variables after controlling for other 3 factors 0 No support Attention to crime news 9 greater perception of blacks as violent 0 Support Exposure to TV crime news 9 greater perception of blacks as violent 4 types of evidence for effects 0 Content yes blacks overrepresented 0 Exposure yes survey measures viewing 0 Change yes in some cases heavy viewers of TV news more likely to perceive blacks as violent than light viewers 0 Control variables to rule out 3rd factors Explanation 0 Theory of social cognition about stereotypes Theoretical mechanisms Social learning imitation with reinforcementquot Catharsis releasing your frustrationsquot Priming violent content as a triggerquot Arousal exciting the viewerquot Desensitization game overquot 31615 130 PM How do we use search engines 0 Most never look beyond first page of results 0 36 of traffic goes to lst result displayed 0 Most users trust that top results are best most relevant and unbiased returns 0 But users not knowledgeable about how search enginges work 0 Only use one or two key terms 0 Or ask questions in natural language 0 62 not aware of difference between paidunpaid results Basics of search engine algorithms 0 Factors or signals Linksclicks Freshness 0 Geolocation Language 0 Computer amp browser 0 Other Commercial Factors Preferential treatment of subsidiaries amp partners Owns YouTube 0 Partnered with Twitter 9Content from them is promoted in Google search results Content scrapinq taking content from other places and answering reader s question and credits the location like Wikipedia 0 Google places took info from Yelp for a little and didn t cite them Search Engine Optimization One does not simply get to the top of Googlequot 0 Depends on what is most popularclicked on relevant 0 Language influences as well 0 More key words 0 Write blog post in form of how someone would ask in a Google search Why is my eye twitchingquot 0 Adding lots of links on other websites around the web that goes to your website Advertising Google sells ad space through adwordsadsense 0 Gets paid when ads are CLICKED on Experiment design Q3 on hwk RQ Variables Independent name type blackwhite Dependent ad type H1 Prof Sweeney thought there is no pattern in names white or black associated with arrest records Findings Black 25 more likely than whites to be associated with arrest records statistically significant results aka very strong 0 Google algorithm learns from people clicking more on black names and produces that result more due to social bias So what She was worried for employers Why Who s discriminating q4 The companies that advertise through Google Google Searchers using Google us All of those things NationalPolitical Factors Google country engines have different pictures as Google on homepage Optimizing for what each country searches for more Made separate country Google search engines also for legal compliance Personalization factors Location Behavior Social networks Eli Pariser Ted Talk Video Filter Bubble Own personal universe of unique info BUT you don t decide or see what gets included or not Balanced info diet both things you click on oftenenjoy and things you don t click often but may enjoy 0 Info junk food AND health 0 ex Justin Bieber amp Afghanistan 0 Algorithms are making diet unbalanced and bad 0 Important to have difficult things we don t necessarily want to see so we re exposed to new things perspectives people etc Questions to think about According to Pariser how does personalized filtering impact democracy 0 Makes it worse Do you agree with Pariser Are you worried too 9Yes
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