Class notes and Study Guides 1,2, and 4
Class notes and Study Guides 1,2, and 4 SOC152A
Popular in Human Sexuality
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Anna Wynn Rodgers
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Sociology
This 80 page Bundle was uploaded by Jane Khalameizer on Tuesday March 17, 2015. The Bundle belongs to SOC152A at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Baldwin in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 313 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Sociology at University of California Santa Barbara.
Reviews for Class notes and Study Guides 1,2, and 4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/17/15
Human Sexuality Notes SOC 152A 1515 Anatomy amp Physiology ll Psychology Birth Control amp Abortion IV Sociology SEX complex mix of mental physical and emotional elements countless combinations of lust and love ranges from none of eacheither to lots of both SexlnfoOnlinecom Male and female children are very similar anatomy wise Women have a layer of fat that males do not have giving them a more curvy look Males don t have that layer of fat they are more angular Female Anatomy vulva external area mostly covered with hair mons fatty area of tissue in females right over the pubic bone stimulate females labia majora majorouter lips can be sexually stimulated can pull back when sexually aroused and expose the labia minora minor lips labia minora innerminor ipshairess more sensitive and sexually stimulating become larger and brighter with sexual arousal clitoral hood small amount of tissue over the clitoris clitoris pearl shaped structure most sensitive erogenous zone vaginal opening introitus closed space flexible tissue can enlarge and stretch hymen Annular septate cribriform parous can be stretched torn pushed aside 1715 Perineum between anus and vagina wipe toward anus Pelvic Floor Muscle PC Muscle most important Muscle that contracts when a person has an orgasm Vagina flattened tube since organs pushing down on it outer third most sensitive but still not as sensitive as clitoris Gratenburg Spot GSpot On wall of vagina next to the urethra next to vaginal wall On different locations and some don t even have it About size of a dime Can stimulate orgasm Some females ejaculate sometimes from the bladder urethra from stimulation of the G spot Cervix bottom end of uterus near the bottom end of vaginal very small baby comes through this Uterus normaltypical 1st 2nd and 3rd degrees doesn t cause problem during pregnancy divided into 3 walls endometrium builds during monthly cycle decrease PMS via Calcium Vit d myometrium myo muscle important for pushing baby out muscles go around uterus in many combinations makes up most of uterus perimetrium the tough outer layer thin makes sure uterus doesn t tear or break Oviducts aka fallopian tubes small opening spaghetti size important for women s fertility STD s harm this cilia hairlike projections constantly waving push one inch a day push egg down the tube and fimbria finger like projections pick up egg when egg comes out 2 Ovaries each ovum inside a follicle responsible for ovulation Follicle ovum one egg ova many eggs breasts nipples areola feeding baby sexual significance fat is the largest determinant of size implant makes it harder for mammograms to reveal breast cancer Male Anatomy Penis not strong correlation betw body size and penis size shape varies Glans Penis acorn like structure very sensitive after erection gt penisis are the same size Foreskin prepuce covers glans of the penis Smegma men with foreskin collect this bacteria without foreskin it just rubs off viruses can develop Uncircumcised men are more likely to contract HIV than circumcised males have 3X the risks of contracting STDs esp chlamydia along w genital warts herpes UTl s and gonorrhea Cavernous bodies corpora cavernosa there s two of them one of the main bodies that cause erection arteries will allow more blood to flow in this area capsulated in a tissue that makes them feel rigin Spongy Body corpus spongiosum surrounds urethra never feels as rigid as the cavernous bodies becomes rigid after them but still softer Urethra amp urethral opening Root of penis both crura amp bubmade of same stuff as clitoris anchoring structures so penis doesn t fall off coronaedge very sensitive and frenulum tissue very sensitive muscles affecting the penis The pubococcygeus PC muscle is one of the key pelvic floor muscle attaches to pubic bone and surrounds urethra and anus control to have more powerful orgasm scrotum sac has muscles and moves according to temperature outside Hot day strenuous activity relax and will hang lower Cold dayduring ejaculation pulls up closer to body to keep testicles warmer testicles or testes two of them has many lobes seminiferous tubules where sperm develop inside testes men produce sperm regularly number decreases as they age 13 feet long interstitial cells Leydig cells producing where male seX hormones are produced lie in between things produce testosterone more hairiness more muscles etc sperm LOTS OF IT epididymis 2 of them above and behind the testes coiled lengthy structure where the sperm spend a week or two to mature before they are expelled from the body vas deferens 2 of them if you cut them doesn t have a difference for male sexual response Male vasectomy doesn t affect ejaculate just cuts off sperm released Ejaculatory ducts 2 of them two ducts on each side that go through the middle of the prostate gland where all the fluids mingle before the man ejaculates dumped into urethra and takes them to end of the penis Prostate gland many men have issues with this produces 30 of ejaculate fluids Seminal vesicles 2 of them produces 70 of ejaculate fluids provides good environment for sperm to live in 2 bulbourethral Cowper s glands amp precum 2 pea sized shaped glands below the prostate give off a little bit of alkalinebasic fluid before man ejaculates Clear fluid sometimes may contain sperm from wet dreamnocturnal emission Function to neutralize acid of any urine left in the urethra acid damages sperm semen term for the total ejaculate or the cum breasts nipples areola 13 men enjoy breast stimulation Physiology of the sex reflex Sex Reflex Can be triggered by appropriate touch to the genitals The brain allows people to associate many different stimuli with sex once neutral stimuli can become sexual turnons turnons gt sexual response visual images gt vag lubricant or penile erect odors music sexy words 11215 2 Bodily Mechanisms that cause the sex reflex 1 vasocongestion blood flowing into the genitals 2 myotonia increased muscle tension Male Sexual response get excited quicker than females ten seconds to get an erection refractory period longer in older males than older males males can t be restimulated after orgasm all of the fluids are being refilled into the numerous tubes that are needed for the next ejaculation no sexual excitement gt plateau phase gt excitement phase erection can easily lose it Male orgasm has 2 parts emission ejaculatory inevitability lasting 23 seconds fluids pumped into ejaculatory ducts amp urethra ejaculation muscle contractions every 08 seconds squeeze out ejaculations can have muscle contractions without ejaculation Normal vs Retrograde Ejaculation Normal compressor muscles relaxed bladder muscles contracted Retrograde compressor muscles contracted bladder muscles relaxed 5 similarities of males and females sex reflex 1 descriptions given are very similar 2 sacral reflex erection vs lubrication 3 thoracic amp lumbar reflexes firmer erection vs more lubrication later emission vs feelings prior to orgasm 4 sacral reflex contractions each 08 seconds for both male and females 5 Pelvic vasocongestion blue balls vs blue vulva The Other sex not the opposite PSYCHOLOGY There is a continuum of psych theories Biological Theories A Strong and direct bio influences on behavior ll Social Learning Theories A Weak amp indirect bio influences on behavior Biology The behavior of simpler species is strongly influenced by biology gorillas do face to face stuff recognize as individuals Social Learning Theory During human evolution there was an increase in brain cortex size that led to an increasing learning capacity Cortex part of brain for learning memory and thought advanced mammal large cortex In humans learning can cover up almost all biological differences in male or female behavior 11415 The learning of Sexual Behavior Many kids discover Masturbation by 2 years of age 1 Explore touching their bodiesa natural act for babies 2 touch to the genitals emotional feelings a biologically wirein pleasure primary reinforcer 3 leading to their repeating genital touching 4 multiple repetitions lead to increased chances of orgasm Punishment suppresses behaviour if it is strong enough Can come from Parents accidental sources sign from Gd dog jumping on bed mechanical devices devices to prevent masturbation clitoris removed Old View Masturbation led to insanity because deprived brain of blood old 18s mental hospitals led people to masturbation Today Masturbation seen as normal and natural natural commonplace amp usually healthy Masturbation is bad only if done in such excess that a person ceases interacting with others amp ceases learning normal social skills Masturbation to internet sex many hours a day is becoming increasingly common amp can create problems Masturbation done repeatedly with fantasies of inappropriate sex eg sex with kids rape gt deviant turnons Person has a willing sex partner but masturbates instead Taboos against Masturbation are weakening Females are slower to learn to Masturbate genitals are smaller hence they re less likely to discover the pleasure of masturbation Females receive more punishment for masturbation than males receive hence learn more inhibitions about doing it This deprives females of important learning about their sexuality Mom s are 3X more likely to discuss morality of Masturbation with daughters than with sons Childhood learning via curiosity observation and exploration Childhood sex is mostly simple curiosity not based on complex adult motivations or sexual interpretations hence parents should not read in homosexuality to same sex curiosity Simple curiosity not penis envy old freudian theory Female decline more inhibitions laid on girls about each others sexuality Kids get sex info Friends 1 resource reading mother father school Create teachable moments situations that will pique a child s curiosity gt natural motivation to ask Q s and learn eg while bathing nude in bathroom changing at the pool Don t just teach about sex show partner interactions as affectionate loving and caring Adolescent learn via experimentation peer group info books mags videos the internet etc early sex adventures We do not assume that everyone is typical variability normal and natural Females vs males 1st time having sex Males experience more pleasure than females Females experience more guilt than males Males experience more anxiety than females Orgasm on 1st time males 79 Females 7 People who had orgasm on 1st sex enjoyed it most 27 enjoyed it first time females 70 males enjoyed it first time 11614 On avg males have more sexual interest than females During puberty sexual arousal begins earlier for boys Sexual arousal occurs more often for boys Sexual arousal is more intense and distracting for boys than girls more related to being in a romantic relationship for girls sexual arousal comes at night as nocturnal erections often leading to masturbation nocturnal orgasms or wet dreams Nocturnal orgasms are more common in boys than girls Most common sources of sex arousal for hetero boys nude female for girls romantic book or movies Males get more visual turn ons than females especially if they masturbate to visual images Sunday Broida 1610 11am to 1 pm Thursday Girvetz 1004 79 pm For many young men sexall pleasure with no costs Teen boys don t know what s happening during spontaneous erections nocturnal orgasms and masturbation amp no one tells them not to pair these positives with thoughts of rape incest pedophma hence boys can accidentally learn deviant sexual turnons to rape incest pedophma Penis doesn t teach empathy social responsibility or concern for others although males can learn these at any age A college study females see friendly behavior males see more flirtation seductiveness and sexiness than females see This can lead to major misunderstandings males perceiving sexual invitations that females did not intend A large proportion of rates are commited by someone known by the victim Communication problems can lead to RAPE Erotic kissing touching and dancing do not mean person wants sex Alcohol liquid courage Alcohol affects females 2x more powerfully than males Date rape drugs odorless and tasteless eg roofies rohypnol GHB Can knock a person out leaving a person with no memory of abuse Females tend to be less interested in sex Females often have fearsinhibitions about sex i worries about pregnancy and STDs and the female culture passes on caution messages to females even those who haven t had personal experience with pregnancy or STDs ii females worry about being labeled loose or a slut iii sex anxieties based on prior incest rape or abuse Sexual exploitation among teens males tend to be more exploitive Many males are under strong pressure to become sex experts thus many want to have multiple sexual partners and sexual experiences 30 of young men feel it is okay to say I love you to get a female to have sex More females feel sorry after fst sex Studies show 64 of college males admit having used enough force to get sex that she cried fought screamed or pleaded not to have sex 3 predators doing 90 of rapes Research shows rapists under peer pressure to score Males who are exposed to these peer pressures to rape must resist them rape sex a crime respectful sex a joy Review 11815 Female Anatomy location structure function Vulva entire external genital area in a woman crotch Mons Veneris AKA mons Fatty tissue covered by skin and pubic hair Can be sexually stimulated has erotic sensitivity Labia Majora outer lips Extend from mons downward Padded with fatty tissue and pubic hair Contains nerve endings erotically sensitive Labia Minora inner lips filled with glands blood vessels and nerve endings very sensitive vasocongestionduring arousal swell and darken vestibule space in between Hairless Vestibule urethral opening Vaginal opening Clitoris located where labia minora meet forming the tip of vestibule Made up of the shaft and glans glandexternal portion pearl sized and very sensitive made of a single corpus spongiosum covered by clitoral hood shaft is the internal portion and is comprised of two corpora cavernosa which are erectile tissues men have similar structures Both have erectile properties and are erotically sensitive Crura Internal extensions of clitoris give a wishbone shape About 3 inches long and partially enwrap the urethra Vestibular Bulbs Also associated with the clitoris Curved erectile tissue that surround vestibule and underlie labia minora Erection of bulbs help to lengthen and stiffen vagina during sexual arousal Vaginal Openings AKA introitus Can be covered by incomplete membranous fold of skin called the hymen Hymen has one or several openings to allow flow of menstrual blood No known function cultural significance Sign of virginity Perineum Erotically sensitive area between vaginal opening and anus Area cut during episiotomy Pelvic Floor Muscles Associated with internal portions of the clitoris Steady contraction during sex stiffens vaginal walls Contract more strongly at orgasm increasing pleasure preventing urinary leakage and keeping semen in the vagina PC muscle increasing tone of these muscles can increase sexual satisfaction Kegel musclescan increase tone of PC practicepractice practice Female Circumcision Sunnah Removal or incision of clitoral hood Clitoridectomy Removal of entire clitoral glans and shaft and hood Sometimes labia minora lnfibulation Removal of entire labia minora and inner parts of labia majora Labia majora sewn together to leave only a small passage Makes penetration extremely painful Read more in Box 22 on page 3738 Female Reproductive System Vagina DYING Uterus Cervix Location outermost portion of the reproductive tract Structure Vaginal wall is highly elastic consists of 3 layers Mucosa intermediate muscular fimbroelastic Func on transport sperm serves as birth canal Physiological changes during arousal vasoconges on lubnca on lnhabited by large numbers of friendly bacteria DOUCHING pg 40 Grafenberg Spot Area of increased sensitivity within front wall of the vagina Primary source of female ejaculation is the bladder Not all women report this sensitivity aka the womb Location lies within the pelvic cavity Structure A small hollow upside down pear shaped organ Has 3 layers endometrium builds during menstruation and gets shedl Myometrium Muscular layer that holds everything in Perimetrium tough outer layer that makes sure the uterus doesn t tear or break Function Carries the developing fetus until term Read section of uterinecervicalendometrial cancer on 4445 Location at the back of the vagina bottomsmall end of the uterus Structure Function separates the uterus from the vagina Holds the fetus in the uterus until delivery Oviducts Cilia The Os Constricted opening of cervix that connects vagina to a short canal opening into the uterus aka fallopian tubes Location forms a pathway between uterus and left and right ovaries Structure 4 inches long about the diameter of spaghetti Func on this is where fertilization takes place Location inside oviduct Structure small hair like structures Function Their movement propels the ovum from each ovary to the uterus Implantation occurs in the endometrium Fimbria Location Ovary side of each oviduct Structure Fingerlike projections near the oviducts catch the actual egg from overies gt cilia start moving around and propel the egg towards the uterus Ovaries Menstruation Function Catch ovum Female gonads Location located on either side of the uterus Structure egg shaped 115 inch paired organs Function release of mature ova in a process called ovulation Production and secretion of sex hormones SEE TABLE 21 on PG 48 Vaginal discharge of endometrial tissue and blood Experience at approx monthly intervals during fertile years carries greatly most cycles lasting between 24 and 32 days Attitudes toward menstruation vary box 26 Tampons pads and alternatives on pg 5354 diva cup keeper cup instead cup The menstrual cycle has 3 phases Menstrual phase menstrual flow is occurring Preovulatory phase end of menstruation to ovulation Postovulatory phaseovulation to menstruation Problems Nausea headaches Menstrual cramps sharp painsdull aches within the lower abdomen or pelvis Dysmenorrhea painful menstruation severe enough to limit a woman s activities Breast Cancer 180000 American women diagnosed each year 1 in 8 American Women will develop the disease Mastectomy surgical removal of the affected breast increaseddecreased risk of breast cancer genes age reproductive history alcohol obesity exercise medical history hormones Early detection is IMPORTANT periodic breast exams mammography see box 26 on pg 63 about Breast Self Examination treatments and its effects on an active sex life on pg 6465 Male Genetalia Penis Developmentally equivalent to the clitoris Functionally corresponds to clitoris urethra and vagina all in one involved in arousal urination and transfer of sperm Shaft Contains 3 erectile structures Two corpora cavernosa which lie side by side one corpus spongiosum which lies at midline and extends to form glans All three structures extend into the body to form the root of the penis Glans head formed by corpus spongiosum Corona rim of glans Frenulum loose strip of skin on underside of glans erotitically sensitive Read about foreskin and circumcision on p 7172 Scrotum AKA scrotal Sac Loose bag of skin that contains two testicles Lightly covered with hair and is sexually arousing in most men Testicles Location in scrotum Structure twin egg shaped structures Function produce sperm secrete sex hormones ovaries in women Epididymis Location One on each testicle Structure Convoluted tube Function Site of sperm maturation and storage Vas Deferens AKA the vas Location in between the epididymis and the ejaculatory duct Structure tube Function Transport and storage of mature sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct Ejaculatory Duct Locationstructure Two ducts connecting vas to urethra formed by the junction of the vas and duct of seminal vesicle Function empties into the urethra within the prostate Can fracture it usually when woman is on top Seminiferous tubules Location Majority of the internal structure that occupy the testes Located inside each testicle Structure convoluted microscopic tubes Function Production of sperm spermatogenesis Each man produces about 150 million sperm per day Interstitial cells lie between tubules and produce hormones Prostate Gland Location located at the base of the bladder that surrounds the urethra Structure A single gland is slightly larger than a walnut Function prostrate secretions a cloudy alkaline fluid are a major component of semen boxes 33 and 34 pgs 81 84 disorders of the testicles and prostate gland Seminal Vesicles Location situated to either side of the prostate located behind the bladder Structure Two glands Function Not storage areas for sperm add their own secretions to semen Bulbourethra Glands and Precum aka cowper s glands Location near the root of the the penis below the prostate gland Structure two peasized glands Function their secretions often called precum are excreted prior to ejaculation Note precum can often contain residual semen from prior ejaculations Semen Thick cloudy off white liquid expelled from the male urethra at ejaculation usually about 1 tsp full sperm 1 volume of semen 99 combination of fluids secreted by prostate 30 o and the seminal vesicles 70 o Emission vs Ejaculation vs orgasm Attractiveness involves many senses Touch hearing and smell all play important roles in determining attractiveness women find men with lower pitched voices more attractive Men prefer higher pitched voices in women Specific pheromones influence sexual arousal unconsciously through olfactory mechanisms Behavior influences attractiveness Behavioral Beauty Partially independent of physical beauty Behaviorpersonality influences ideas of attractiveness slower Perceptions of trustworthiness warmth and a sense of humor important traits when choosing a partner even if it is only casual sex or hooking up pgs 139140 Familiarity both increases and decreases attraction faces seen before judged more attractive Habituation decline in response to a stimulus or drug after repeated or prolonged exposure similar to coolidge Effect pg 141 Counteracting sexual habitation increasingnew forms of novelty eg new positions practices locations Love Falling in love greatly increases the physical and behavioral attractiveness of a panner Perceived attractiveness varies around the menstrual cycle W prefer M with more masculine faces near ovulation Evolutionary psychology women look for good genes when most fertile W are also more attractive to men during ovulation Some people do not experience sexual attraction Asexual incapable of experiencing sexual attraction Asexual people may desire romantic intimacy but do not want to express that desire physically different from sexual abstinence Asexual say it has both and effects on their lives Fantasy Fantasy is a common mode of sexual arousal Fantasy an imagined experience sexual or otherwise eg mentally undressing classmates during a boring lecture M engage in sexual fantasy more than women Content of sexual fantasies vary greatly Fantasy gender differences in content of fantasies The only behavior that women fantasized about more often than M was getting married Men are more adventurous in their fantasies Women fantasize about behaviors that they have already engaged in while men fantasize about activities they have never engaged in Gaylesbian fantasies are similar to straight fantasies Men and women fantasies ten to be consistent with stereotypes about men and women sexuality ex Male fantasies involve taking a dominant role in sex acts Women fantasize about taking a passive role People who enjoy sexual fantasies without feelings of guilt have a more satisfying sex life Not unhealthy for a woman to have sexual fantasies about engaging rapesexual coercion bc the woman is running the show and can end it when she wants unlike actual sexual assault Arousal Man and woman aroused by partner s faces Men aroused psychologically and genitally by erotic images associated with their sexual orientation Women aroused physically by erotic images of both women and men regardless of sexual orientation Hormones Influence Sexual Arousal Testosterone no short term influence on arousal in Men or Women Sexual activity triggers testosterone increase but high testosterone does not triggger an increase in sexual desue Testosterone influences arousability in adult men Found in tests on boys undergoing puberty increases in testosterone paired with increases in sexual feelings MEn can by Hypogonadal producing insufficient levels of sex hormones leads to decrease in sexual desireactivity Aphrodisiacs in box 52 Conditioning may influence arousal Classicalpavlovian conditioning a form of learning in which a novel stimulus is linked with a preexisting reflex used to explain development of fetishes and unusual sexual behavior Sexual Arousal follows a response cycle Excitement phase genetial response begins Response in Women Swellingopeningdeepening in color of the labia minoravaginal wall vasocongestion Vaginal lubrication Erection of clitoris and nipples Swelling of breasts uterus swells and elevates increased HR Response in Men Erection of penis takes place in under a minute1O secondsD Elevation of testicles Nipples become erect Duration of excitement phase varies 1 min to 1 hr Plateau Phase arousal is maintained lasts 1 minseveral hours Response in women Thickeningtightenings of the walls of the outer third of the vagina Vaginal canal narrows Glans of clitoris goes under clitoral hood Breasts swell specifically the areolae Sex flush and myotonia Response in Males pre cum secretions from bulbourethral glands Increased myotonia Orgasm The climax of sexual arousal Orgasm the intense pleasurable sensation at sexual climax and physiological process that accompany them felt as a brief series of muscle contractions RR HR and BP peak In males orgasm followed by 2 genital events emission semen is loaded into urethra ejaculation semen is expelled women mal ejaulate also retrograde ejaculation can be painful semen goes into bladder Resolution Phase Arousal subsides physiological signs reverse Psychological arousal subsides full resolution takes 15 min Multiple orgasms Series of orgasm and in between person descends only to plateau phase much more common in women than men Refractory Period Period of time after a man orgasms during which further sexual stimulation does not lead to a renewed erection or second orgasm Typically lasts 3090 minutes depending on age absolute vs relative refractory period Masturbation Sexual selfstimulation Some include manual stimulation of a partner Many diff attitudes demographic factors influence masturbation The average woman more likely to experience orgasm from masturbating than through pv sex Women tend to take more time to reach orgasm than men through masturbation Gay people masturbate more than heterosexuals report greater pleasure from masturbation Some forms of childhood sexual expression are common The study of childhood sexuality faces practical difficulties little direct observation of children by researches difficult to reach definitive conclusions about childhood sexuality Primates wide variety of sexual behaviors early in life UCLA study young children who saw their parents naked or engaging in sex were no more likely to have psychological problems in later childhood or adolescence than children who did not tendency was to actually have fewer problems Some children engage in solitary sexual activity Erections detected in fetuses Erections in young boys generalized arousal response not necessarily sexually oriented Ex Excitement from games or other non sexual stimuli Sex with others can occur during childhood showing genitals to adults or other children Attempting to view the genitals of others solitaryinterpersonal sexual behavior by children seems harmless Girls experience more negative feelings towards sexual experiences socializationgender role stereotypes Cultures vary in their attitudes toward childhood sexuality restraints on childhood sexual behavior are stronger in societies in which sexual restraint is expected of the adult population Magai and Chewan people as sex positive societies Some Children have Sexual contacts with adults 15 o of women and 7 of men report childhood sexual experience with adult most are single incidents most involve relatives and or family friends pgs 317318 harmful consequences Preadolescence may be marked by an increase in sexual interest info abt sexuality spread through peer networks sex segregated yrs at this time gender norms become stricter gender norms may traumatize pregay children internalization of homophobic attitudes begins Pubertal growth spurt occurs earlier in girls than boys changes occur during puberty girls pubic hair labia become prominent vagina deepens vaginal walls thicken Female breasts develop Onset of menstruation boys enlargement of testes and scrotum lengthening and thickening of penis pubic hair voice box gros fst ejaculation generally occurs 13 Causation Critical body weight girls 66 lbs boys120lbs Primary Amenorrhea failure to begin menstrating at puberty secondary amenorrhea cessation of menstruation at some time after menarche precocious puberty puberty that begins too early 12115 From 152A total number sex partners in lifetimemost males and females are at 12 level but males tend to round up females tend to round down KINKY SEXXXXXY TIMES 5 steps to bd or BDSM bondage domination sadism mass Playing kinky games creates Novelty a fun game a which rewards exploring step 1 until the novelty of step 1 wears off Then there are rewards for moving up to step 2 which is still novel even after step 1 has lost its novelty pins down on the bed ties gently ties tighter slaps hits People can learn from videos books pictures Many people find it play not pain GROWN UP SEX AKA ADULT SEX Studies show that people can have good sex into the 70s and 803 In most cases the decline is not bioage determined The decline can result from many causes decreasing novelty of sex amp how to prevent that increasing competing responses kids jobs commuting PTAetcetc increased negative associations with sex Marital discord decline in general health maintain i healthy body weight ii strenuous cardio exercise iii don t smoke Research on Date Rapists DRs Use Seductive Techniques ST more than do nonrapists Alcohol drugs lying Used at least one ST in college DR 93 NR 40 Felt lots of peer pressure to get sex DR in HS 85 NR in HS 26 DR in college 40 NR in college 9 DRs had more peer experience with gangbangs fixedup sex and females recommended by a friend DRs peers expect males to have males to have more sex than most college males do leading DRs to be frustrated with their sex life 7900 3200 Males who are exposed to these peer pressures to rape must resist them Is it true that males peak sexual around age 20 and females peak around 3035 12615 STDs Sexually Transmitted Diseases used to be called VD STls Sexually Transmitted Infections Even if no disease symptoms are present eg HIV vs AIDS Knowing about STDs can help you avoid contracting them expensive therapies sterilization ectopic pregnancies and much grief Females are at 2x greater risk of harm from STDs than males eg sterilization Females are 2x or more as likely to pick up an STD than males as the numbers of partners go up viral infections bacterial infections are not as severe UCSB Student health Center friendly and supportive abt difficult issues UCSB 8 of sexually active undergraduates had a STD in lifetime 10 of the females 4 of the males The important STDsSTls 1 Chlamydia not common at UCSB though it is common in USA with 12m cases reported per yr in US a 2 of sexually active UCSB Ps have had it 4 of females lt1 of males b 70 oasymptomatic but it can cause i PID ii ectopic pregnancy later iii sterilization c Moves up into the reproductive organs d symptoms I itching or pain ii burning on urination iii discharge e complications i in the man 1 prostatitis 2 epididymitis 3 sterility ii in the woman 1 cervicitis 2 PID 3 sterility f drugs not responsible for name i oral azithromycin ii given to both people even if one has no symptoms g 34 months after their 1st treatment ends people should be tested again CDC h Sexually active females should be tested every year up to ages 24 and at doctor s discretion after that age i Danger to the newborn if mother is infected i eye infections can happen at any age ii pneumonia 2 Genital Warts in the USA 20 m People are currently infected and can infect others a 3 of sexually active UCSB people have had them 4 of females 2 of males b Caused by a virus HPV similar to but not the same as warts on the hand c There are over 100 strains of HPV i 30 gt Genital warts ii a few gt cervical cancer iii 13 of genital warts are precancerous in females 1 cervical cancer is rather easily cured so get PAP tests iv 70 of college have HPV or antibodies to it showing that they have had it v HPV can be asymptomatic showing no symptoms d Anal cancer is becoming more common due to HPV i People can be tested for anal cancer e At least 72 of throat cancers are caused by HPV16 and oral sex with multiple partners f 1st outbreak 6 weeks to 8 months after infection i avg3 months ii can lie dormant for years 1 no symptoms but contagious iii HPV makes it way to the immature cells through tiny abrasions in the skin gt infects immature skin cells and slowly replicates as they develop gt dead skin cells stuffed with virus are sloughed off infecting healthy cells g Some HPV strains cause lesions and some lesions turn cancerous when the virus interferes with the cells ability to divide i doctors suspect external factors like smoking h Genital warts i go away spontaneously 20 of people ii controlled by MDs 60 of people iii Very difficult to control 20 of people 1 causing much grief and sometimes expense i People may have persistent HPV and be contagious even if the warts are in remission and no sores are visible i If the MD finds no warts 6 mo later the person is PROBABLY not spreading the disease ii A vaccine against HPV gives nearly 100 protection vs 2 strains that cause warts and 2 that cause cervical cancer iii Gardasil 100 free for females and males with GHI 1 given at 1112 9 in some cases up through 26 years old 2 Best when given before sexually active iv Pearly Penile Papules NOT AN STD 1 natural variation on how human body can look can be on clit 3 Genital Herpes a 1 million new casesyr in USA i 1 of sexually active UCSB P have had it 1 of males and females b Herpes 1 cold sores i 70 in the mouth ii 30 on genitals iii Canker sores are different ulceration of mouth NOT ST c Herpes 2 mostly in the genitals but in the mouth too d In USA 16 of People 1449 yrs have herpes 2 e Outbreaks cycles i typical 1st infection worst and lasts the longest gt starts outbreaking closer together and gets less frequent and less severe ii enters the skin gets into sensory nerves and comes up spinal cord and take up residency in the lower area and then it can come down to skin area and cause blisters in general area where it entered the skin f Median 6 outbreaks in 1st year i 3 outbreaks in 5th year g Triggers i sunburn ii stress iii certain foods h Herpes can be transmitted when people have no symptoms i No cure for herpes but there are drugs j avoid passing herpes to baby at time of birth amp risking baby s health MD may do a Csection k THINK POS i people who fear they can do little to control herpes have more frequent and more negative recurrences ii Support groups help too I Herpes can get in the eye 4 Hepatitis B a can be spread via sex b vaccine 3 shots 5 Hepatitis A a from feces if you do oral anal sex i or eat foods prepared by infected people with poor bathroom hygiene 1 2 shots can protect you 6 Gonorrhea a 80 of females have no symptoms b and most males have symptoms c thus he should tell his partners if he gets gonorrhea How to decrease the risk of STDs condoms help but not perfect BIGGEST CAUSE OF STDs ALCOHOL Very sexually active people should be tested for HIV Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis at least once a year and vaccinated for hepatitis A and B DONT DOUCHE unless an MD says you should cuz of increased risk of bv PID AIDS etc AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome it takes about 10 years for HIV to cause AIDS Protease inhibitors combined w ASZT 3TCetc reduce most people s AIDS symptoms People with HIV can live 25 years with new drugs at cost of 500000 dollars 13 of gay and bisexual men are HIV positive of new HIV cases per year has gone up 25 in recent years from 40000 to 50000 from early 20003 to today High risk people of 5 of UCSB non virgins Very high risk People 2 of currently sexually active people had 4 or more vag partners in last 3 months 50 of all cases of STDs are caused by 5 of the people 4 partnersyear serious risk to self and others of partners of unknown partners 0 1 5 20 64 257 920 3368 13554 GDCIIO O IIgtCJOI L UCSB and AIDS For vaginal sex only 32 use condoms 100 of the time 53 ave condom use in last 3 months For anal sex only 26 use condoms 100 of the time 28 avg condom use in last 3 months Anal sex once or more in life among hetero nonvirgins 22 of females avg14 sz 23 of males avg17 pxs riskiest form of sexual behavior Anal sex is esp risky since rectal wall is very thin compared with vag wall oralltvaginalltanal risk Average condom use anal sex in past 3 months Heterosexuals 28 Homosexuals 72 It is wise to abstain from anal sex if you can Use condoms and lots of lubrication if you cant No anal sex without a condom very risky amp use fresh condoms before entering any other orfice Decades ago interfemoral sex used to be more common than anal sex and its safer too Oral sex can transmit HIV esp if there are sores in the mouth STDs cold sores bleeding gums you ve bit your cheek or lip There s a home test for HIV Emergency Help if Exposed to HIV See an MD ASAP amp ask for PEP postexposure Prophylaxis Begin the pills ASAP to decrease your risk of HIV infection by 80 In this era of AIDS it is OK if not imperative to talk with your partner about STDs Willingness to deceive Would lie about positive HIV test 20 males would 4 females would Would underestimate of prior partners Males 47 Females 42 Have told a lie in order to get sex males 34 females 10 Lied about ejac control or likelihood of pregnancy males 38 females14 Have you been sexually unfaithful F 2100 MI 2000 UCSB sexually active people 40 wait 1 month or more before starting sex Though only 4 know that Males are more likely to give HIV to females than vise versa Thus females wise to demand safe sex Pregnancy and Childbirth Today about 20 of couples do not have kids vs 10 in 1980 The human conceptus at the 2 cell stage 5 days Is abortion murder Pelvic Inflammatory Disease can lead to ectopic pregnancy 90 occur in oviducts Ectopic pregnancy any pregnancy that is not in the normal place in the uterus Ectopic pregnancy is increasing used to be 41000 live births Now is over 171000 PID can also lead to sterilization each time increases your chance TYPES OF CHILDBIRTH Natural childbirth painful high risk of death for mother and infant Squatting Standing Kneeling 100 yrs ago 333 females died100000 births today the ratio is that 10 die Full anesthesia Problems Women can t help push baby out anesthesia gt medical risks to mom it depresses baby s biological systems less vigorous sucking less milk thus slower early growth and decreased ability to fight off diseases Partial anesthesia problems similar to full anesthesia but reduced Analgesia barbiturates tranquilizers Prepared childbirth DickReed educational loan should help get through pregnancy without much pain Lamaze brought education in other techniques to help women to make pain less intense Distraction from pain focus on more POS alternatives to pain relaxation exercises PX provides comfort love care coaching other variations Leboyer bath of warm water when the baby comes out quiet music less traumatizing reduces chance of baby start life crying Caesarean section Csection have been increasing 13 of births Used to do an Episiotomy to avoid tearing during childbirth Episiotomy about 4 Review Sessions Thursday 630830 Buchanan 1910 Sunday 11001 00 Broida 1610 2415 In general males make themselves bigger and females make themselves smaller Androgyny having both masculine and feminine interests and behaviors 1st people are tested to see if traditional or Androgenyous then paired as TT or AA Traditional male and female are distant in interests and communication styles and do not coordinate well Androgynous female and male are closer in interests and communication styles finding it easy and rewarding to interact and share UCLA study how heterosexual people are perceived by their partners rank their partners on a scale of masculinity to femininity male partners got rated as more adrogynous females got rated as more stereotypically female males feared being perceived as selfcentered insensitive machos females feared being too assertive and competent people tend to become more adrogynous with age gender stereotypes bigger when we re young and closer as we get older Why are females and males often quite different There are biological influences eg prenatal testosterone affects the brain leading boys to be rowdier than girls Testosterone effects are noticeable by age 2 In addition society creates strong pressure for kids to learn traditional gender roles starting at birth Parents know the Gender role stereotypes girls fragile and mild mannered boys rowdy Sci obs show no beh diffs in baby girls and boys Yet parents a read it in b treat girls and boys differently i shelter the girls ii roughhouse the boys From birth parents track girls and boys on different tracks fostering dependence for girls and independenceforboys Boys get increasingly rowdy while girls get increasingly social and verbal Parents give girls and boys different rooms clothing toys etc fostering different behavior Girls are trained to talk and think more about their emotions than boys especially sad emotions Boys are not taught to talk and think much about their emotions especially fear Parents role models for different gender roles and kids imitate Many males are raised to want to save the world or make some great contribution These different gender roles can take males and females in very different directions in life sometimes impeding close malefemale relations Teachers like girls because girls behave correctly in school environment sitting quietly being verbal teachers reward girls for these behaviors Boys have more problems adjusting to school Hurt by lower verbal skills and higher aggressive behavior rowdy impulsive ADD Boys fall behind in verbal and social skills Girls fall behind in athletic and physical skills and few females pursue math related careers Mass media kids spend 7hrsday watching screens TV often presents distorted views of sex and gender roles Does TV affect kids comparing heavy viewer kids w light viewer kids heavy viewers had more stereotyped views of male and female behavior When kids are allowed to watch commercials with females in non stereotyped roles kids develop less stereotyped views of female and male behavior Society in general has many examples of males in roles of power and control females in support roles Peer group by age 1011 years peers socialize boys and girls quite differently 2615 Sexual Turn ons can help enrich sex lives People learn sexual turnons via Pavlovian conditioning aka classical conditioning when some new stimulus gets paired with sex see pg 150 Examples of sex turn ons images of nude bodies being touched as in erotic play words associated with sex etc etc Stimuli present 1 while mastrubating or 2 during coitus become sexual turn ons that can arouse sexual urges positive feelings The more sexrelated stimuli that a person pairs with masturbation or coitus the more turnons the person will develop Males typically get more turnons for sex than females though that is changing Do males and females turn on to the same thing Study 1 Physiological measures penis collars that record the penis engorgement vagina stick that measures blood flow assigned to 1 of 4 different audios of malefemale interactions erotic sexual sounds only erotic and romantic romantic no sex no romance the control group Erotic erotic and romantic high turn on for both males and females low for just romantic and control for males and females Among people who were sexually aroused 0 of males did not notice their erection 42 of females didn t feel any sex arousal 63 didn t feel vaginal lubrication Females sexual response subtle hard to notice based on tiny changes in female body compared with penile erection Females can be sexually aroused and not be aware of it whereas males are usually aware of it Study 2 on Male and female bio arousal to five different videos and awareness therof hetero sex gay male sex lesbian sex nude male exercising nude female sex eases Bio arousal of hetero males ace Gay males bd The males knew what turned them on females were much less aware actual arousal hetero females abc some were aroused by d and some arousal to e actual arousal lesbian females c and some arousal to e awareness of bio arousal hetero females a awareness of bio arousal lesbian females c e Summary Females are less aware than males about what turns them on and when they are turned on Females can have bio responses without being accurately aware of them Sex Therapy and Enrichment SEX TECHNIQUES Sex problems in 100 happy couples 40 of males had some problems 63 of females had some problems Females Little lubrication Hard to orgasm No orgasm Lack of interest painful intercourse Males No orgasm Lack of interest Painful intercourse Hard to stay erect Ejaculate too quickly Therapy and enrichment Increase the positive turnons for sex Decrease the negative turnoffs of fear guilt shame etc 5 ways to increase the positive turn ons for sex 1 Sensate focus learning how to enjoy being touched and caressed 2 Pleasuring learning how to touch your partner in ways that feel most positive 3 Advance in small steps starting with nonsexual pleasures and moving toward full sexual interaction 4 Therapists serve as models of sensitive communication how to talk about sex and interpersonal needs in gentle considerate manners 5 Encouragement a sex therapy has a high success rate which is encouraging to learn b People see quick progress as they advance through therapy Reduce the negatives in 2 ways 1 stop spectatoring a stop being a spectator of your own sexual response All that thinking is distracting b give your mind a rest c allow your partner to give you your favorite stimulation and the sex reflex will operate nicely 2 Avoid performance anxiety a Stop worrying about your ability to achieve some sexual goal b There is no goal c Just try lots of different things and see which ones feel good d Learn which sexual techniques work best for you and which don t MIDTERM 2 REVIEW BIZNITCH Chapter 13 Fetishism Sexual arousal by inanimate objects object fetishism ex shoes lingerie substances media fetishism ex latex leather body parts partialism Ex feet legs At what point is someone classified as a fetishist The book promotes that someone can be called a fetishist even if they are not diagnosable as having a mental disorder The Internet plays a large role in normalizing variant forms of sexual expression SEE BOX 131 on Rubber Fetishism and the Internet Cross Dressing To wear the clothing of the other sex for any variety of reasons Doing Drag exaggeratedly feminine worn by a man entertainment purposes Transgendered Cross Dressing May be a vital expression of gender identity Erotic arousal is NOT a primary motivator Transvestic Fetishism or transvestism Heterosexual men wear women s clothes for sexually arousing purposes see pg 410 and Box 132 on pg 411 Sadomasochism lnvolves the infliction or receipt of pain or degradation Sadism sexual arousal by the infliction of pain Masochism sexual arousal by experiencingreceiving pain Can be physical andor psychological Forced submission is the key erotic element May include bondage use of physical restraint and dominance use of humiliation or subservience Know what BDSM and PID means Watch Fetishespandora s box BDSM Acronym given as an all inclusive term for bondage dominance or discipline and sadomasochism 412413 Adult Babies Adults who obtain sexual gratification from acting as a baby or toddler 413414 Feeling at ease safe not always for sexual gratification comfort Paraphilia Problematic and unusual sexual desire or behavior considered to be a psychological problem pgs 414 to 415 Three main issues to consider cannot be considered absolute criterion Is there distress Is the behavior required for arousal Is there a victim Exhibitionism Exposing genitalia to nonconsenting persons flasher ln legal terms this is the crime of indecent exposure The women s reaction is rewarding behavior to the exhibitionist so the best thing to do is to stay calm and walk away Usually shy men who lack social skills express feelings of inadequacy Usually its men who expose themselves to women 99 V0 eurism spying on persons while they are undressing naked or engaged in sex peepers Very common Often masterbate to it Frotteurism Touching or rubbing the clothed genitals against a stranger without their consent or without their knowledge often in a crowded place in a subway Some adults are sexually aroused by children Pedophilia and child molestation not identical Pedophile a person who s sexual feelings directed towards prepubescent children some molest children some may not Child molester an adult who has sexual contact with a prepubescent child PAGE 419 It is still uncertain whether pedophiles have distinctive personalities We do know that the capacity for sexual arousal by children is not rare Some organizations support minorattracted people B4UACT organization works to promote mental health services public understanding and mutual support for minorattracted persons help lead fulfilling lives while remaining within the law NAMBLA advocates the abolition of all ageofconsent laws North American ManBoy Love Association Opposes age of consent laws Legal age of consent varies significantly between jurisdictions Telephone Scatalogia Sexual arousal from making obscene telephone calls to unwilling recipients Does not cover prank phone calls or phone sex Obscene telephone callers sexually aroused by the reaction of the woman Will often masterbate during it Zoophma Preference for sexual contacts with animals Bestiality sexual contact between a person and an animal Most often occurs during preadolescenceadolescence and can hardly be considered a paraphilia usually happens when you re living on a farm Necrophilia Sexual arousal from viewing or having contact with dead bodies rare Some men are turned on by having their living partners play dead may not be considered harmful behavior KNOW LAMAZE METHOD teach breathina techniques birthina process both partners trained Autorerotic asphyxia self strangulation for purposes of sexual arousal BOX 135 on pg 426 Creates hypoxia inadequate oxygen upon release creates a more intense orgasm dangerous many people die Make sure you have a spotter Sex offenders do not necessarily repeat their offenses as a group are less likely to repeat offenses than are people convicted of many other kinds of crimes Megan s Laws Certain factors intellectual disability alcohol abuses history of are associated with an increase in recidivism likelihood that they ll repeat offend Theories of Paraphilia Biological factors May run in families May result from a disconnection in brain regions that regulate sexual expression Damage to certain brain regions Learning Processes ClassicalPavlovian conditioning modification of behavior by learning through association andor reinforcement Courtship Disorder pg 430 Some paraphilias seen as a disorder of normal courtship behavior stage 1location and evaluation of a potential sex partner vs paraphilia voyeurism stage 2 initial nontactile interactions vs paraphilia exhibitionism and obscene telephone calling stage 3tactile interactions embracingampfondling vs paraphiliafrotteurism stage 4genital sex vs paraphilic rape May represent a sexual escape route Some people may become paraphiliacs due to blockage of normal avenues of sexual expression May be very deficient in social skills looks to alternative routes of sexual expression Not a conclusive theory Cycle of Abuse cycle in which some abused children grow up to repeat similar forms of abuse on others not a conclusive theory Behavioral Approaches Aversion therapy attempt to help paraphiliacs unlearn their paraphilias and relearn normal sexual desires ex Alcoholism makes you sick Psychotherapeutic Approaches cognitive therapy which attempts to correct paraphiliac s way of thinking neither behavioral or psychotherapeutic approaches have proven to be very effective masturbatory reconditioning use it to redirect desires don t masterbate to children Drug Treatments Biological Approaches Using drugs to decrease testosterone levels or block effects Some appear to be effective but have some serious side effects Do not cure paraphilias but rather may decrease desire and arousal all together Castration Controversial method could be more effective than other treatments for the prevention of sexual recidivism Life Experiences Influence Gender Gender molded by socialization Gender is imposed from birth Primary social influence is family Influence attitudes and behaviors through dressing children decorating surroundings toys etc Other influences are exerted by teachers peer groups etc lnfants receiving approval for gender typical behavior make gender distinctions earlier in life exhibit more gender specific behavior Gender typical behavior is molded by imitations of individuals seen as authoritative or protective TV plays a major role in influencing gender stereotypes one study tracked the eye movement of children watching TV Children attended more to the same sex characters in the films than characters of the opposite sex imitation of what they see Canadian 1970s TV study more gender typical behavior Feminism in 19603 placed emphasis on social learning theories of gender Traditional gender differences can be modified or even abolished Some children are resistant to socialization Gay or transgendered children violate gender norms even though they are not encouraged influenced or trained Children born as one sex but reared as another READ BOX 43 p 116 Persistor individuals that are gender atypical feminine male or masculine female someone isn t very gender atypical from the get go and remain that way throughout their lives Androgyny both masculine and feminine Cognitive development models emphasize thought process Sexual scripts cultural guidelines that prescribe sexual roles sexual behavior as a form of role playing with learned parts People rely on sexual scripts when interacting with prospective partners Scripts change over time under the influence of culture Scripts also influence psychosexual development of individual Transgender a broad term encompassing all individuals who have the anatomy of one sex but gender identity of opposite gender is psychological sex is biological Transsexual A sub group of transgendered people who wish to change their body into that of the other sex by medical means hormone therapy sexual reassignment surgery Gender dysphoria The unhappiness caused by the discordance between a person s anatomical sex and gender identity More than one kind of transsexual Transmen female to male transsexuals as young girls they say they are boys Express masculine identity in clothes hairstyles friendships activities etc At puberty they resent developing signs of womanhoodseek to hide them breast binding Adulthood masculine and are sexually attracted to women don t identify as lesbians identify as heterosexual men Transwomen 2 different life stories male to female transsexuals First story opposite to transmen Women trapped in male bodies Often seek sexreassignment in their teen years or young adulthood Second story is less known As children only mildly gender conformist or not at all As adults usually sexually attracted to women However the interest in women is usually filled with fetishistic elements Erotically aroused by wearing women s clothes hetorosexualtransvestism Evolves into feelings of wanting to not only be in women s clothes but also be a woman Desire to become a women is fueled by the desire to incorporate the object of their attraction into themselves purely erotic Often seek sexreassignment often after they have been heterosexually married and fathered children Can be referred to as autogynephilia being attracted to oneself as a woman Changing Sex is a Multistage Process Often called transitioning Individual is evaluated psychologically and physically real life experience live in community for 12 years as a member of the other sex to see if they can live in the desired gender role given hormones to begin the body change sex reassignment surgery follow ups Success is correlated to young age at reassignment good psychological health a body build that passes as the opposite sex family and social support One major problem is the cost of transitioning could cost 30000 150000 Not all sex changes are done through transitioning Learn about sexreassignment through peer networks get black market hormone pills Go straight to a private surgeon when they feel ready Some transgendered people do not want surgery not enough money perfectly satisfied cross dressing and passing as a person of the other sex can switch between male and female gender roles not permanent Transgenders and transsexuals struggle for awareness and acceptance distinguish themselves from lesbians and gays Political activism takes place under the larger umbrella of gay rights still fight to clarify a separate identity Rape READ BOX 163 Rape Coitus and sometimes other penetrative acts accomplished by force or threat of force definitions vary Sexual assault any sexual act performed by force or threat of force Statutory rape penetrative sex when a partner is legally unable to give consent on account of age intellectual disability or altered state of consciousness young women are the most frequent victims there has been a decline of rape incidents BE FAMILIAR WITH STIS AND STDS CHART GARDASIL KNOW THE AIDS LECTURE NOTES STA TISTICS SUPERBUNNIES LECTURE SEX WITH PEOPLE THEY SLEPT WITH MOST RAPES ARE NOT REPORTED only about 13 of rapes and attempted rapes are reported to law enforcement reasons include it was a personal matter afraid of reprisals protect perpetrator police bias Most perpetrators are men known to the victim more than 2 out of 3 perpetrators are known to the victim majority are friends or acquaintances College Rapes are Common Female student has 20 to 25 chance of experiencing a completed or attempted rape in the course of a 5 year college career Date rape aka acquaintance rape rape between dating or socially acquainted people The number one date rape drug is alcohol whether consumed by rapist or victim many other date rape drugs out there eg rohypnol GHBetc How should colleges deal with sexual assault accusations usually collaboration between college disciplinary procedures and law enforcement officials RAPE VICTIM SERVICES getting medical attention health care providers required to report to the police victim not obligated to do so physical and psychological injuries must be assessed counseHng RAPE CAN INFLICT LONG LASTING PSYCH INJURY Rape trauma syndrome denial of a person s autonomy in a very intimate aspect of their life Therapy Support system Recovery does not happen overnight Male victims have special concerns little or no support from peers may feel guilty themselves may develop problems revolving around their sexual orientation rape in prisons concept of power Rape laws have become more protective of women Prior to 1970s women may be viewed as having put themselves in that position Reforms began in 1970s rape shield laws protect the rape victims no longer necessary to prove that coitus occurred Majority of rapists go unpunished about half of all men arrested for rape are convicted Why do men rape Evolutionary Roots Human capacity for rape is either an adaption itself or byproduct of adaptive traits rape s reproductive costs and benefits Social Forces Rape is a learned behavior US society as a rape prone culture due to dominant patriarchal ideology think about rape and military policy Read box 164 Theorists have debated whether rape is sexual It seems likely that sexual desire play a significant role in most rapes Characteristics of Rapists lower socioeconomic status less education worse relationships with parents self centered lower capacity for empathy not conclusive Programs may reduce recidivism but effect is small Rape prevention programs aimed at adolescents have been developed but outcome isn t looking too promising although this may be because the programs are aimed at too old of an age group key step in preventing violence among adults promote empathy Sexual Harassment Unwanted sexual advances or other intimidating sexual behavior Women who violate gender expectations are harassed the most Two kinds Quid pro quo what for what unwelcome sexual advances followed by promises or threats Hostile work environment pattern of unwelcome sexual attention that makes life difficult for the victim Free speech and sexual harassment generally sexual harassment is patterned behavior rather than a one time incident Sexual harassment begins early and often girls report being treated as offenders rather than victims by teachers and school officials Sexual harassment harms its victims decreased job satisfaction lower org commitment withdrawing from work Steps to end sexual harassment PG 522 STALKERS obsessive pursuit of someone in such a way as to put that person in a state of fear Intimate partner stalking most common type current or former spouse or other intimate partner obsessive relational intrusion obsessive pursuit of a person by a rejected lover Delusional stalking fixed belief that the victim is in love with him or her and could easily be made to fall in love with him erotomania two parties don t necessarily know each other Grudge stalking nonsexual revenge stalking pursuing victim to seek revenge for some actual or imagined injury Intimate partner violence unfortunately common particular problem on college campuses associated with alcohol use Psychological effects depression suicide lowered self esteem battered woman syndrome version of PTSD characterized especially by a cessation of attempt to escape Follows an escalating cycle severity of violence increases from cycle to cycle tension building phase involves threatening andor minor assaults violence phase Reconstruction phase perpetrator is apologetic victim forgives Diverse theories attempt to explain domestic violence is a method used by men to dominate and control women Many victims do not break up with abusive partner Gardasil is given as three injections over 6 months It provides complete protection against the two types of HPV 16 and 18 that cause 70 of cervical cancers and two types 6 and 11 that cause 90 of genital warts Protection lasts for at least four years Useful for males as well as females 21115 People aren t 100 successful at sex 100 of the time It s natural for people to have periods in which they have temporary problems Sex problems are natural and common 50 of people will have a major sex problem at least once in life 13 of these could be resolved by having accurate sex info Examples of Sex Therapy premature ejaculation 37 of males ejaculate too quickly occasionally or more often most common male problem Kaplan s definition PE exists when a male s ejaculation is too fast does not have voluntary control over the timing of ejaculation 12 min Sex a SR reflex stimulus gt response Increase speed of stimulus input increase speed of response PE PE natural especially if he is young and only had sex a few times hasn t had sex for a long time Therapies squeezetease technique to slow his sex reflex starts with manual stimulation of the penis Squeeze slows the time to orgasm increase time he can have erection and sex wo ejaculating to learn internal bodily feelings and learn voluntary control over rate of the input to the SR reflex Therapy takes place in a series of steps manual stimulation female on top side by side male on top Love a key part of good sex helps increase Positive feelings communication motives to cooperate Stopstart technique Bernie Zilbergeld stop focus on giving pleasure to his partner start focus on giving pleasure to himself Some males can learn stopstart quickly others have strong habits for fast intense sex and need longer to learn to overcome old habits PS good voluntary control allows male to try some of the advances male positive turnons eg finger pressure on the perineum Zilbergeld s therapy the male practices alone to gain volume control over ejaculatory timing find which masterbating position he likes the most male masturbates by himself using stopstart going to orgasm after 15 min done 34 timesweek Uses this control with partner except male uses KY jelly on penis makes masurbation feel more like penis in vagina Masturbate with subtle adjustments not stopstart male learns which levels of pressure positions tightness of PC etc are more or less exciting helps learn voluntary control Masturbate with vivid sexual fantasies amp stopstart not subtle adjustments which is a harder step Masturbation with vivid sex fantasies amp subtle adjustments Have a quickie provides a contrast helping male learn what he was doing wrong in the old days helps him better understand the good new habits he has just learned Also try doing sex in slow motion will notice more and slow yourself down Myth 1 PV sex is the best sex limits the male if cannot have an erection he is a failure There are many other ways to make love touching cuddling talking being gentle manual or oral stimulation body rubbing etc Myths and NONtherapies common sense gimmicks for dealing with PE none train voluntary ejaculatory control They gimmcks to avoid the problem instead of solving the problem avoidance retards learning may never learn voluntary ejac control BAD less foreplay for the maleamp more foreplay for the female go ahead and have the first PE after the refractory period he can make love again and the reflex will slow down w less chance of PE Distractions think about anything other than the pleasures of sex Use a condom or two not good for best protection Empty bladder before sex Have 23 drinks before making love it relaxes you Use anesthesia on the penis vulva too though Male worry problems can lead to loss of erection when putting on condoms when entering the vagina its such a turnon when you do it female should ask male what he likes and how he likes it hypo vs hyper sexual desire amp their therapies CHAPTER 14 hypolowunder under the skin hyperhighover 21315 sexual addiction Female Problems Female Orgasmic problems hard to get excited hard to stay excited hard to reach orgasm Data How often do you orgasm with a partner 81100 o of the time females12 males51 Female orgasmic problems result from a lack of knowledge or skill by the male or female in bringing effective positive stimulation to the females presence of fear anxiety guilt or other negative emotions that inhibit either partner from doing sexually stimulating things andor suppress the sex reflex both result from a long history of ignorance about female sexuality Historically females were expected to play the good wife and maternal roles A woman tolerated her husband s sexual urges but was not expected to be sexual herself For centuries a woman who had orgasms might be burned at the stake as a witch Today part of the double standard is for females to be sexy more than sexual Kinsey interviewed both males and females book about females in 1953 shocked the nation 14 of females had experienced multiple orgasms Bergler and Kroger psychologists wrote a book in 1954 Kinsey s Myth of Female Sexuality called such women nymphomaniacs considered a psychiatric illness at the time Masters and Johnson in the 1960 s all women have the potential for multiple orgasms new problems for females pressure to perform performance anxiety Due to this pressure some females fake orgasms men can t tell real from fake orgasm Therapy and Enrichment for Female Orgasm Problems 1 Masters and Johnson s methods a Female sits between guy s legs i easy access b Stimulate breast and vulva simultaneously c oral sex very effective stimulation 2 Selfhelp methods for females without a partners b time for intensive therapy c money D books ii masturbation 1 learn what feels good and what doesnt 2 learn what leads to sexual arousal and orgasm 3 develop erotic turn ons and fantasies Who has PV orgasms 19 of females who DO NOT masturbate vs 36 of females who DO masturbate You don t have to masturbate to have a good sex life Taboos about masturbating are declining 7 easy nonthreatening steps to learn selfpleasuring 1 look at her own body in private feel her body touch parts that feel arousing try to get sexual arousal extend masturbation V3833 U l 6 7 a orgasm triggers tighten the PC or legsthighs head over the side of bed water stimulation male watches her masturbate male imitates Self help methods iii she and her partner explore together 21815 Vibrators PROS Cons they can experiment with different patterns of clitoral stimulation circular up and down back and forth different levels of pressure gen e stronger pulsing three finger technique 345 Weakest fingers avoid too much stimulation stimulate the frenulum which is very sensitive erotically oral stimulation tonguemoist and not too strong Do you enjoy sex play more than intercourse more females do females can have 2050 orgasms with vibaratior vs 35 orgasms via manual stimulation Easy way to have fst orgasmhelping her learn what feels good and when she is nearing orgasm female and male may be able to integrate the vibrator as part of their sex lives and both enjoy it Some females lose their ability to fantasize since VIB gives such easy stim some females get hooked on the VIB get dependent on it and cannot orgasm without it VIB can cause problems in a relationship males may feel jealous of it blame her for not being able to orgasm with him wo VIB Excess use of VIB can lead to tactile anesthesia of the genetals temporary loss of sensitivity Apply to males and females increase effective stimulation by Kegel exercises Exercise the PC muscle 15minday in 3 periods of 5 min each put pressure on the PC during lovemaking without neglecting the clitoris Increase general body muscle tension more vigorous foreplay more vigorous sex acts Fantasy increase the positive turn ons for sx distracts her from negative thoughts 1 female taking charge and initiating exciting sexual activities increase your positive internal monologue internal monologuewords we hear in our heads as we think with ourselves can be positive or negative words females often have negative internal monologues while making love worry guilt fears about not having orgasm fears of not pleasing partner fears that their body is not sexy ENUF decrease negative thoughts with increasing positive thoughts which come from partners books etc Broida 1610 Sunday 111 Thursday 630830 Buchanan 1910 SUMMARY ON FEMALE ORGASM many females feel inhibited about sexuality which limits their sexual experiences during PV sex females get indirect stimulation no wonder many find it hard to orgasm if men relied on indirect stimulation many would not be able to orgasm Dr Fisher 64 prefer clitoral stimulation 36 prefer vaginal stimulation Masturbation 84 stimulate the clit 20 stimulate the vagina Hite found that women who have orgasm regularly learn how to do it themselves take an active role in love making move in ways that provide them with the best stimulation Only about 30 of females easily reach orgasm by PV sex alone females have a right to ask for more than PV sex alone For females especially distraction reduces sexual excitement stay focused on sexual feelings as in sensuate focus Erection lubrication and orgasm result from stim to the glans shaft and frenulum the bio hot spots of the body male female similarity 3 rules for her partner find out what she likes give her what she likes for as long or short as she likes 22015 oral sex manners do not push partners head down can lead to charges of sexual assault do not thrust into person s mouth do not bite unless asked to talk about oral sex before you do it oral sex can be stepping stone to pv sex but some see it as more intimate and won t do it till they are in love there are std risks be sensitive to taste and odor give warning before you ejaculate don t say I won t kiss you after you ve done that 90 chance of getting pregnant without birth control 11 of UCSB females have been pregnant abstinence no risk allows you to be in love men have to pay for the kids they create computer system can track them and remove money from their paycheck study in chicago and nyc increase in education and condoms and birth control did not increase teenage sex emergency bc hormonal methods can work up to 5 days after unprotected sex most effective asap ella need a prescription but equally effective for all 5 days plan b over the counter less effective every day generic next step is cheaper prevents 95 of pregnancies if taken in 1st 24 hours 89 in 72 hours copper iud insertion can be inserted 5 days after and still protect your choice of birth control depends on your view of abortion double up on birth control or triple both partners use a method they like pill condom and withdrawal increasing number of people have zero kids easy method foam cream and jellies including spermicide to kill sperm condoms pill doesn t protect against stis withdrawal soon enough and far enough better than nothing outercourse rub against outer body parts inconsistent use of birth control is the 1 cause of birth control failure methods requiring advanced preparation female goes to clinicdoctor to get fittedprescription student health is reputable planned parenthood on 518 garden street gives out free stuff diaphragm plus spermicidal jelly fem cap fits a little better paired with spermicide iud low cost 3 5 or 10 years birth control pill much lower doses of fake hormones than early pills microbicidal spermicide also protects against stds 22315 The Pill Pros easy to use 92997 o effective very regular cycle decrease PMS decrease menstrual disorders decrease menstrual flow decreased benign noncancerous breast tumors decreased cancer of ovaries and endometrium decreased PID decreased ectopic pregnancies decreased ovarian cysts decreased iron deficiency anemia decreased osteoporosis Cons some females expierience weight gain or loss nausea breast enlargement and tenderness headaches fatigue depression Who should not take the pill Nuva Ring The Patch history of blood clots History of cancer of the breast or other female organs history of serious liver disease history of undiagnosed vaginal bleeding women who are pregnant women who smoke inserted deep into the vagina moisture and heat cause it to time release hormones that inhibit ovulation concentrated in genitals rather than whole body keep it stored and refrigerated one per week 3 weeks on and 1 week off Seasonale a BC pill Lybrel 84 days ON amp 7 days OFF 4 periods per year 84 days of pills then low hormone levels during the 7 off days progestin and estrogen taken without any break The three progestinonly types of BC Nexplanon progestin only implants 3 years of protection 997 effective DepoProvera aka the shot 16x lower pregnancy rates than BC pills 997 effective 3 pregs per 1000 females per year 50 per injection can cause reversible decalcification so take calcium Progestin only pills require very accurate timing may be good to try before using Nexplanon or Depo to see how body likes progestin only side effects common very irregular menstrual bleeding amenorrhea less common weight gain dizziness headaches depression Natural Methods fertility awareness or rhythm methods getting your sex life in sync with your body s reproductive rhythms Egg can live about 1 day amp2 Sperm can live about 3 days and sometimes 5 days therefore the unsafe period is from day 3 to 1 for ovulation Non methods douche wishful thinking Assuming you re infertile Permanent Methods sterilization becoming increasingly popular Future Methods no radically new methods expected soon most new things will be variations on existing methods eg injections of sex hormones like those used in the BC pill Teen Sex in 5 advanced nations Sweden France Canada UK and US Teens started sex at similar ages in all 5 nations Similar of teens had sex in all 5 nations But US teens are more likely to begin sex before 15 more likely to have 2 partners in the last year if they had sex in the last year less likely to use BC including hormonal birth control Have higher STI rates Abortion second most common surgical procedure in USA circumcision 1 Does AB affect future pregnancies one suction abortion probably has no adverse effect on future pregnancies But the more Abortions a female has especially after the 1st trimester the more chances there are of miscarriage early births and low birthweight PS over 90 of abortions are done in the 1st trimester when the death rates are much lower than the death rate from giving birth which is 10 per 100000 1st get a pregnancy test no matter if you plan to have the child or have an abortion Home pregnancy tests for HCG in urine advertised as 99 effective though much less in typical use so do an additional test a few days later Abortion methods suc on vacuum aspiration a 1st trimester method death rate before 9 weeks 001 per 100000 Risk of death from carrying a child to term 10 per 100000 DampE dilation and evacuation the safest 2nd trimester abortion death rate 8100000 in weeks 1318 16100000 in weeks 1921 22515 Evidence for a biological influence on sexual orientation homosexuality runs in families Pillard Twin studies suggest a genetic influence especially in males Search for gay genes in men Hormonal Influence on Sexual Orientation Prenatal T gt Sexual differentiation of brain gt gendered traits incl sexual orientation Homosexuality is linked to a spectrum of genderatypical traits especially in childhood People who grow up to be homosexual tend to have gender nonconformity round the age of 2 Masculinityfemininity all roughly in the middle of the spectrum Animal models of homosexuality can be generated by prenatal hormonal manipulation Partner preference influenced by early hormonal manipulation Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia exposed to high levels of male hormones prenatally have increased likelihood of samesex attraction and experience Lesbians and gay men are atypical in some anatomical and biological something exposed to some kind of hormonal change sort of thing D2D4 ratio influenced by hormonal prenatal environment Hypothalamus and Sexual orientation Putative sex pheromones activate hypothalamus of gay men in sexatypical fashion Possible effects of research negative influence on attitudes pathologization and development of unnecessary biological cures positive effects on attitude and gay rights 221 5 SOCIOLOGY Sex and gender behavior scripted behavior Each society provides lines scripts and roles which people learn for doing sex gender and all other social behaviors Breast implants object of someone elses pleasure not your own Killing us softly volume 4 Different Societies have different scripts Kukukuku New Guinea highlands sperm essence of masculinity to gain masculinity boys ingest sperm via homosexual oral sex Homosexual behaviornatural normal beautiful Ford amp Beech s cross cultural comparison 63 of societies permitted homosexuality amp considered it normal All scripts feel natural and normal in the societies that use them Therefore there is a danger in thinking that things that feel natural and normal to you are right the only ethically acceptable ones lnfibulation done in 29 nations 6000 times per day cutting parts of all of the females external genitals sewing the remaining tissue together to create one small hole for urination and menstruation lnfibulation helps to insure a girl s virginity after marriage helps decrease her sexual interest reducing infidelity Clitorectomy far less cutting than infibulation age old tradition in Egypt and other nations The UN Declaration of Human Rights Not all acts are defensible eg torture mutlation slavery Infant death rate higher for infibulated women in a hospital enviroment Values are culturally bound and vary from society to society Only PV sex for procreation is natural making homosexuality wrong and masturbation too eg Vatican declaration on Sexual Ethics1975 amp still upheald masturbation is an intrinsically and seriously disordered act 2 main criticisms of the old view that only pv sex for procreation is natural i Anthropology ln naturally occuring tribes 64 consider homosexuality natural and normal ii biology Animals in natural environments do sex for many things fun friendliness territorial displays dominance displays Modern American Values a big change from 100 yrs ago Society should stay out of the bedroom what is done by consenting adults in the privacy of their own bedroom is no one else s business as long as it doesn t hurt anyone In 2003 US supreme court struck down Texas s antisodomy law by 6 to 3 vote 5415 Contraception showing values changing over time within our society BC was forbidden in USA in early 19003 because it was sinful shocking and illegal Margaret Sanger Women will not be free until they have control of their own repro processes wo birth control females always getting prego gt mandatory motherhood with little time to do other things eg get education and career closer relation with her parders travel sports etc etc Men would not be free wo BC i man has to work long and hard to support 48 kids ii less time with his parter iii male and female enslaved to child rearing iv pain of poverty The reaction in 1922 BC unnatural and immoral gt physical and moral disorders fibroid tumors sterility neurasthenia infidelity separation and divorce and the woman accepts the condition of the prostitute The RCC on BC still today The only acceptable birth control is abstinence during the woman s fetile period The practice of BC is harmful to the man s interior spiritual culture every marriage act must remain open to the transmission of life Sex ceases to be an act of love whenever artificial BC is used In the USA over 90 of Catholic women between 15 and 44 who are having seX use artificial methods of BC In 1990 US Bishop s Statement a more open stand on sex They still follow Rome but ultimately each person must discern his or her own moral decisions Today People in the US often take BC for granted But not so in poor nations BC is essential in areas where increased population leads to poverty hardship environment degradation and females are trapped in mandatory motherhood role Abortion Showing values changing over time win our society Pro life the unborn fetus is fully human and should be protected by legal rights Pro Choice the woman must be able to make up her own mind it is her own right to choose The conceptus is not a complete person in the early months of development The human potential develops gradually When nations make abortion illegal many women seek out illegal abortions whichhigh risk to the woman s health and life Both pro life and pro choice have moral people Ancient Greece the majority favored abortion Ancient Rome abortion was popular and common laws were passed to limit abortion but they were of minimal success Christian beliefs Early christian abortion infanticide murder wrong 1213 century much debate gt ok before qiuckening middle of 4th month 1588 all abortion is murder 1591 pope said abortion before 40 days is ok 1869 all abortion is murder In the 1800s most western countries passed laws against abortion to protect females from quack doctors The US shifts 1968 15 want to make abortion leagal 1969 40 1972 64 1973 Supreme court Many Amuricans aren t happy with either end of the continuum wanting a compromise that avoids extremis positions Supreme court still supports choice freedom to have abortion but states can impose restrictions eg waiting periods 3615 India has about 14 billion Ps Millions of females have been sold into sexual slavery That day was the day my God Died Worldwide 25000 females are kidnapped and sold into sex slavery each day 8 to 14 yr girls are tricked or drugged kidnapped and sold beaten and tortured until broken How to help rescue them Google ending sex slavery and find orgs you support Girl drugged and kidnapped and brought to Bombay two men one of the girls knew took them to kathmandu Maili married at 19 and had a two year old daughter sold for 50000 rupees Raped at age 7 would hold down and beat Sold to a brothel beat you down starve hit rape till you stop saying no cigarette burning acid threats against the family Someone was stabbed to death for refusing to have anal sex Advocates from within the red light community speak about HIVAIDS 3915 1990 Peak of sexual WILDness US HS students having had vaginal sex 5400 t0 410011 2011 HS students who have had 4 or more partners in their lifetime 187 in 1991 to 138 in 2009 UCSB would rather have relationships than hookups 37 hooking up with a friend 12 hooking up with mutual friend 11 stranger 15 acquantance NA 25 38 have been tested for STls Males more likely than females to approve of casual sex with minimal commitment females more likely to seek sex in the context of love Many people hunger for romance People feel more pleasure with 1st sex when in a serious relationship rather than a casual relationship Most say romance disappears too soon in their relationships Males are more likely than females to say they have a romance with a partner Females have more idealized definitions of romance thus more likely to get disappointed 630830 Thursday Broida 1610 Sunday 111 00 Broida 1610 Females get more romantic socialization i Childhood dolls gt dreaming of happy home family sitcoms nice romantic future girls sheltered from harsh realities HaduHhood females fantasiesvery romantic 14 billion romance novels sold per year in the USA He handsome worldly sexually experienced She sensitive smart underappreciated Now he becomes monogamous caring sensitive appreciating her R novels and R movies do to females what porn and soft porn do to males LOL providing overly idealized images of things to expect from the other sex impossibilities gt frustrations cohabitation increased partly due to increased number of yrs that young people spend single Cohabitation is associated with higher rates of divorce divorced win 10 yrs 36 of people who did cohab 27 didn t Cohab gt increased risk of divorce if people have i kids ii no engagement ring iii prior cohab experience only small increased risk of divorce when people cohab then marry The longer you date before marriage esp 2 yrs the better your chances of a happy marriage gives you a chance to find out if you are compatible or not 96 of females plan to marry ideal age 256 98 of males plan to marry ideal age 271 39 of married people happy with life 24 never married people happy with life 12 of divorced people happy with life DIVORCE Div important right when people are in painful mariages US DIV rates 45 amp lower for college grads 81 of people still married 20 yrs later if finished college and married after 26 yrs of age vs 49 still married 20 yrs later for HS grads married before 26 Decrease your risk of divorce increased education marrying later postponing having kids by 2 years and not smoking associated with anxiety and depression Arrival of 1st child is the biggest transition in life Parenting is a full time responsibility that often pulls the husband and wife apart Love YAYINTIMACY creating intimate relationships How ot increase quality love no matter how long or short your relationship is Hollywood s highly romanticized info not very useful for making lasting love lasting love is not automatic many people become disengaged over time Guidelines for intimacy work equally for all sexualities Point 1 if you want intimacy set it as a primary goal DO NO HARM similar to the hippocratic oath no picky fights no nasty blowups Sex alone does not produce much intimacy you have to invest much more of yourselves to have a full rewarding relationship 31115 LOVE re early meeting phase avoid using fake images avoid putting on masks Fake images and masks may feel safer than honesty by they prevent honest communication mislead your partner make it hard for you to switch to honest communication later Be authentic be honest some people will walk away those who stay are the ones who value what you value They are the people you really want to meet and know your honesty will help them be honest with you Point 3 re early meeting phase beware the risks of infatuation falling in love can blind you to important info Infatuation can lead to disappointment with other person with self amp be very painful 4 causes of infatuation both people are polite and put on their best behavior and hide unpleasant behavior they do special fun things rather than boring hard things novelty makes the early days and weeks especially positive until the novelty wears off each person idealizes the other person at first until reality sinks in Remember to build the friendship line ASAP Lasting love is similar to good friendship People in good marriages value spouse for caring amp giving trustworthiness sense of humor integrity being a fine person In good relationships and good friendships long term success goes up the more you share similar interest values amprelig favorite activities What about opposites attract differences gt positive novelty effects at first but after the novelty wears off you have a partner with whom you have little in common No two people are totally similar and their differences can enrich a relationship with fun novelties allowing them to learn from eachother Learn how to create intimacy Enter the Love Lav and John Gottman s A studies on love and relationships using video recordings of talk actions and emotions to find out what helps and hurts in relationships communicate talk together 12 hrs daily min 5 hrsweek When they find communication difficult many people turn to TValcohol drugs parties which can decrease serious communication Say positive things the reasons why you love your partner don t be afraid to repeat yourself therapists find that many people have a hard time doing such exercises in positive exchanges positive start ups are good the first 13 minutes matter lots negative start ups are bad create an intimate mood favorite quiet music gentle conversation quiet room candles out in nature glass of wine touch poetry Shared positive interactions lead to increased affection plan to increase shared activities that you both find positive Its easy to increase mutually positive things When you both agree but when people don t agree when people don t agree they dtend to turn to either negotiating down blaming partner for making you give up things you used to enjoy or negotiating up both partners add new shared behaviors and interests to their lives thanking your partner for helping you grow and develop Reasoning reasoning is useful in democratic decision making and negotiating up crucial skill IMPORTANT EXPLAIN REASONING STUDY GUIDE General questions STDs or STls ALWAYS HIV HPV transmission lifespan symptoms treatment but all are fair gain how to prevent STls Contraceptives Anatomy The Day My God Died open ended question pick 8 out of 10 essay questions 12 multiple choice stages of sexual arousal abortion pro life vs pro choice Roe vs Wade 1973 Supreme Court that states could not enact an outright ban on abortions before the age of fetal viability The Abortion debate often portrayed as being divided between two opposing camps prolife and pro choice people often find their beliefs fall in between the two extremes Prolife elective abortion is always wrong should be a criminal offence Prochoice women should be allowed to make all abortion decisions for themselves Abortion debate Focused on Specific Issues majority of American tend to be more moderate in their views toward abortion much of the prochoice vs prolife debate revolves around specific issues see pg304 Prostitution practice of engaging in sex for pay historically viewed as a necessary evil the oldest profession only way in which unattached women could support themselves development of red light districts in late 19th century high proportion of male and or transgendered prostitutes in some cities illegal everywhere in US except parts of Nevada and Rhode Island There is a Hierarchy of Prostitution Street Walking most visible and familiar part of the industry lowest rank and charge lowest prices lifetime of social degradation majority of female prostitutes are mothers male prostitutes tend to be independent workers where women work for pimps pimps man who manages prostitutes in exchange for a portion of earnings much less common in recent years Working out of Fixed Commercial Location ie massage parlor or strip joint Hand genital contact massages are most common Brothels are uncommon but exist in rural Nevada are legal in other countries Escort Service Offstreet prostitution not tied to a specific service location Call Girl prostitutes who are relatively upscale in terms of clientele and price clients sometimes want the girlfriend experience Premier escorts are prostitutes that are wellpressented and can be taken to dinners or shows other work for madams who have access to affluent society Gigilo male escorts paid for by women uncommon in the US Good Pay Main Motive for Prostitution some prostitutes have special needs that require a high income eg transgenders and drug addicts Men use prostitutes for many reasons difficulty finding unpaid sex partners avoid hassles involved with regular dating issues with frequency and variety of sex with spouse or partner Prostitutes rights movement works for decriminalization elimination of laws that outlaw prostitution Coyote mission to improve the image and working conditions for prostitutes legalization with regulation prostitutes would be allowed to work in prescribed locations and under defined conditions ie Nevada The debate on prostitution is a worldwide problem conditions are worse in developing countries Juvenile and coerced prostitution are global problems demand comes from local men but also overseas travelers Transnational trafficking of women transportation of women from one country to another usually for purposes of prostitution Phone sex erotic telephone conversation often carried out for pay Advantages easier and safer for operators convenient and cheaper for customer Pornography has always been a part of human culture pornography depiction of people or behaviors that are intended to be sexually arousing 13 billion a year industry in the US Erotica sexualy themed works deemd to have literary or artistic merit has battled censorship obscene sexually offensive or threatening to public morality no artistic merit There is some porn for women usually more soft core and romantic in nature romance novel radical feminist perspective porn promotes physical or sexual violence or other forms of harm against women Liberal perspective downplays any harmful effects protected by first amendment value or harm research has not resolved the question of porn s effects most men are not rendered more likely to harm women by exposure to any kind of pornography some suggest that sex crimes become fewer when porn consumption increases underage porn is widely condemned but common in some countries illegal in US simulated underage porn Japan world leader in production of underage porn Sex is part of the Mass Media TV glorifies adultery and promiscuity while portraying marital sex as dull and non existent sexual references on TV not necessarily harmful eg familiarization with homosexuality may decrease antigay discrimination may be an educational opportunity In young adulthood conflicting demands moderate sexual expression most young men and women have only a few sex partners secondary abstinence actively choosing not to have sex after having had sex at some previous time Cohabitation livein sexual relationship between two persons who are not married to eachother majority of young people will enter into a cohabiting relationship most likely to cohabit younger people people who s parents separated when they were children nonreligious typically shortlived Cohabitation effect theories live in relationships tend to last a certain time so if some of that time is spent in cohabitation the marriage will be that much shorter couples who cohabit have less traditional views about marriage and divorce different meanings about 40 of cohabiting couples have children may be viewed as an experimental marriage breaking up is less public embarrassment even some conservative cultures around the world have a sanctioned impermanent sexual relationships Mut a a Shi ite contract of a temporary marriage Marriage social and personal functions of formalized sexual unions creating an environment favorable for having children identifying male responsibilities bringing the couple s extended families together intended to stabilize their union Polygamy marriage to more than one spouse at a time permitted in many societies connected to the idea that women are men s property polyandry marriage of one woman to more than one man very uncommon Polyamory people who openly and intentionally participate in non monogamous relationships some are swingers couples who agree to engage in casual sexual contacts with others some engage in group marriage3 or more people living together in a marriage like relationship can be open or closed no sex with outsiders can be limited by problems with jealousy Western institution of marriage has evolved compassionate marriage marriage seen as an emotional and practical partnership companionate marriage makes the availability of divorce a necessHy prenuptialpostnuptial agreements increasingly more common Married people happier than unmarried people Marriage becoming a minority status people are marrying later and splitting up sooner o married is steadily falling Most married couples are satisfied with their sex lives women s physical satisfaction is much greater in long term relationships than in short term relationships emotional satisfaction is higher in marriage frequency of sex declines during marriage but many say satisfaction increases increasing familiarity with partner and dimming of passionate love biggest decline follows the birth of a child women s marital satisfaction declines during middle age on the whole wives are less satisfied with their marriages than their husbands Many factors bring relationships to an eng four major factors passage of time age at marriage ethnicity educa onlevel Overall divorce rate is 45 divorce rate for people with college education is less than half what it is for those without virgins have longer marriages Marital Disruption Divorced men and women and suffer physical psychological and economic damage children may experience a heightened risk of depression behavior problems low academic performance substance abuse criminality early sexual activity positive consequences escape from an unhappy possibly abusive relationship Stepchildren may be disadvantaged twice as likely to suffer from behavioral problems child abuse still majority of stepchildren do well at school and don t have emotional or behavioral problems Later marriages are less durable so experience gained from the first marriage doesn t seem to stabilize later one Menopause final cessation of menstrual period perimenopause the phase prior to menopause that is marked by irregular menstrual cycles menopause may be caused by the depletion of oocytes climacteric woman s transition to infertility that culminates in menopause Decreased hormone levels affect some women s sexual responses in vaginal lubrication a thinning of the vaginal walls may lead to painful coitusvaginal inflammation lowered estrogen levels hot flasheshot flushes night sweats headaches osteoporosis loss of bone density Women typically experience some decrease in sexual desire at menopause probably results mainly from combined effects other factors relationship issues general health attitudes towards sex and aging psychological effects Hormone therapy can reduce menopausal symptoms menopausal hormone therapy MHT PG 367 Postmenopausal hormone therapy is controversial due to possible ill effects has been restricted to the short term relief of menopausal symptoms and lowest possible dose lifestyle choices may be more valuable Men s fertility declines gradually with age gradual reduction in fertility and sexual functioning increased likelihood of erectile dysfunction decreased sexual desire and frequency of sex may be referred to as male menopause or andropause but misleading since these changes are not a total cessation but rather a gradual process SEX AND OLD PEOPLE traditional assumption that older people are asexual younger peoples negative discomfort may result from lack of empathy most people continue to have sexual feelings into old age aging is accompanied by physiological changes in sexual response read page 381 for specific changes Medical conditions drugs and social factors can impair the sexuality of old people arthritis heart disease osteoporosis diabetes obesity prescription drugs can interfere with sexual performance 2 biggest factors health status sense of how sexually responsive their partners are people generally become happier with age Coping strategies may require flexibility women may form sexual relationships with younger men may practice oral sex instead Some old people remain sexually active plenty of old women and men masturbate the more people engage in sexual behaviors earlier in life the more likely they will engage in them later opportunities for sexual expression by nursing home residents could be improved old people who engage in frequent sex live longer Adolescence is a time of sexual exploration beginning of adolescence may correspond to puberty menarch first ejaculation testosterone level strong predictor of when person will begin to engage in partnered sex Many cultures have puberty rites puberty is often marked by special coming of age ceremonies breast ironing bar mitzvah bat mitzvah quinceanera examples of puberty rights 324325 Adolescents are likely to initiate sexual activity early if their community has a low average income few college graduates high crime rate high unemployment having a significantly older boyfriend or girlfriend Televisions younger girls are being prematurely sexualized by exposure to sexualexpenences Sexual behavior of American teens has increased and diversified social changes since 1940s have caused teenage sexual activity to increase oral contraceptives legalization of abortion in recent years sexual activity has been leveling off or slightly decreasing in adolescents Noncoital sex is popular among teens oral sex is common more commonly teens have first oral sex shortly after first vaginal sex thus oral sex is usually an addition to rather than replacement of coitus ethnic differences far more African American adolescents engage in coitus but less likely to have engaged in noncoital behaviors far fewer Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescent have ever engaged in coitus Teen Relationships Serial monogamy youth has a series of exclusive relationships with girlfriends and or boyfriends casual sex seems to be becoming more common traditional social patterns have been modified nowadays sexual relationships have a more affectionate and recreational function changing balance of sexual power The more affectionate intimate or committed the relationship the more likely people are to consider sexual acts morally acceptable demographic factors affect sexual attitudes Americans attitudes decline in percentage who think sex before marriage is always wrong decline in percentage who think homosexual sex is wrong increase in percentage who think extramarital sex is wrong Casual sex has more appeal to men than to women men more likely to consider one night stands morally acceptable hooking upthe new norm many young women are becoming much more open to engaging in casual uncommitted sexual intimacy with acquaintances hookin up casual sex is more accepted in the gay male community Negotiating sex involves flirting men more likely to be romantic women often take the first step in the interaction at some point man takes a more controlling role Dating relationships are often short lived dating relationships usually involve some degree of physical intimacy sexual exclusivity may be expected serial monogamy 1st dates may follow a script traditional script demands male takes leadingactive role woman takes the reactive role Dating relationships may evolve rapidly tendency to idealize partner minimization of the importance of their partner s shortcomings Communicationsuccess many couples are reluctant to communicate about sexual issues stems from a tradition of silence about sexual matters gender barrier may compound communication problems cultural factors inhibit communication in certain groups asians and hispanics have a custom of silence on sexual issues Dealing with conflict gottman studied relationship conflict found that anger is not necessarily bad as long as their is open communication 5 positive statements for every 1 negative behavioral couples therapy focuses on improving communication positive communication 31315 Reasoning shouldn t be rigid or overly academic have fun encourage free associations play with unlimited possibilities A person who is low on persuasibility can be a big problem in relationships because won t listen and change for partner in democratic reasoning give ideas gently listen carefully try to follow the persons wishes or suggest alternate solutions until a mutually acceptable compromise is found Advantages of reasoning increases your communication and understanding helps make relationship democratic equal fair later when doing a new activity you won t blame your partner if it is hard cuz you know the reasons for doing it practice and learn the new things youve decided on via reasoning its one thing to plan and another to learn Be gentle supportive small steps don t rush Build trust feelings of trust can come from a con artist a history of honesty in which your partner always lives up to hisher words Learn to cope with problems fights very important no relationship is problem free Repair work is important to a growing relationship fix problems soon never turn down a repair bid from your partner Tell partner specific behaviors that you like
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'