Popular in Music History and Literature I
Popular in Music
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Date Created: 03/18/15
Class Notes 092 32014 Giovanni Dierluigi de Palestrina C 15251594 Conservatism CounterReformation o quot xing the Catholic Churchquot Council of Trent o In music Many l homme arme masses n Based on secular music put into the church setting a Wanted to get rid of secular in uences Text intelligibility Palestrina s music continues to be performed and studied after his death Stile antico v stile modern Compositions 0 100 masses 0 250 motets Mass types ImitationParody Mass half of total masses of Palestrina Cantus Firmus Mass including l homme arme Paraphrase Mass 0 Free Mass Masses with Canons Misse Papae Marcei Most famous work of Palestrina o De nes Palestrina s place in music history Motet Tu es Petrus Missa Tu es Petrus Palestrina s Style 0 Text Intelligibility Arched conjunct melodies Tightly controlled dissonance Modal purity Little sense of expression English Sacred Music Monarchs 15091547 0 Henry VIII 0 Church of England 1534 o Taverner 14901545 0 Western Wynde Mass 0 Edward VI 15471553 0 Tallis Third Tune for Archbishop o Parkers Psalter o The tune used in Vaughan Williams Fantasia on a them of Thomas Tallis 0 Mary 15531558 0 Return to Catholicism 0 Elizabeth I 15581603 0 Anglican Biggest composers o Tallis and his student Byrd Byrd Anthem quotSing Joyfullyquot Catholicism becomes a repressed religion 0 Worship in private homes Motets of Gradualiamass propers 3 Masses 0 Mass in three parts 0 Mass in four parts 0 Mass in ve parts Instrumental Music 0 Fitzwilliam Virginal Book 0 Collection of piano compositions of the time by many composers 0 Dance Pavanne and Galliard o Fantasia Contrapuntalworkprefugue Full anthem Verse anthem o Viol family 0 Fretted Chapter 5 The Renaissance o Reformation 0 Martin Luther 14821546 October 31 1517 n Nailing of the 95 theses Excommunicated Luther afterwards 1530 n Augburg Confession Chorales a German Lutheran Hymn Sung by the congregation in unison a cappela o In German Hymn Tunes n Translations of latin n Contrafacta New words to old melodies a NEW tunes Use of chorales 0 Johann Walter 14961570 Christ lag in Ta 0 ReformedCalvinist Churches Limited music to singing Psalms 0 Counter Reformation outside of Rome Venice St Marks Giovanni Gabrieli 15541612 Cori Spezzati Motet In ecclesiis a How is it different than Palestrina Voice and Instruments Choir vs soloist Figured bassContinuo Harmonically conceived Instrumental Music a Canzonas o Lively pieceuses imitation n Sonata 0 From quotsonarequot Sonata pian e forte Be able to de ne the following Old Hall Manuscript 0 primary source of 15th century English polyphony largest portion are settings of the mass ordinary includes motets hymns and sequences Sumer is icumen in o a rota perpetual canon unison Faburden 0 English style of improvised polyphony Tenor becomes middle voice Fauxbourdon o continental style of polyphony 6th above tenor 4th below tenor Panisorhythm every voice is in a different isorhythm L39homme arm French secular song Melody used as a tenor for many other compositions Octave leap cadence aka Burgundian cadence Mensuration canon quotprolation canonquot same melody simultaneously at different speeds Missa prolationem Setting of mass ordinary by Ockeghem Missa cuiusvis toni 4 part setting of mass ordinary by Ockeghem quotmass in any modequot Paraphrase Motet chant or melody is reworked added notes and changed rhythms Sackbut renaissance predecessor to the trombone Cornett wind instrument with nger holes and cup mouthpiece Frottola Frottole ltalian polyphonic song Syllabic homophonic diatonic Melody in upper voice Madngal ltalian poetic form 23 stanzas ritornello Madrigalism conventional instance of text depiction or word painting Petrucci Italian music publisher Odhecaton 0 First published polyphony volume of secular compositions Triple Impression method of printing music during the renaissance First printed staff then notes then text Attaingnant rst largescale publisher of singleimpression movable type for musicprinting Parisian chanson lyricdriven polyphonic secular song Programmatic Chanson narrative poems depicting battles birdcalls etc Zarlino popular composer and theorist of the Renaissance worked at St Mark s Chorale strophic unison Lutheran hymn based on Gregorian chant or original melody Martin Luther Seminal gure of the Protestant Reformation Contrafactum a vocal piece in which the original text is replaced by a new one CounterReformation the Catholic response to the protestant reformation Council of Trent an emergency legislative body of the Roman Catholic Church that rst convened in 1545 to stem the tide of the Protestant Reformation that was perceived as posing a threat to the church Pope Marcellus Mass written by Palestrina Cantus Firmus Mass mass based on a predetermined melody Paraphrase Mass transformation of an existing melody into a new cantus rmus Imitation Mass a Mass setting tat borrows motifs points of imitation or two or more parts from a preexisting piece of music as the basis for a new composition Western Winde Mass English secular tune used as cantus rmus in masses by several composers Spem in Alium 40part Renaissance motet by Thomas Tallis composed in 1570 for eight choirs of ve voices each Considered to be the greatest piece of early English music Anthem choral composition based on a biblical passage for singing by a choir in a church service The quotEnglish Massquot Gradualia book of motets by William Byrd Fitzwilliam Virginal Book Primary source of keyboard music from the late Renaissance Musica Transalpina collection of madrigals published in England in 1588 Mainly composed by ltalians Marked the golden age of the madrigal in England Lute Song consisted of a singer accompanying himself on a lute could be a singer and a separate lutist Giovanni Maria Artusi ltalian theorist and composer Condemned new styles that de ned the early Baroque era Wrote a book on dissonance and counterpoint Prima Prattica quot rst practicequot refers to early Baroque music which looks more to the style of Palestrina than to more modern styles Secunda Prattica quotsecond practicequot referred to as quotStile Modernoquot or modern style referring to Baroque style Basso Continuo an independent bass part written as one line but with shorthand numerical instructions to indicate full harmony Figured Bass in basso continuo an ongoing bass line played by a solo instrument harmonies to be lled in are indicated by little numbers representing intervals San Marco Sonata pian e forte written by Giovanni Gabrieili in 1597 Grand Sacred Concerto Sistine Chapel ll Compare Roman and Venetian sacred music of about 1600 Palestrina vs Gabrieli Explain Whythey are different lll What was the most important musical contribution of the early Lutheran Church From what sources do these pieces come What was the greatest longterm impact of this contribution IV Compare the musical output of Palestrina and Lasso Your answer should include information about the variety or lack thereof of music each produced Lasso 150 Madrigals Italian 150 Chansons French 90 Lieder German 100 Magni cats 60 Masses Over 1000 motets 0 Modern Palestrina 0 Sacred music Masses and motet OOOOOO V Describe the difference between cantus rmus masses paraphrase masses and parody masses Cantus rmus Mass 0 Based on an existing melodic line Paraphrase Mass 0 Transforms existing melody into a new cantus rmus Parody Mass 0 uses multiple voices of another preexisting piece of music such as a fragment of a motet or a secular chanson as part of its melodic material VI Describe several speci c examples of madrigaisms taken from the examples in the anthology Include what the text is saying and how the composer depicts that text VII What changes occur in the evolution of late sixteenthcentury madrigals from those written earlier in the century VIII Describe distinctive characteristics of English music of the Late Middle Ages that have in uenced the developments of the early Renaissance Italian Madrigals Based on poetry of high artistic standard 0 Through composed 0 Notes Baroque Era o Humanism Turning to ancient Greece for inspiration 0 Girolamo Mei Rejected the wordplay of madrigalists arguing that music should be founded on the imitation of natural speech 0 Stile Rappresentivo Representational style 0 Monody A single voice accompanied by a Iute o Stile Recitativo A melody that imitated natural speech in ections Important works Two settings of the Euradice n Guilio Caccini and Jacopo Peri Rappresentatione di Anima et di Corpo n Emilio de Cavalieri n FIRST PRINTED FIGURED BASS Printing industry was central in spreading the new style Caccini s collection Le nuove musChe included two types of solo vocal works a Arias n Madrigals In new style most emotionally heightened moments were captured by imitating the kinds of speech associated with particular emotions Claudio Monteverdi Most important gure in the birth of opera Moved to Venice in 1613 to become music director at St Mark s Freely alternated between declamatory and lyrical styles and between low and high character types in ways that often turned traditional morals or courtly authority on their heads Favola in musica quotmusical talequot performed in courts as private entertainment Opening of the rst public opera house Teatro San Cassiano in Venice marked a turning point in the history of opera Commercial operas compensated for their economical staging and instrumentation with virtuoso vocalistsCASTRATI 0 Review for Exam Ill Mus 3210 I Be able to de ne the following Prima Prattica Italian for quot rst practicequot Term used in 17th century Italy to distinguish Renaissance polyphony from the new more dissonant style Secunda Prattica Italian for quotsecond practicequot Monodic style Originally Monteverdi s term of challenge to the conservative treatment of contrapuntal dissonance Doctrine of Affections theory of musical aesthetics widely accepted by late Baroque theorists and composers that embraced the proposition that music is capable of arousing a variety of speci c emotions within the listener At the center of the doctrine was the belief that by making use of the proper standard musical procedure or device the composer could create a piece of music capable of producing a particular involuntary emotional response in his audience Basso Continuo In Baroque music an independent bass part written as one line but with shorthand numerical instructions to indicate the full harmony Figured Bass In basso continuo harmonies to be lled in by a keyboard or lute performer indicated by little numbers representing intervals Monody a style of song for one voice and basso continuo rst characteristic Baroque genre and the basis of early opera Stile Concitato Italian for quotagitated stylequot One of Monteverdi s genere usually expressed by rapidly articulated repeated notes Florentine Camerata group of humanists musicians poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Giovanni de Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts especially music and drama Giovanni Bardi musician writer and scientist in uential in the evolution of opera About 1573 he founded the Florentine Camerata a group that sought to revive ancient Greek music and drama counterpoint obscures the words in musical settings and should be abandoned music should instead consist of a single lightly accompanied vocal line executed in a manner that re ects the rhythm and intonation of speech Aria a long accompanied song for solo voice typically one in an opera Rec a ve musical declamation of the kind usual in the narrative and dialogue parts of opera and oratorio sung in the rhythm of ordinary speech with many words on the same note Cantata A Baroque vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment originally for solo voice later a liturgical work in several movements often involving a choir Ostinato a continually repeated musical phrase or rhythm Oratorio a largescale dramatic work based on a religious topic neither liturgical nor theatrical in intent but performed in a concert setting Ricercare in the Baroque a kind of strict fugue with short thematic subjects Canzona an instrumental arrangement of a French of Flemish typical of 16th century ltaly Toccata From Italian toccare quotto touchquot a virtuosic keyboard piece displaying dexterity and skill Geistliches Konzert quotspiritual concertoquot is a broad term for various genres of chamber concerto for a small number of voices and instruments popular in Germany during the 17th Century and pre guring the late baroque church cantata and solo spiritual cantata forms Thirty Years War series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 1648 14 It was one of the most destructive con icts in European history and one of thelongest Da capo Aria an aria that is designed to go back to the beginning the form being ABA found in opera liturgical music song and in instrumental movements Recitativo secco Recitativo accompagnato quotdryquot accompanied only by continuo using orchestra Sonata da chiesaSonata da camera Italian for church sonata is an instrumental composition dating from the Baroque period generally consisting of four movements More than one melody was often used and the movements were ordered slow fast slow fast with respect to tempo literally translated to mean 39chamber sonata39 and is used to describe a group of instrumental pieces set into three or four different movements beginning with a prelude or small sonata acting as an introduction for the following movements Trio sonataSolo Sonata a baroque composition written in three parts two upper parts and one bass and usually performed with a keyboard continuo for soloist usually violin and continuo OrchestralRipieno Concerto is a musical composition usually composed in three parts or movements in which usually one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra Concerto Grosso a musical composition for a group of solo instruments accompanied by an orchestra The term is used mainly of baroque works Solo Concerto a concerto in which a single soloist is accompanied by an orchestra It is the most frequent type of concerto lt originated in the Baroque Period c 1600 1750 as an alternative to the traditional concertino solo group of instruments in a concerto grosso RipienoTutti the tutti group of the orchestra in a Baroque concerto alternating with the concertino RitornelloEpisode Italian for quotreturnquot a recurring passage in Baroque music heard in the tutti serving as the structural framework in concertos and arias a nonthematic section within a fugue The Four Seasons Ospedale della Pieta Chorale Prelude an organ piece based on a chorale Chorale Partita a largescale multimovement piece of music based on a chorale and written for a keyboard instrument It represents a fusion of two forms of keyboard music the north German chorale prelude and the Italian variation canzona Tradg die Lyrique the French equivalent of Italian opera seria with a similar seriousness of tone but with a focus on the preservation of the text when set to music and the frequent presence of dance interludes French Overture a musical form widely used in the Baroque period lts basic formal division is into two parts which are usually enclosed by double bars and repeat signs Notes in gales French unequal notes refers to a performance practice mainly from the Baroque and Classical music eras in which some notes with equal written time values are performed with unequal durations usually as alternating long and short Trait de l harmonie Dido and Aeneas II How is a Baroque Basso Continuo part typically realized III Know the fundamental characteristics of Baroque music IV Compare typical Renaissance Madrigals with those from the early Baroque V How does Venetian Opera differ from earlier Florentine or Mantuan Why VI How are early oratorios different than operas VII What developments characterize Neapolitan Opera c 1700 VIII How many performers play a typical trio sonata What instruments do they play IX Give an overview of the works of Vivaldi X Discuss the distinctive features of French opera as represented by Lully XV List the French and Italian in uences that are present in Purcell s Opera Dido and Aeneas Note 1 I may include an essay question on the test that will be quotopen bookquot For such you d be allowed to consult your notes book and anthology You may NOT use computers Bring your books and notes to class that day Note 2 There will be some questions based exclusively on the assigned readings from the textbook material that may not have been covered in class Listening Be able to identify the following examples For each be able to identify the composer and the genre andor type of composition opera concerto oratorio etc Speci c titles will be worth an extra point wi also ask you questions about the examples These might include when was it written what is its form in what country was it written language compositional techniques employed etc 67 Monteverdi opera L Orfeo tracks 912 from the mp3 CD only 68 Monteverdi opera L Incoronazione di Poppea Act III excerpts only tracks 1921 69 Frescobaldi passacaglia Cento partite sopra passacaglia 70 Scheidt chorale partita Christ lag in Todesbanden 72 Schlitz Geistliches Konzert Sacred Concerto Saul Saul was verfolgst du mich 73 Carissimi oratorio Jephte 75 Luy opera Atys Overture and Act III scene IV tracks 27 30 31 76 Rameau opera Castor et Pollux 77 Purcell opera Dido and Aeneas tracks 3839 only 79 Corelli trio sonata Sonata in G minor op 3 no 11 80 Vivaldi solo concerto Spring from the Four Seasons Lully AtysquotTradgedielyriquequot 0 French Overture 0 Dance 0 Dance Rhythms o Ornamentation Appogiatura Trill Mordant o Spectacle Rameau16831764 o MusicTheorist Traite de l harmonie 1722 Battle ofOpera Style England 0 Purcell 165995 0 Dido and Aeneas2ncl opera 0 OvertureFRENCH 0 French and Italian In uences Italy 0 In late 17th century Naples replaced Venice as the most important opera center Alessandro Scarlatti 16601725 0 114 operas 0 over 800 cantatas Recitativo Accompagnato v Recitativo Secco Da capo Aria 0 ABA form Metastasio1698 1702 o Librettist o Farinelli 17051782 0 Castrato Corelli 16531713 0 Sonatas and Concertos o Sonata da ChiesaChurch Sonata sf sf o Sonata da CameraChamber Sonata f sf o Trio Sonata2 violins continuo cello and keyboard Vivaldi 16781741 0 VenicequotRed Priestquot 0 500 Concertos RipienoTutli vs Concertino o Ripieno plays ritornello Concertino plays episodes RipienoString Concerto o Bach 16851750 0 Born in Eisenach 1694 Mother died 0 1695 Father died 0 Lived with brotherJohann Christoph Bach 0 Brother was student of Pachabel 170002 soprano in Luneburg 0 teacher Bohm 1703 Weimar Chamber musician 0 17031707 organist at Arnstadt Oct 1705Jan 1706 to see Buxtehude 17071708 Muhlhausen as organist 0 Married Maria Barbara in 1707 0 170817 Weimar organist o 1710 birth of Wilhelm Friedemann 0 171314 Vivaldi transcriptions o 1714 Birth of CPE Bach 17171723 Cothen capellmeister head chamber musician 1720 death of Maria Barbara wife and 2nCI cousin 0 1721 Remarries to Anna Magdalena Wilcke o keyboardist 0 17231750 Leipzig Cantor 0 BWV Bach Werke Verzeichis o 1950 Wolfgang Schmieder Pachelbel Simple chorale preludes Clearly presented melodies Chorale fugue o Chorale prelude that uses rst phrase of chorale as fugue subject
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