New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIOL 1080, Behavioral Neurobiology

by: Tmn7rc

BIOL 1080, Behavioral Neurobiology 1080 - 001

Marketplace > University of Virginia > 1080 - 001 > BIOL 1080 Behavioral Neurobiology
GPA 2.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes are all ideas and information from the class issued textbook and Professor Mellon. These notes sum up the chapters to be covered on the Final Exam.
Behavioral Neurobiology
Deforest Mellon
75 ?




Popular in Behavioral Neurobiology

Popular in Department

This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Tmn7rc on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 1080 - 001 at University of Virginia taught by Deforest Mellon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.

Similar to 1080 - 001 at UVA


Reviews for BIOL 1080, Behavioral Neurobiology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/28/16
2ndHour Test = Final Exam Review (Chapters 5, 6, 9, 11, & 12) Chapter 5: Mate Calling in Crickets 2600 modern species of crickets Most crickets= bush crickets (Tettigoniidae), field crickets (Gryllidae), mole crickets (Gryllotalipidae) Avoid predators by hiding, burrowing, camouflage, fleeing, and freezing -Ventriloquism- produce a song composed of brief, irregular chirps making crickets hard to locate -Fall silent- when crickets fall silent in order to make themselves merely invisible at night to avoid predators. Only the male cricket sings -Calling song- attracts females (it is this song that attracts females for mating, NOT odor or sight of the male cricket) -Courtship song- facilitates copulation and may attract other female crickets -Aggressive song- establish territory, combat with other males Song Production Male rapidly opens and closes front wings in scissor motion (stridulation) which is successfully done by the file and scraper of the wings. File- row of raised teeth, underside of 1 wing Scraper- hard cuticular ridge next to file on wing’s edge Sound is generated during the closing stoked of wings NOT when reopened Scraper drags file = high frequency sound, such as when a human drags their thumb along the teeth of a comb. Chirp- Series of syllables separated by pause before the next chirp Trill- prolonged period of chirps Song- Series of chirps that are 4 syllables long Central Nervous System of Cricket Ganglia chain- neurons linked by pairs and connectives= 2 way lanes for signals going up and down the ganglion chain. Brain- Front most ganglion of the cricket Neural Circuitry  Song Production Song Production mainly occurs in the mesothoracic and metathoracic ganglia of the cricket Motor neurons do the work, and the rhythmic activation of them = wing opening and closing- which requires a wing opener and a wing closer st 1 - Action potential = which is produced by a mesothoracic motor neuron that innervates M90, lasts about a millisecond. 2 - Muscle contraction= lasts about 40 – 50 ms. General Consensus- cricket song derives from a central pattern generator in the thoracic ganglia Triggering a Song Song is triggered in the brain of the cricket -Huber studied how focal electrical stimulation of the brain could elicit calling and courtship songs -Otto- Studied descending fibers from the cricket brain, and how they can trigger song output from the throracic ganglia -Bentley- Concluded a single descending interneuron led to different cricket songs, indicating that a single one can carry information for different songs Neural Architecture of Sound Production- Huber 1. Patterned songs and transtions = NOT related to timing cues of electrical stimuli, NOT patterned 2. Increase of stimulus strength and frequency = faster chirp rate, chirp rate only modified by the brain 3. Increase in frequency or strength = increase probability for transitions from calling to either courtship or aggression songs 4. Longer brain stimulation = longer the elicited song lasts 5. Stimulation of some brain regions suppresses song. Suppression region OFF= postinhibitory rebound causing a new song to occur or sometimes the reappearance of a previous song. Song Recognition by the Female Female crickets will approach the song of a male cricket. No song is random Syllabe rate matters NOT the number of syllables of a song to appropriately attract females (~ 30 syllables per sec. = good chance of attracting female) Calling song’s essential feature = modulation of 5 kHz sound at 30 per sec will attract female Recognition and Localization of Song Crickets ears= just below their knees of their fore legs on each side Sound= large eardrum (Tympanum) - on back of leg Crickets use sound pressure info from both inside and outside of their eardrums to localize the sound of a song Chapter 5 In Class Lecture Cricket songs are sexual communications generated by males scraping their hind wings together A single wing closure generates a constant frequency pulse Pulse is like a syllable Chirp = number of pulses Sequence= series of chirps or a trill Cricket ears (tympanum)- located at the prothoracic legs Spiracle- allows direct gaseous dispersion to cricket organs, opening of the trachea system allowing the cricket to “breathe” Songs can be analyzed in terms of the underlying physiology of the muscles and motor neurons of the cricket During a song, spiking activity in interneurons and motor neurons fire rhythmically. Each motor neuron spike generates a muscle AP that causes a smooth contraction of the wing closer muscle, which causes a smooth contraction of the wing closer muscle Constant frequency brain stimulation can generate song patterns characteristics of natural behaviors Chapter 6: Flight in Locusts Locusts are the only creatures mentioned in this course that has caused a plague Have a highly efficient motor system Order – Orthoptera Located in- warm regions, temperate climates, grasslands, and with vegetation To Fly Locusts have 2 pairs of wings attached to their thorax Wings beat ~ 20 Hz in a stable patterns, quite complexly Wings move up and down and back and forth How/Why? Phasic contractions of 10 pairs of muscles per wings 4 wing depressors, 6 wing elevators Depressors activated when wings are at the top and doing an upstroke which leads to down stroke movement Elevators active at the bottom of down stroke to lead to elevations What is the stimulus that initiates and maintains flight in the locust? Based on WelsFogh’s study- as long there was a stream of wind directed at the head of a locust, their receptor hairs will be activated, and it will cause the locust to maintain a continuous flight. Flight is triggered by wind hitting the head of the locust. Chapter 6 In Class Lecture Wilson’s Simple model of the Central Pattern Generator (CPG) -Just because an impaled neuron fires at some phase of the flight rhythm doesn’t mean that it’s part of the CPG, it could simply be a follower neuron, such as one of the motor neurons during behavior Detecting Motor Neurons By injecting current and thereby resetting the rhythm, the impaled neuron can be shown to participate in pattern generation Semi-reduced preparations Several different thoracic ganglion interneurons have been identified that are rhythmically active in phase with the motor output Stimulating motor neurons does NOT reset the flight patterns; stimulating essential interneurons does reset it Interneurons- crucial to flight pattern generator extend within the thoracic ganglia In general, arthropod CNS’s are highly complex morphologically and functionally invertebrates. This complexity is achieved by multi-neuronal circuits Back to locusts Wind strongly activates head sensory receptors, thereby triggering the flight pattern generator via cells 206 and 504. 504 excites elevator motor neurons and simultaneously cell 301. Activity in 301 inhibits cell 211, thereby disinhibiting cell 501 which inhibits cell 206 and 301, terminating its own excitation After delay, initial excitation of 301 leads to excitation of depressor motor neurons leading to life and forward thrust. Role of proprioceptors in regulating the CPG Wing stretch receptors directly excite all depressor motor neurons and directly inhibit elevator motor neurons Companiform sensilla on the wings also have strong inputs to the flight motor neurons. Wilson determined that removing all proprioceptive inputs resulted in the CPG frequency being reduced by ~ 1/2. Afferent input from the tegula is phase locked to wing elevation, and via interneuron 566, adds drive to the elevator motor neurons. Tegula afferents can reset the flight rhythm, thus they’re integral to the pattern generating circuit Flying of the Locust Yaw- rotation around horizontal axis Roll- rotation around longitudinal axis Pitch – rotation around axis perpendicular to longitudinal axis A tethered locust subjected to small changes in yaw angle compensates by altering timing differences in left/right pairs of motor neurons thereby modifying flight direction Three-head sensory systems= important in maintaining stable flight in the locus Wind-detecting hair pads transmit deviations in straight ahead flight via paired TCG neurons A wind deviation to the right is signaled in the right TCG neuron by phased, increased spiking activity, while spiking activity in the left TCG declines 3 additional bilateral pairs of interneurons descend from the brain, their activity can be driven by input from ipsilateral ocellus, the medial ocellus, and contralateral ocellus. ~25 DDNs in locust CNS, most are multimodal, DDNs are featured detectors


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.