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HY 104 lecture notes for all year

by: Conner Jones

HY 104 lecture notes for all year HY 104

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Conner Jones
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Elmore HY 104 semester's worth of lecture notes
American Civilization Since 1865
Bart Elmore
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This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by Conner Jones on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Bart Elmore in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see American Civilization Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/28/16
History January 19, 2016 A new birth of freedom, 1865-1867  Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant  About 625,000 dead on both sides (North: 365,000 South: 260,000) Early Plans for Reunion (1863-1865)  Lincoln’s 10% Plan (Dec 1863)- southern states can rejoin union such that 10% of the citizen’s pledge oath of loyalty to the US, get property back, have to abolish slavery Political parties  Copperhead democrats- referring to snakes, want war to end just to have peace but couldn’t care less about slavery or terms after war  War democrats- want to finish war and not let south off, do not believe in racial equality  Radical republicans- believe in racial equality  Free Soilers- don’t care about equality, fight slavery to help poorer white farmers Wade Davis bill- over 50% of population must pledge oath of loyalty, confederate officers cannot serve or hold office, make sure there is racial equality th 13 Amendment- outlawed slavery in the US, passed Jan 31, 1865 The Corwin Amendment- proposed 13 amendment, almost passed in 1861 which would have disallowed congress from interfering with states about banning slavery Lincoln’s Assassinated and Presidential Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson (1865-1867)  Andrew Johnson grew up very poor and hated rich southern slave owning elites  He gave amnesty to most southern elites Black Codes- laws passed that restricted black’s freedom and forced them into labor Radical Reconstruction (1866-1867)  Renewed Freedmen’s Bureau in 1866 o established in 1865 by Congress to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South after war  14 Amendment passed June 14 , 1866- no state shall deprive any person of life liberty of property without due process of law. Doesn’t directly give blacks the right to vote, just evens out representation if they chose not to allow them to vote.  Reconstruction Acts of 1867- divide south into military districts (managed my Edwin M Stanton) to make sure blacks can vote and south is following up on 14 amendment.  Tenure of Office Act of 1867- president cannot remove member of cabinet without approval from congress Andrew Johnson impeachment trial in 1868 January 21, 2016 A nation Backslides: Compromise and Redemption Dramatic changes, later cause backlash Andrew Johnson’s Impeachment trial in 1868  House of Representatives votes to impeach him  Senate vote impeach: 35/not impeach: 19 (hangs onto job by one vote) Election of 1868 and Radical reconstruction continues  Ulysses S. Grant chosen as Republican (wins in close election)  Horthio Seymour and Francis P. Blair choses as democrats  15 amendment passed in Feb 1869 o gave colored people the right to vote  Senator Hiram Revels first African American senator in 1870  Senator Blanche K Bruce, first African American senator to serve a full term in 1875  Freedmen’s Bureau Schools created Reconstruction success breeds southern backlash  KKK  Vigilante violence  Colfax Massacre, Colfax Louisiana in 1773 o On Easter Sunday members of White League surrounded courthouse and pointed cannon at courthouse, deaths- white: 3/blacks: 150  Grant implements the Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871 o Goes after KKK and White League o Declared unconstitutional in 1875 by congress Radical republicans on decline in 1870s  Thaddeus Stevens dies in 1868 as well as many others radical republicans  Liberal Republicans take rise  Presidential scandals o Whiskey Ring Scandal of 1875  Economy in shambles o Panic of 1873  Civil rights act of 1875 o “all persons within US shall be entitled to the full and equal rights”  Compromise of 1877- o committee decides president due to election of 1876 being too close o Rutherford B Hays wins on 8-7 o Compromise said that if Rutherford Hays could be president we would leave south alone o Also gave them a southern transatlantic railroad route January 26, 2016 Central question: what forces encouraged big business growth during the gilded age? Second industrial revolution fosters a new Gilded Age (1870s-1900) The second industrial revolution  Central pacific and Union Pacific railroads connect to become first US transcontinental railroad (1879-1893) o Creates cities o Creates markets due to easier transport from out west o Consuming goods like steel, coal, lumber, etc.  technological transformation o the telegraph (1861) o telephone invented (1876) Alexander Graham Bell o phonograph (1877) Thomas Edison o light bulb (1879) Thomas Edison o electric power generator (1880s) Thomas Edison  new business organization o Andrew Carnegie- Carnegie Steel Company o Vertical integration- owning some/all stages of production in a company o Horizontal integration- buying out all competitors o John D. Rockefeller- Standard oil (owns 90% of nations oil)  Government aids big businesses o Gave railroad companies land and huge gov’t grants o Lax corporation laws in New Jersey and New York to entice people to move there  Cheap immigrant labor o Take advantage of new immigrants moved out west from gold rush The era of mass-marketed consumer goods arrives  Coca-Cola capitalism o John Pemberton invents Coca-Cola, Atlanta, 1886 January 28, 2016 o Wine laced with cocaine o Banned not because of cocaine, but because of alcohol o The coca cola we know today is the non alcoholic version of Pemberton’s drink o Cocaine gets removed from product in 1903 but coca leaf remains o By 1910 coca cola is number one buyer of sugar (vertically integrated) Beneath the Golden Façade  Dispossessing native Americans of their land (approximately 250,000 Native Americans in the west in 1900) o Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)- Montana territory, realized there was gold there and wanted land back. General Custer and his men killed. US army goes after them with a vengeance forcing them to surrender by 1877 o Congress passed laws to strip Native Americans of land.  Dawes Act- divide up native American land and give them to individual Native American families to farm (some have farms; some just have land taken from them) o Wounded knee Massacre (1890)  Lakota Pine Ridge Reservation S. Dakota. Ghost dance that restored native American power. Troops are sent in and Sitting Bull killed. 146 native Americans slaughtered. Signaled the end of native American wars  Growing wealth inequality o By 1890 the richest 1 percent owned the same income as the whole bottom half Presidential politics in the 1880s  1877- Rutherford B. Hays 1881- James A. Garfield 1881-1885- Chester A. Arthur 1885-1899- Grover Cleveland 1889-1993- Benjamin Harrison o era before charismatic campaigning o closely contested elections throughout this period o 80% voter turnout (today: 55%-57%) o watchwords: political corruption and special interests o clear party platform  republican party platform o high protective tariffs- protects US firms o gold standard- currency backed by gold o pay off civil war debt and veterans pensions- get veterans vote  democrat party platform o low tariff o Laissez-faire government- “let it be” o Popular in the south The populists: Third political party  Roots of Agrarian Problem o Sharecropping- you give me land, in return I give you a share of my crop every year (created debt system and cycle of poverty)  Cotton prices fall significantly due to this  Farmers alliance o Sub treasury plan and gov’t lending programs o Regulate railroads- no more shipping fees o In short, they wanted populism “rule by the people” February 2, 2016  Farmers alliances and women o Women’s right to vote  Formation of the People’s Party and the Omaha Platform of 1892 o Direct election of senators o Public ownership of railroads o Government loans to farmers (sub treasury plan) o Graduated income tax o Soft money policy (more money available)  Election of 1892- populist elect James weaver  Failure to incorporate urban working class agitation o Three or four families lived together in tenant style housing o Many people died due to bad working conditions o Knights of Labor (1869)- skilled and unskilled workers o American Federation of Labor (1886)- skilled laborers (more selective) o Haymarket uprising, Chicago (1886) o Homestead Pennsylvania Strike (1892) o Pullman strike, nationwide (1894) o Northerners don’t want to pay higher prices for agricultural products  Election of 1896- populists (and democrats) elect William Jennings Bryan o Fighting for soft money o William McKinley wins election Birth of Jim crow Segregation  Poll taxes, grandfather clauses (if you have a grandfather who could vote in 1867, you can vote)- strips African Americans of political freedoms  Alabama legal code (1901)- separate schools shall be provided for white and colored children (can only attend school of race)  Plessy v. Ferguson- Homer Plessy gets on white rail car; case goes to Supreme Court. Supreme court rules that segregation is fine such that facilities are separate but equal  Lynchings- public killings  Resistance- WEB DuBois and Booker T Washington February 4, 2016 Imperial ambitions overseas: An American empire emerges 1890-1900  America’s isolationist Past o International context- Berlin conference, divides up colonial America o The Monroe Doctrine (1823)- any intervention by external powers in the politics of the Americas is a potentially hostile act against the US o Steward’s Icebox (1867)- the United States Secretary of State William Henry Seward purchased Alaska from Russia  Impetus for expansion o Gilded age economic expansion and panic of 1893 o Closure of the American frontier  Frederick Jackson turner- writes “Significance of the Frontier in American Society”, says that US is going to become weak once we do not have any more frontier to discover, says we must go oversees o Manifest destiny and the “white man’s burden”  Dwight Moody and the volunteer movement for foreign missions  Created missionary programs to spread Christianity oversees o Alfred Thayer Mahan and Sea Power  Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890) by Alfred Thayer Spanish American War (William McKinley)  Only lasts 4 months  “splendid little war”  admiral George Dewey, US Navy  Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders take San Juan Hill, Cuba, July 1, 1898  Treaty of Paris signed in December 1988 and Platt amendment o Platt amendment makes Cuba do basically what America wants What are the legacies of expansion?  The Insular Cases- deny the Filipinos constitutional rights because they look different than us February 9, 2016 The Progressive Era (1900-1914) America in a new Millennium  Tough living in dirty cities o Only 9 cities had more than 100,000 people at end of 19 th century o Pollution in streets (horse poop) o Rise of crime in cities o Nasty situations in factories like the meat packing industry o Air pollution from coal burning Roots of progressivism  A new middle class  Jane Addams and the Settlement House movement o Jane born in 1860 in Cedarville, Illinois o Graduate of Rockford Seminary o Proponent of social gospel o Pioneer in the Settlement House Movement- middle class people lived with lower class people to teach them values and ethics  Women’s Christian temperance union- wanted to ban alcohol National progressive politics beyond the city  President Teddy Roosevelt o Had asthma as a kid, seen as sickly kid in the family o Believed in the strenuous life (boxing, hard work) o Teddy Roosevelt and the rough riders of Spanish-American War (1898) o Became president after William McKinley was assassinated  Roosevelt’s Three C’s o Corporate control  Breaks up monopolies to bring prices down o Consumer protection  Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 (FDA) o Conservation  Wanted to preserve parks and resources The preservationists v. conservationists  Conservationists- Teddy Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot o Grand Canyon National Monument 1908 o US Forest Service (1905)- Roosevelt created this so we can preserve trees so we don’t use them up o Gospel of efficiency- we need to “efficiently” use resources if we want to prosper in the years ahead  John Muir and Sierra Club (1892) o Believed that we should be protecting nature, not just conserving it o John Muir’s trek through American south 1867-1868 o Sierra Club- founded by John Muir, helps preserve wildlands especially in California  The battle over Hetch Hetchy Valley February 16, 2016 Presidency of William H. Taft  Deviations from Roosevelt o Corporate control: Northern Securities Company V. United States (1904)- wanted to control most of railroads in US to form monopoly. US argued that they violated Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. US won and company broke up o William Howard Taft wins election of 1908 (won handily with support of Roosevelt) th o Taft supports passing of the 16 amendment (1913)- gave the federal government the right to impose income taxes in the US  Pinchot-Ballinger affair Election of 1912  New nationalism (Roosevelt) v. new freedom (Wilson) o Teddy Roosevelt, campaigning in 1912 as progressive party (bull moose party) o Woodrow Wilson is democratic party nominee  Supports states rights  Eugene V. Debs and the socialist party o Socialist party got 6% of national popular vote in 1912  Woodrow Wilson wins election o Democrats have the white house back, because:  Republicans split into two parties  South voted almost entirely democratic due to Jim Crow laws A shaky democracy ventures overseas (1900-1914)  The Roosevelt corollary- addition to Monroe doctrine, says that the U.S. could intervene in affairs of an American republic that is threatened with seizure or intervention by a European country  Dollar diplomacy- using a country's financial and business power to extend its influence internationally  Woodrow Wilson’s initial foreign policy Wilson faces war (1917-1919)  Assignation of Franz Ferdinand sets off world war 1  Reasons Wilson does not want to go to war o Wants to remain neutral o Wants to remain allies with Russia  Sussex pledge (1916)- Germans said they would stop unrestricted submarine warfare  Election of 1916: “I kept us out of the war” – Wilson The US declares war on Germany, April 6, 1917  Zimmerman telegram- meant for Mexico, US intercept, encourages Mexico to enter war on central powers side and take military action against US, if they do this Germany will acquire Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas for Mexico  Wilson says that we are going to war to “make the world safe for democracy” o Manifest destiny, US has a right to make world affairs right The roaring twenties – American returns to peacetime America at war (1917-1919)  Going to battle, spring of 1917 o America declares war on April 6 1917 o Commanded by general John J. Pershing  Brokering peace o The Bolshevik revolution of 1917 closes eastern front o On march of 1918, Russia under communist leadership opt out of the war o Wilson’s fourteen points of 1918 – restored peace after the war was over  Freedom of the seas  Free trade  National self-determination  Association of nations (League of Nations) o Wilson signs armistice on November 11, 1918 o Versailles treaty signed on June 28, 1919 o US congress doesn’t approve League of Nations The postwar economy roars after brief postwar depression (Roaring 20’s)  Fordism o Mass production of automobiles creates lots of jobs and stimulates market o Henry ford started Ford Motor company in 1905 o Model T becomes popular in the 19 teens  Electrical appliances, radios, and movies o Emergence of installment credit o In 1929 alone 80 million Americans go to the movies o People are spending more money than ever on luxury items Female liberation in the 1920’s th  The 19 amendment o Gives women the right to vote  Margaret sanger, birth control and flappers o American birth control league founded in 1921 o Flappers are fashionable young woman enjoying themselves and flouting conventional standards of behavior African American challenges to traditional America  The great migration 1919-1920 o Thousands of African Americans moving to northern cities like New York and Chicago  Harlem renaissance o Langston Hughes writes black pride poetry during this time period  African American freedom fighters o Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (1914) Conservative backlash  18 amendment (1919) and prohibition – alcohol is banned o people get alcohol from underground mobsters like Al Capone The Economy goes bust, 1929 Conservative backlash against change  eighteenth amendment (1919) and prohibition o banned the sale of alcohol in the United States o happened because whites thought that crime was driven by immigrants drinking too much o had to go to “speakeasy’s” to get alcohol, underground bars  The Red Scare (1919-1920) o The fear of communism taking hold in the United States, especially by immigrants coming into the country o Because of this, we pass strict immigration reform o J Edgar Hoover leads the Palmer Raids that root out communist within the United States, head of the Radical Division of Justice Dept.  Resurgence of the KKK o 40,000 members of KKK march on Pennsylvania avenue in Washington DC problems fester in the American economy  Warren G Harding, Calvin Coolidge’s and Herbert Hoover’s administration (1921-1932) o Warren G Harding “return to normalcy”  Very pro business  Reduced taxes on wealthy  Involved in lots of scandals  Dies in 1923 o Calvin Coolidge becomes president after Harding dies (1923- 1929)  Revenue Act of 1924 and 1926- reduced tax burden on wealthy  Does not support regulations to help farmers o Herbert hoover wins election of 1928 (1929-1933)  “we in America today are near to the final triumph of poverty than ever before in the history of the land”  stock market speculation and Black Tuesday (Oct 29, 1929) o low taxes on wealthy creates cash for investment o trading on debt  run on the banks o over 1,500 banks fail in 1932 o even people that had money in the bank but not investing in the stock market lost it all because the banks were trading it out on margin  deeper problems: too many goods not enough buyers o 5% of the nation held 1/3 of the nation’s wealth in 1929 As the depression worsens Hoover promotes volunteer relief (1930-1932)  donates his entire salary to charity  government shouldn’t be involved in fixing the depression, let the economy work itself out  hoover ball- throwing medicine ball over volleyball net and trying to knock over other team The First New Deal 1932-1935 The Depression worsens as Herbert Hoover fails to act  Hoovervilles – shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s  Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932) – provided financial support to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations and other businesses Franklin Delano Roosevelt promises a New Deal  Contracted polio but came back and elected governor or NY  Hoover raises taxes with the Revenue Act of 1932  FDR’s first inaugural address, 1933 o “we have nothing to fear but fear itself” –FDR  FDR was not o Communist party  FDR was the GREAT EXPERIMENTER The first hundred days  Bank holiday and going off the gold standard  The federal deposit insurance corporation (FDIC)  Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 – commercial banks and securities firms are separated. Banks cannot invest in the stock market, made banks hold your money. Later repealed by Bill Clinton in 1999. Reviving American business  National industrial recovery act (NIRA) of 1933 – allowed businesses to come together and decide wages and prices Programs to create jobs  The public works administration (PWA)  The civilian conservation corps (CCC) 1933 – way to give young men jobs by giving them public relief jobs such as railroads, national parks, etc.  The Tennessee valley authority (TVA) – federal agency that controls the electricity, irrigation and flood control from the dams and reservoirs along the Tennessee River Housing  Federal housing authority (FHA) 1934 – provides loans to private banks who then loan money out to home buyers Programs to fix agricultural programs  Agricultural adjustment act (AAA) 1933 – provides federal funds to farmers to keep them afloat in this time.  The dust bowl The Second New Deal (1935-1938) Government Plans to end the dust bowl  WPA (works progress administration) – created in 1935, creates millions of jobs where people built railroads, bridges, roads, etc.  Resettlement administration (1935-1936) – moved struggling families from dust bowl areas into communities planned by the federal government, smart plan but doesn’t really work  What ends the dust bowl? o In 1941, rains come  Ogallala aquifer – a water table tapped into on the great planes to help prevent another dust bowl  Bureau of reclamation (1902) and Hoover Dam o Hoover Dam not only provides water, but becomes single largest provider of electricity in the US  JOBS: works progress administration  Social security act of 1935 – provide for the general welfare by establishing a system of Federal old-age benefits for retired, disabled, unemployed, etc.  Wagner act of 1935 – protect the rights of employees and employers to promote unionization  Fair labor standards act of 1938 – helps create first federal minimum wage. Banned child labor in many industries (children below age of 14) Pearl Harbor and World War II  Roots of World War 2 o Adolph Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany (1933)  National socialist German workers party (Nazi Party) o Global depression breeds extremism o Failings of Versailles Treaty (blamed Germany for WW1/Germany to pay reparations) o Other fascists uprisings  Benito Mussolini (Italy)  Francisco Franco (Spain) o Hitler seeks a unified Germany, invades Austria in 1938  Early attempts to calm Hitler’s aggression o Munich agreement (1938) o Kristallnacht (Nov 9 , 1938)  FDR and the US choose neutrality o National origins act of 1924 (restricted immigration) still in effect. Excluded large number of Jewish immigrants from entering US. Only about 8,500 Jews taken in out of about 30,000. o Neutrality act of 1935,36,37 – vowed to stay out of the war in Europe so we don’t reproduce WW1.  Germany invades Poland (Sept. 1939) – leads Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany  France falls (June 22, 1940)  FDR wins a third term (1940) nd o 22 amendment passed in 1947 – limited president to two terms o FDR approves lend lease act of 1941 – principle of providing US military aid to foreign nations during WW2  Japan, pearl harbor, and America goes to war Pearl Harbor and America at War  Pearl Harbor (Dec 7, 1941) o 24,000 killed, 18 war ships sunk o Jeanette Rankin – first us congresswoman elected in 1916; only person to vote against entering into WW2 America goes to war  Operation torch (1942) – decision by allies not to attack across English Channel, instead attacked axis powers through French controlled North Africa The United States is transformed by war  Government expansion: o Selective service act of 1940 – authorizes the federal government to draft males between the age of 21 and 35 into the military; first peace time draft enacted by government  War production board and office of price management – controlled the prices of things being produced in the US and the WPB partners with business and creates government contracts that oversees businesses to produce machines, planes, and weapons for WW2 o Ford Motor co. was producing B24 bombers instead of cars during WW2  New technologies: the allure of synthetics o Companies have to create synthetics because the national government was conserving raw materials  BF Goodrich produced synthetic rubber  Monsanto Co. produces synthetic caffeine o New chemical pesticides (DDT) – chemical produced for troops, thrown on troops to prevent lice in eastern Europe; later used as an insecticide sprayed all over the country; restricted use in 1972  Economy booms and depression ends  Women and minorities during wartime o Women and minorities getting jobs in the workforce o 65% of everyone in aircraft industry were women after war, 1% before the war Harry S. Truman becomes president, April 1945  Battle of Okinawa (April-June 1945) – series of battles fought in the Ryukyu Islands, centered on the island of Okinawa; 50,000 casualties, made Truman think twice about fighting the Japanese on land; made Truman think about using atomic bombs  60,000 people dead after first bomb dropped on Hiroshima  another 40,000k people dead after second bomb dropped on Nagasaki fear of communism on the rise (1946-54)  USSR and US relations sour as Cold War begins  Truman doctrine and policy of containment – US gets involved in the world to make sure communism doesn’t spread to other places  USSR successfully tests atomic bomb (1949)  The fall of china: Mao Tse Tung (Zedong comes to power in 1949)  North Korea invades south Korea (beginning of Korean War) o Douglas MacArthur commands the UN forces in Korea Fear of communism shapes politics at home  Election of 1948 o Truman’s fair deal – expand public housing, social security, social security, etc. o Dixiecrats platform – democrats that segregated from democratic party in 1948, called for “complete segregation of races”  House Un-American activities committee (HUAC) – a committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, investigated allegations of communist activity in the U.S. during the early years of the Cold War  Rise of McCarthyism – campaign against alleged communists in the US government and other institutions carried out under Senator Joseph McCarthy. Many of the accused did not in fact belong to the Communist Party We like Ike: election of 1952  Dwight D. Eisenhower nominated  Richard Nixon, VP candidate in 1952 America in the 1950’s  The affluent society: some big statistics o Baby Boomers: 97% of women were taking marriage vows between age of 19 and 30 o Gross National Product (GNP) more than doubles in the 50’s o Credit cards – first credit card was called the Diner’s Club card, came out in 1950; first card that could be used at multiple retailer stores o The affluent society – conditions in the US immediately after World War 2 with the economy booming and the rise in purchasing power for the middle class. Automobile culture in the 1950’s o 7 million cars roll off the lot in 1955 o 80% of American families will have a car by the end of the 50’s  federal highway act of 1956 – cost 25 Billion dollars to build 40,000 miles of highway  suburbia: term for the movement of people out to the suburbs due to the highways systems and home loans guaranteed by the government (federal housing authority loans, FHA) during the 1950’s  GI Bill – A law passed in 1944 that provided education and other benefits for people who had served in the armed forces in WW2  Women in the 1950’s: women, including white middle class women, are suffering from sexism during the 50’s o During the war women represented about 25% of workers at Ford Motor company, by the end of the 50’s women represented only 6% Youth rebellion against conservative culture  Rock ‘n’ Roll like Elvis Presley  The beat generation – writers like Jack Kerouac that wrote about sex and drugs that went against popular conservative beliefs at the time Eisenhower reelected in 1956 and the Cold War continues  Sputnik 2 – soviets satellite launched into space in 1957 that carried a dog named Laika National defense education act of 1958 and NASA The modern civil rights movement from Sit-Ins to Selma Desegregating public spaces  Greensboro Sit in movement and the SNCC (1960) – black students go to a Woolworth store in North Carolina on Feb. 1 1960 and asked to be served where only whites were supposed to be served. Come back and over time hundreds of black students join them in sitting in at the lunch counters. Closed down business instead of integrating. Not until July of 1960 that the Woolworth store finally integrates.  SCLC (Southern Christian leadership conference) – founded by adults, clergyman like MLK, a civil rights organization that played a major role in the civil rights movement  Ella Baker cofounds the student nonviolent coordinating committee (SNCC) so that the students have a voice in the civil rights movement  The Freedom Ride of 1961 – black and white students that left Washington, D.C., on two public buses bound for the Deep South. They intended to test the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional o Bombed in Aniston, Alabama on may 14, 1961 o John Lewis and Jim Zwerg (left college to join freedom ride) were attacked in Birmingham during the Freedom Rides Pro-segregationist resistance continues  Project C or project confrontation which said that they were going to confront the law enforcement in Birmingham in hopes that police would turn violent to show the world how corrupt the deep south was. A lot of mixed feelings about this. o Around 2,500 people jailed due to this project, 2,000 of which were children  Wallace’s stand at the schoolhouse door – governor of Alabama, George Wallace, made a speech at foster auditorium at the university of Alabama in June 1963  Vivian Malone becomes first black student to graduate from the University of Alabama  James Hood also enrolls at UA but leaves after bullying from whites, comes back later and gets his PHD here at UA The march on Washington for jobs and freedom (August 28 , 1963) – political rally in Washington DC where MLK gave his “I have a dream” speech.  Selma marches to Montgomery (March 7-25 1965) – MLK leads thousands of marchers from from Selma to Montgomery (54 miles, takes 5 days) where people were campaigning for voting rights. Kennedy, Johnson, and the Great Society in the 1960’s The Election of 1960  JFK was democratic nominee; Richard Nixon was republican nominee; JFK narrowly wins  First televised national debate between Nixon and JFK in September 1960, 44% of nation is watching The Kennedy administration (1961-1963)  Containing communism: the space race and Cuba o Space Race – Yuri Gagarin (Russia) goes into space and orbits the planet; US becomes competitive and promises to put a man on the moon before the 1960’s is over. Ends up succeeding in 1969  The Cuban missile crisis (October 1962) – Cuba has prepared Medium Range Ballistic Missiles (MRBM) and it begins a confrontation between the Soviet Union and the US over the presence of these missiles.  Promoting freedom at home: Kennedy and civil rights  Kennedy’s assassination on November 22, 1963 Lyndon Baines Johnson becomes president after assassination of JFK  LBJ and civil rights: the civil rights act of 1964 – withheld federal funds from segregated events; outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin Election of 1964  Republican nominee Barry Goldwater, democratic nominee LBJ  The Daisy commercial – suggests that if Barry Goldwater becomes president there will be an atomic war, gets removed very fast because it is so ridiculous Johnson’s administration  Voting rights act of 1965 – eliminated various devices, such as literacy tests, that had traditionally been used to restrict voting by black people  The great society – fight to end poverty, domestic program in the administration of LBJ that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs such as Medicare (elderly), Medicaid (poor), food stamps, Headstart education program (financial support for poor kids education) Nixon, Watergate and the crisis of confidence  Election of 1968 – Republican nominee, former Vice President Richard Nixon, won the election over the Democratic nominee, incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey; George Wallace ran as an independent and got 5 southern states  Vietnamization – giving over the war to Vietnamese fighters; let our boys come home. Support the Vietnamese, but let them fight  Silent majority – term used by President Richard Nixon to indicate his belief that the great body of Americans supported his policies about the involvement in the Korean War  Kent state university shootings – (1970) unarmed students demonstrating against United States involvement in the Vietnam War were fired on by panicky troops of the National Guard. Four students were killed and nine wounded Richard Nixon’s domestic policies  Expansion of social welfare programs o COLA – cost of living adjustment; expanded social security benefits and food stamp program  Environmental protection o Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring to make awareness about how dirty we were making the springs; devoted to defending the natural world against pollution. Her best-known book is Silent Spring, concerning the overuse of pesticides and weed killers and how it was polluting springs o Cuyahoga river – river in Cleveland Ohio that caught on fire due to the extreme amount of pollution (fossil fuels) in it o EPA (environmental protection agency) – created in 1970, protects human and environmental health o Clean air act – (1970) limited what humans were allowed to release into the air through emissions o Clean water act – (1972) limited what humans were allowed to release into the water Election of 1972  Committee to re-elect the president (CREEP) – Nixon’s campaign to get re-elected in 1972; runs against George McGovern (radical democrat)  Watergate scandal (1972) – scandal that involved the break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. and President Richard Nixon's administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement Jimmy Carter’s administration  Election of 1976 – Jimmy Carter (republican nominee) versus Gerald Ford (democratic nominee), voter turnout was very low at 55%  Bad president on domestic policy, great president on foreign policy (general thought)  Camp David Accords of 1978 – Egypt’s Anwar Sadat and Israel’s Menachem Begin sign a peace treaty on September 17, 1978  Stagflation and the energy crisis o Stagflation – rising unemployment combined with high levels of inflation o Jimmy carter’s report to the American people on energy, February 2, 1977 – says “I can’t fix this by myself, we have to work together, conserve energy by wearing a sweater instead of turning up heat” Iran Hostage Crisis (1979)  militants in Iran seized 66 American citizens at the U.S. embassy in Tehran, holding 52 of them hostage for more than a year. Made diplomatic relationship between US and Iran very bad  crisis of confidence speech – (1979) one of our policies is us, not our policies. We need to have different values and stop worshipping self indulgence. Ronald Reagan revolution (1981-1989)  in early life he was a huge new deal democrat, voted for FDR all four times  Reaganomics and the Trickle-Down theory – if we cut taxes on the wealthy the money will “trickle down” to the less wealthy o ERTA – economic recovery tax act; lowered income tax rates and allowed for expensing of depreciable assets, nominal tax rate dropped from 71% to 28% o National debt under Reagan went up dramatically due primarily to defense spending for the Cold War  Reagan and the Cold War o Calls the Soviet Union an “evil empire” o 1980’s cold war culture: good v. evil  democracy good, communism bad  rise of religious (evangelical) right – groups like Moral Majority led by Jerry Falwell sought to bring the core Christian values back by supporting candidates Reaganomics from 85-89  Steve jobs with Macintosh computers, 1984  Buying on credit takes off in the 80’s, in 1970 only 1/6 of Americans had credit cards, by 1998 2/3 Americans had credit cards America in the wake of the cold war (1989-1992)  Iran-Contra Scandal (86-87) – US exchanged weapons in return of the release of hostages from Iran terrorists; US government funds the Contras in Nicaragua and is negotiating with terrorists; Lt. Colonel Oliver North was scapegoat for this whole situation and Reagan was pardoned The cold war comes to an end  Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan o Perestroika – economic reconstruction  Fall of the Berlin Wall (Nov. 1989) – Ronald Reagan tells Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall (symbol of cold war)  What happens in the 1980’s? o Tremendous wealth generated. Inflation drops from 13.5% in 1981 to 3.5% in 1988 o Unemployment declines to 5.3% (over 10% in the 80’s) o Wealth gap widens, richest 1% own 40% of nations wealth by mid 90’s o Wages stagnate for middle class o Credit cards use increase dramatically o National debt almost triples o Cold war comes to an end Election of 1988  George H. W. Bush v. Michael Dukakis  Willie Horton commercial – commercial that showed Dukakis’ stance on crime, letting criminals have ‘weekend passes’ when Willie Horton went on to rape a girl during one of these weekends  George H. W. Bush’s speech “read my lips, no new taxes” – this becomes the slogan for his campaign; ends up raising taxes and loses to Clinton in 1992 George HW Bush early years in office  The Gulf War (1991) o Operation desert storm – military operation in which international armed forces, including British and US troops, attacked Iraq in the Gulf War. It began on 16 January 1991 and lasted 100 days Globalization of the economy and economic woes at home  Rio earth summit of 1992 - UNFCCC – united nations framework convention on climate change tried to limit emissions of greenhouse gasses to prevent global warming Racial strife in America  Rodney king beatings – LA man convicted of a robbery, on parole driving drunk trying to get away from cops, once caught he is beaten by cops very harshly; jury says police officer is not guilty, causes major riots and over $1B in damages The Clinton years and neoliberal expansion overseas (1992-2000)  America’s dependence on oil Clinton’s economic reforms  “The end of big government” o new democrat – about elegant government, focusing on middle class issues people living in suburbs, not into big government o national debt in the 1990’s – first budget surplus since the 1950’s, Clinton worked with the republican congress to make spending cuts; this was because they were not at war, and US economy is generating tons of revenue  north American free trade agreement (NAFTA) – 1994, an agreement among the United States, Canada and Mexico designed to remove tariff barriers between the three countries republican congressional resurgence in 1994  newt Gingrich and the Contract with America – we are going to sign a contract with America to introduce tax cuts, a permanent line-item veto, measures to reduce crime and provide middle-class tax relief, and constitutional amendments requiring term limits for congress and a balanced budget; this leads to republicans taking over congress election of 1996  Clinton beats Dole The Dot-Com boom and neoliberal expansion overseas  the dot com boom – In 1996 only 9% of Americans were on the internet, by 2007 76% of Americans are on the internet; dot com bust later because companies couldn’t ship to everyone  repeal of the Glass-Steagall act – (1999) glass steagall act  the world trade organizations (WTO) and globalization o world trade organizations – only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world's trading nations and ratified in their parliaments  Monica Lewinsky scandal – a sexual relationship between 49-year-old President Bill Clinton and a 22-year-old White House employee, Monica Lewinsky; Lewinski tells Linda Tripp her story and she records her behind Lewinsky’s back. News breaks in 1998. Bill Clinton was investigated by an independent council. The House impeaches Clinton; senate does not agree to impeach him. summary of US economics in the 1990’s  economy is booming due to dot-com companies  US enjoys cheap energy economy  Clinton produces budget surpluses in 1998  Clinton remains a proponent of free trade  Developing nations become subservient to demands of TO and other international neoliberal organizations  Wealth gap continues to grow in US The final lecture: America since Y2K  Political partisanship and the polarization of American politics o Al Gore wins’ popular vote but George Bush wins’ electoral vote. Had to recount in Florida o Polarization partially because of creation of news networks like Fox News and CNN The American economy’s dependence on oil  Peak oil – hypothetical point in time when the global production of oil reaches its maximum rate, after which production will gradually decline Growth of the national debt  Today we are $19.2 Trillion dollars in debt Growing wealth gap in America What we have learned from American history: we work best when we work together.


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