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Geology Notes Bundle

by: Carter Cox

Geology Notes Bundle GEO 101

Carter Cox

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covers notes in geology 101
Dynamic Earth
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This 30 page Bundle was uploaded by Carter Cox on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Bundle belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Keene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/30/16
Geology Notes Bundle Geology 101 First Week Notes (Highlighted Words Are Important) What is Science? - A method for learning about the natural world - Anyone can follow  The Scientific method is not linear Exploration and Discovery - Making observations - Asking questions - Finding inspiration - Exploring the Literature  Know a lot about your field before asking questions Identifying a Problem - Example- Apples are falling from trees and that is a problem. Why? o Gravitation is what is causing the apples to fall - Look at the world around you, and ask why Testing Ideas - Hypothesis- A “proposed explanation” for specific problem o Has explanatory power o Can be tested by further investigation - Prediction- What we would logically expect to observe if a particular idea were true or false o A prediction can be about the past, present and future  Ex. Future- making a prediction then having to wait for the end result  Conceivable pathway Prediction Vs. Hypothesis - Prediction: Black car will be hotter than a white car in the sun. - Hypothesis: Dark colored objects absorb more solar heat than light colored objects o Explanatory Power is key Data- - Information gleaned from observations- usually observations that are made in a standardized way - Systematically collected o Example: Exact Height - Not anecdotal information- no telling, have to actually take measurements and experiment yourself - Is direct observation needed? No!! Evidence- - Test results and/ or observations that may either help, support, or help refute a scientific idea o Gathering for a reason o Have to ask yourself what you are looking for and why o Data is a set of numbers and if not questioned it isn’t evidence Community Analysis and Feedback – arguably the most important - Feed back and peer review - Republication - Discussion Publishing- this is how scientists communicate - Journals o 1,350,000 peer reviewed scientific articles in 2006 - Conference - Books - An open, continuous debate Scientific Theory: A widely accepted explanation for why things work the way they do - Greater breadth than hypothesis o Often includes hypothesis - Not a guess, hunch, or some random thought - Theories are extremely well tested  You have to have the highest certainty Example: Newton’s Laws Proving Vs. Disproving - Not trying to prove - Look for new information - Anytime any day something (evidence) will be found - Closest to the truth as you can get Benefits and Outcome - Develop Technology - Build knowledge Continual Testing - Theories are never proven Assumptions - Science has rely on assumptions - Not trivial o Example: Dropping an object. We assume it will always fall Uniformitarianism: Physical processes have always functions in basically the same manner - Gravity - Speed of light Can be complicated - Climate (glaciers etc.) - Plate tectonics (Changing rate) Common Misconceptions - Scientists are always changing their mind! o Often due to news articles  Misunderstood scientific method  Misunderstood research results - Conformation Bias o If we see something we like we do it o If we see something we don’t like we don’t do it - Anecdotal evidence - Common Sense- mathematical sense - Causation vs. correlation Who are Scientists? - Anyone using the scientific method Where do scientists work? - Big universities or government o Doing all types of research o Must publish - Industry Where does the money come to fund? - Industry o Consumers - University and Government o Government  NSF, NIH, NOAA, NASA, Defense o Non- profit  National geographic o Industry  Oil, computer Geology 101- Earth Formations Science and the nation - What is the gain of science? o Economic o Health o Defense o Engineering (of all sorts) Geology: the scientific study of the “composition, behavior, and history” of the earth or other planetary body - Geologists study every aspect of earth (and other planets) o Land o Air o Oceans Divisions of Geology - Petrology - Volcanology - Geophysics - Structure - Hydrology - Paleontology - Paleoclimatology - Geochemistry …. (Many more) Why is Birmingham there? - Near iron ore deposits - Near limestone Birmingham Steel - Red mountain is made of iron ore - Many different coal and limestone deposits - Iron ore is not usable iron- you must smelt it o Iron ore and limestone and coke (coal and charcoal) Alabama is made 70% of confederate iron 1920’s- Birmingham made 25% of the US supply 1970’s- close of many mines Geology and Alabama Economic Industrial Mineral (2007) - $1.34 billion in value - 2, 347 employee’s Coal (2007) - Worth more than $1 billion annually - 70% of Alabama electricity is from coal - 3, th3 Employee’s (2007) - 13 annually (2013) Oil and Gas - 2.4 billion - briths $500 million to state in fees/ taxes - 16 thtionally in oil (2015) - 16 nationally in gas (2014) If something is not grown, it is mined Career in Geology - Everything human use is either grown or mined o To do this geologists must  Find  Grade  Extract  Usually clean up… the material that is to be used Who hires? - Industry - Government - Universities Big Bang- GA (billions of years ago) - 13.7 GA (billions of years ago) - Formed universe as we know it - NOT creation of all matter - 3 major pieces of evidence o 1) Expansion of the universe  Einstein 1917- cosmological constant  Edwin Hubble- 1929  All galaxies are moving away from us o 2) Abundance of Light Elements  Early Universe very hot  No atoms could from  Cooling brought formation of Hydrogen and Helium  Built model- made prediction  24% of ordinary matter should be helium o 3) Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  Heat left over from big bang  Predicted – 1918  Found- 1965 Time line - 13.7 GA o Hydrogen o Helium - 13.5 GA o Nebulae formed - 12.9 GA o First stars - 4.57 GA o Our solar system comes together - 4.54 GA o Earth Formed - 4.53 GA o Moon formed - 4.5 GA o Differentiation Earth Structure - Magnetic field- keeps in atmosphere - Atmosphere - Internal layer Earth Magnetic Field - Geographic north- magnetic south - Magnetic poles wander and reverse What is the Earth made out of? - Iron- 32.1% - Oxygen- 30.1% - Silicon- 15.1% - Magnesium- 13.9% - Other- 8.8% Geology Notes April 5 Paleography  ­ 90% of continental crust that we have today  ­ This is growing throughout the entire eon Supercontinents ­ Large land masses­ nearly all continents ­ Constant splitting and reassembling  ­ Profound affect on climate Rodinia – first supercontinent  Pannotia­ reverse of rodinia  Atmosphere  ­ Amount of oxygen increases so much  ­ Algae is causing the leap of oxygen  ­ How do we know this o BIF­ bandit iron formation   Cannot form unless a certain amount of oxygen is in the air  o This changes chemistry of ocean  Life  ­ Eukaryotic evidence = 2.7 Ga ­ First fossils from 2.1 Ga  ­ Symbiotic relationship Life Plants  ­ Ocean – algae ­ Land­ algae o Fungi fossil­ 650 to 544 Ma  o Molecular clock= 1.3 Ga  Ediacaran Fauna – soft bodied – very unlikely we have the fossils for them  ­ 565 Ma (million years) ­ Worms, jellyfish  ­ No shells  ­ Underwater Soft bodied fossils  Snowball Earth – glaciers everywhere ­ Glaciers on land ­ Possible frozen ocean ­ Mass extinction ends eon  End of the Proterozoic  Eras instead of eons End of Precambrian ­ this cover 90% of Earths history Paleozoic Era  ­ Early  ­ Middle  ­ Late Early Paleozoic  ­ Break up of Pannotia  ­ Epicontinental seas ­ Taconic Orogeny  o New England  ­ Ends in glaciation  Life  ­ Cambrian Explosion o Massive diversification of life  Plants ­ In oceans  o Algae  o Seaweed ­ Land o Simple fungi o Algae o Liverwort Animals  ­ Diverse shelled animals  ­ Trio bites ­ Sponges ­ Corals ­ Echinoderms  ­ First vertebrate o Jawless fish  Middle Paleozoic  ­ Paleogeography ­ Climate warmed and sea level rose o Reefs ­ Progenies Plants ­ Vascular plants  o Woody tissue, seeds, veins,  o Could grow larger  ­ Large swampy forests (mosses and ferns)  Animals  ­ Diverse shelled animals  ­ Fish: jawed, lobe fin, ray fin ­ Spiders and insects ­ 1  amphibians  Tiktaalik ­ Cross between fish and tetrapod ­ Fish o Fins  o Scales o Gills ­ Tetrapod­ anything that has these four appendages  o Flat head o Ribs o Neck o Fins support weight  Late Paleozoic  Paleogeography ­ Global cooling o Sea level drop ­ Pangaea forms  ­ Alleghanian orogeny o Appalachians  o Ancestral Rockies Plants ­ Gymnosperms  o Conifer o Cycads (palm like) o Ginkgo  Animals  ­ Amphibians diversify ­ 1  reptiles  o Eggs with shells   End of the Paleozoic Era ­ Giant extinction event at 248 million o 96% of marine species  o 70% of terrestrial species o Largest in history  Mesozoic Early Paleography  ­ Break up of Pangaea ­ North Atlantic Ocean ­ Inland seas Plants ­ Gymnosperms diversify Animals  st ­ 1stswimming and flying reptiles  ­ 1  turtles  ­ Coral  Dinosaurs! ­ Warm­blooded  ­ Huge sauropods ­ Feathered birds­ last dinosaurs  Mammals  ­ Very small ­ Not like modern  Late  Paleography ­ Pangaea broken o India  ­ Warming and sea level rise o Inland seas ­ Laramide orogeny  Plants st ­ 1  flowering plants  ­ Flowering plants and hardwoods take over  Animals  ­ Modern fish  ­ Dinosaurs diversify ­ Mammals diversify  End of Mesozoic ­ K­T boundary extinction event o Meteor  o Dinosaurs (except birds) o 75% plant life  Cenozoic Paleogeography ­ Himalaya formation ­ Atlantic and Pacific separated  Climate ­ Cooler climate o Grasslands ­ Ice age: o Creates land bridge Plants ­ Flowering plants and gymnosperms diversify  ­ 1  grasses  Animals  ­ Mammals diversify and flourished  o Giant mammals at first  Evolution of Humans  th Geology 101 Notes April 7   Energy and Mineral Resources ­ Sources of energy ­ Oil and natural gas formation and extraction ­ Coal formation energy sources ­ Ores and minerals Where does energy come from? ­ Sun o Solar energy  o Plant matter o Fossil fuel  o Wind ­ Gravity  o Tides­ o Falling water ­ Chemical Reactions ­ Nuclear Fission ­ Geothermal – happens in the center of the Earth  Oil and Natural Gas  ­ Hydrocarbon compounds  ­ Remains of marine algae and plankton  90 ­ oil shale  o black organic shale  160 ­ oil and natural gas 250 ­ natural gas Oil window is from 90 – 160 degrees Celsius  Oil and Natural Gas Trap ­ Source rock­ organic rich shale ­ Reservoir rock: high porosity and permeability o Sponge  o Porosity­ bunch of holes o Permeability­ holes next to each other  ­ Seal Rock  Where is oil found? ­ Anticline ­ Fault ­ Salt dome ­ Stratigraphic  Finding Oil and Natural Gas ­ Generate seismic waves ­ Look for folds  Extracting Oil and Natural Gas ­ Drilling o Puncture the seal rock  ­ Pumping  o Brings oil to the surface Refining Oil  ­ Crude oil is distilled  ­ Process depends on grade o Sulfur content  o Specific gravity Products made from a barrel of crude oil ­ Diesel 12 ­ Jet fuel 4 ­ Other product 7 ­ Gasoline 19 ­ Petroleum gas 2 Other types of Formations/ extractions ­ Tar Sands o Viscous oil in sand o Cannot pump  Mined then heated  Heated then pumped o Very expensive  ­ Oil Shale o Has not reached oil window  o Mined then heated o Very expensive ­ Fracking o Hydraulic fracturing   Extracting natural gas  o Increases well production o Drawbacks  Groundwater contamination  Land use issues  Running out of oil ­ Other sources exist o Liquefied coal o Oil shale o Tar sands o Methane hydrate ­ Not economically viable at current prices and technology  When will we run out of oil? ­ Geologist o Soon ­ Economists o Will stop using it first Coal  ­ Plant material buried  o Low oxygen  o Water squeezed out o 50 % C= Peat o 70 % C= coal  Coal Production ­ Coal not made all the time ­ Plenty of coal for now Coal Extraction ­ Strip mining o Coal < 100 m ­ Underground mining  o Coal > 100m o Very dangerous  Drawbacks of Fossil Fuels  ­ Air pollution o Particles and gases o Acid rain ­ Carbon dioxide o Greenhouse gas  ­ Byproducts o Mine runoff ­ Spills o Groundwater o Ocean  ­ Fatalities in mines o A lot  Alternate Energy Sources ­ 90% of world energy needs from non renewable fossil fuels ­ Possible alternate energy sources o We cover 5 Nuclear Power ­ Energy release when nucleus is split (fission) ­ Drawback  o Controlling nuclear reactions  Lot of work and planning   Potential meltdown  o Nuclear waste  Damaging to living organisms   Long time decay (decades­ centuries) Wind ­ Must have steady breeze ­ Clean ­ Drawbacks o Noisy o Ugly o Hazard to wildlife  Solar ­ Sunlight converted to electricity  ­ Clean ­ Drawbacks  o Not efficient  o Not cost effective                              Hydroelectric  ­ Two kinds o River  No pollutants   Drawbacks  Dams  o Tidal   No pollutants   Drawback   Construction  Geothermal ­ Use Earths eternal heat where it comes near surface ­ Use in two ways o Water o Steam to turn turbines ­ Drawbacks o Conditions limited  Geology Notes April 14 Hydrologic Circle - Circulation of Earths water supply Tributaries - Side channels that flow into the main channel of a stream Drainage Network - A group of interconnecting stream that form patterns reflecting the underlying geology Dendritic - Drainage network pattern that looks like a branching tree formed due to uniform underlying geology and slope Water Shed - Land area contributing water to a stream Divide - Imaginary line separating one basin from another Continental Divides - Water flowing down either side of this divide will flow to different oceans Permanent Stream - Stream that flows all year long because it is always at or below the water table Ephemeral Stream - Stream that does not flow all year because it is above the water table; dry climate Turbulence - Twisting, swirling motion Discharge - Volume/ time (gallons/ minute) in one section Sediment Load - Total volume of sediment carried Competence - Maximum particle size a stream can carry Capacity - Total quantity of sediment a stream can carry, depends on competence and discharge Deposition - Decrease in velocity that causes sediment to dump out of the water Base Level - Lowest elevation a stream can reach Floodplain - An area next to a stream that regularly gets flooded Recurrence Interval - Average number of year between floods of the same size Annual Probability - The likelihood that a flood of a given size will happen at a specific location during any given time Oceans and Coasts Urbanization - Increased paved areas - Building in floodplains - Pollution Agriculture - Increase sediment in streams - Change the stream chemistry o Fertilizers o Animal waste - Ecosystem change Dam Construction - Changes ecosystem o Migrating fish o Sediment load o Nutrients - Flood control o Positive and negative Overuse- our water - Central Arizona project canal - Los Angeles canal Ocean Floor Features Continental Shelf Continental Slope Abyssal Plain Seamounts Canyons (underwater) - Rivers cut into sediment Continental Margins - Passive - Active - Makes different shorelines Water - 3.5% o Halite, gypsum o Dense (how salty it is) o Salinity depends on location and temperature - Temperature o Latitude o Depth Currents - Flowing water in defined area o Surface o Deep Surface Currents - Driven by wind/ affected by Coriolis effect Deep Currents - Down welling - Upwelling - Caused by o Density (thermohaline circulation)  Temperature  Salinity Tides - High and low tides - The larger tidal bulge is on the side closer to the moo - Smaller tide on the other side of earth opposite of the moon - Tidal reach Waves - Energy moves forward - Water stays put Open ocean waves - Energy moves forward - Water stays Breaker - Friction between wave and ocean floor Wave Refraction Long shore Current - Costal Landforms Beach - Near shore - Intertidal zone - Backshore - Dune - Some beaches grow - Other erode Beaches: barrier islands - Sand islands - Always changing Tidal Flat - High Tide- covered by water - Low Tide- exposed Rocky Coast - Embayment - Headland - Always Changing Fjords - Glacial valley - Flood after glaciers melt Coastal Wetland - Shallow Water - No Wave Action - Temperate climate o Salt marsh - Subtropical climate o Mangrove swamp Coral Reef - Shallow, warm - Grows until conditions change - Erodes into coral sand Estuaries - Ocean rises into river valley - Mix of fresh and salt water What determines type of coast? - Tectonic Settling - Sea level - Sediment Supply - Climate Human Interaction with the Coast - 44% of the world population lives less than 150 km from coasts - 53% in US - Coasts always changing - What does this mean? Sea Level Rise - Only a matter of Time Beach Erosion - Groin- barrier built to keep sand from eroding Geo Notes April 21 Beach Erosion - Jetty protect harbor entrance - Breakwater- decreases wave energy - Riprap – decrease wave erosion - Beach Nourishment o Bring in new sand Pollution and Destruction - Biggest effect on wetlands and coral reefs - Water chemistry changes - Sediment amounts - Construction Natural Destruction - Large and small storms cause damage in several ways o Winds o Waves  Removal of dunes, wetlands, beaches o Storm surge  Affected by tide, wind, air pressure o Waves + Surge= Hurricane Hydrologic Cycle - Circulation of earths water supply Groundwater - Rain water that sinks - Water trapped in rock during formation - Months to thousands of years Porosity - Percentage of pore space Permeability - Ease of flow between pores o Size, number, shape of conduits Aquifer- allows water to flow Aquitard- retards water flow Water Table - Follows land surface Darcy’s Law - More permeable = faster - Steep slope = faster Using Groundwater - Wells o Ordinary well o Seasonal Well o Artesian well  Works like water tower - Spring o Place where groundwater naturally flows to the surface - Hot springs o Hot water comes to surface o Very deep groundwater forced up by pressure or pathway o Geothermal regions  Magma near the earths surface Can humans deplete groundwater supplies? - Yes o Lowering the water table - Saline intrusion - Reversing flow - Land subsidence Groundwater Quality - Most is safe to drink - Soft water – salt - Hard water- calcium, magnesium - Hydrogen sulfide- rotten egg - Iron- rich Contamination - Septic tanks - Farm runoff - Mine runoff - Storage tanks - Industrial (small too) - Landfill Caves- created by groundwater Speleothems - calcium filled water - evaporate and deposits calcite - grows 1-2 mm/ year Soda Straw - Young stalactite - Hollow Stalactite - Not hollow - Water drips off end - Grows like icicle Stalagmites - Mound on floors of cave Both grow toward each other Flowstone - Sheets of water down falls Cave bacon Sinkhole - Cave collapse Geo notes April 26 Why is New Orleans below sea level - Human activity o Wetland removal  No where for water to go o Artificial Levees  No new sediment o Extracting Groundwater  Comparing sediment - Isostacy o Lithosphere maintaining equilibrium What are deserts? - Dry region that has o No permanent streams o Less than 15% surface vegetation coverage o Less than 25cm rain/ year - Can be hot or cold Types of deserts - Subtropical o Global air circulation - Rain Shadow - Coastal - Continent Interior o Far from ocean o Air moisture used over continent - Polar o Global air circulation o Cold air is dry Weathering and Erosion Desert Weathering - Physical weathering o Wedging, abrasion, jointing, biological, mass wasting - Chemical o Desert varnish- microbial action on clay Water Erosion - Flash floods - High competency and capacity - High turbulence Wind Erosion - Wind is a fluid- erodes like water o Energy level determines grain size Desert Deposition - Alluvial Fan o Abrupt change in velocity o Stream dumps coarse sediment - Talus Apron o Pile of debris o Gravity - Salt Lake o No outlet o Water collects and evaporates o Salt concentrates - Playa o Dry lake bed - Dunes o Wind moves sand o Wind carries small grains away o Larger grains only move so far Dune Formation - Sand blows up one side - Falls down other side Types of Dunes - Amount of sand - Wind direction and speed Formation of Desert Landscape - Mass wasting - Weathering - Erosion Desert Pavement - Natural stone mosaic with soil underneath Soil Crust - Organisms on surface Desertification - Changing non deserts into deserts - Causes o Deforestation o Overgrazing o Agriculture o Water mismanagement o Drought Geo Notes April 28 Glaciers Glacier - Made of ice - Move slowly Formation - Large amount of snow that doesn’t melt - Gentle slope - Stratified - Compact over time Glacier Ice - Water absorbs non blue light wavelengths - Less air after compaction Types of Glaciers - Mountain - Continental - Polar - Temperate Mountain Glacier (4 Types) - Ice cap o Top of mountain - Valley Glacier - Cirque o Fills low places - Piedmont Glacier o Valley glacier spreads out into plain Glacier Movement - Gravity is prime mover - Each glacier is moving at a different rate - Two main types o Basal Sliding  Slides on melt o Plastic Deformation  Solid changing shape  Occurs below about 60 meters  Ice cracks above 60 meters - Glacier always move downslope or out from center - They also advance and retreat o Larger or smaller over time o Advancing- larger o Retreating- smaller o Causes  Amount of snow  Summer temperatures Icebergs - Calving (falling off) into ocean Glacial Erosion - Incorporation- of rocks - Plucking - Bulldozing - Embedded Rocks o Striations o Polishing o Dust Erosional Landforms - Arête (Knife) o Ridge caused by 2 glaciers - Horn (Matterhorn) o Peak shaped by three glaciers - U- Shaped Valley o Scooped out by glaciers - Hanging valley o Cuts then stops o End abruptly - Fjords o Costal valleys filled with water o Sea level change Glacial Deposition - Sediment tumbles from the mountains onto the glacier - Moraine o Pile of sediment  Lateral – side of glacier  Medial – middle of glacier  End – end of glacier - Till o Sediment dropped by glacier  Unsorted - Erratic’s o Large random debris - Glacial Marine o Iceberg deposits - Glacial Outwash o Sorted - Loess o Windblown clay - Varves o Glacial lake deposits Depositional landforms - Reworked moraine and till - Erratic’s - Kettle hole Global Consequences - Ice loading and glacial rebound o Isostacy - Sea level change History of Glaciation event - Till deposits - Small frequency events - Most resent o Pleistocene Ice age - Ended o 11,000 years ago - How? o Till deposits o Pollen o Fossils Which force makes glaciers move? - Gravity Geology notes 3/29/16 Other pieces of evidence ­ Anatomy­ skeletons, teeth, anything left behind o Fossils  o Modern ­ Vestigial organ o Organ that no longer functions in the same way that it did ­ Embryology  o Way bone develops  ­ Genetics o PNAS o Phylogenic relationships among the major cetartiodactly subgroups ­ Biogeography  ­ Homology o The sameness o How anatomy looks the same in different creatures If organisms are always changing to better fit their environment, why do they go extinct? ­  Extinction  ­ Climate change ­ Tectonic activity o Causes sea level to rise o Habitat change  ­ Asteroid or comet impact ­ New predators How old is Earth ­ 4.5 billion years  ­ Use a football field  How do we know? ­ Geological features o Grand Canyon o Coal beds o Mountains ­ Dating methods o Relative age o Numerical age Uniformitarianism ­ Rates of natural processes remain basically the same  Relative Age ­ Does not give calendar age ­ Based on logical principles Principle of relative age dating ­ Original horizontality  o How is sediment deposited  Fairly horizontal ­ Superposition o Apply to   Sedimentary only   Undeformed  o Older on bottom o Can get tricky  ­ Lateral Continuity  o Sediments are deposited in continuous layers  o Can be distributed later ­ Cross cutting relationships o Formations in relation to each other   Baked Contact  Inclusions Geology Notes Fossils and Evolutions What is a fossil? - An organism, part of an organism, or traces of an organism pre secured in rock - Fossilization o Process of creating a fossil - Paleontology o Study of fossils How Fossils are made? - Low oxygen environment - Rapid burial - Hard parts Microfossils  Macrofossils  Types of Fossilization - Frozen or dried - Amber or tar - Preserved or replaced - Per mineralization - Carbonization - Molds and casts (replica of original) - Trace fossils - Extraordinary fossils (DNA) How fossils are used - Separate them into groups o Morphology (way the bones look) o Same taxonomgas living organisms] How do we know? - Evolution and natural selection - Evolution is both fact and theory o Natural selection is theory that explains fact Natural Selection - Organisms are different - Same differences are advantages - More advantages = more offspring - Change of gene frequency in population (evolution) Natural Selection - Population of organisms are always changing to adapt to their environment  o Change gradually or change quickly


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