Geology Notes Bundle
Geology Notes Bundle GEO 101
Popular in Dynamic Earth
Popular in Geology
This 30 page Bundle was uploaded by Carter Cox on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Bundle belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Keene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Geology Notes Bundle Geology 101 First Week Notes (Highlighted Words Are Important) What is Science? - A method for learning about the natural world - Anyone can follow The Scientific method is not linear Exploration and Discovery - Making observations - Asking questions - Finding inspiration - Exploring the Literature Know a lot about your field before asking questions Identifying a Problem - Example- Apples are falling from trees and that is a problem. Why? o Gravitation is what is causing the apples to fall - Look at the world around you, and ask why Testing Ideas - Hypothesis- A “proposed explanation” for specific problem o Has explanatory power o Can be tested by further investigation - Prediction- What we would logically expect to observe if a particular idea were true or false o A prediction can be about the past, present and future Ex. Future- making a prediction then having to wait for the end result Conceivable pathway Prediction Vs. Hypothesis - Prediction: Black car will be hotter than a white car in the sun. - Hypothesis: Dark colored objects absorb more solar heat than light colored objects o Explanatory Power is key Data- - Information gleaned from observations- usually observations that are made in a standardized way - Systematically collected o Example: Exact Height - Not anecdotal information- no telling, have to actually take measurements and experiment yourself - Is direct observation needed? No!! Evidence- - Test results and/ or observations that may either help, support, or help refute a scientific idea o Gathering for a reason o Have to ask yourself what you are looking for and why o Data is a set of numbers and if not questioned it isn’t evidence Community Analysis and Feedback – arguably the most important - Feed back and peer review - Republication - Discussion Publishing- this is how scientists communicate - Journals o 1,350,000 peer reviewed scientific articles in 2006 - Conference - Books - An open, continuous debate Scientific Theory: A widely accepted explanation for why things work the way they do - Greater breadth than hypothesis o Often includes hypothesis - Not a guess, hunch, or some random thought - Theories are extremely well tested You have to have the highest certainty Example: Newton’s Laws Proving Vs. Disproving - Not trying to prove - Look for new information - Anytime any day something (evidence) will be found - Closest to the truth as you can get Benefits and Outcome - Develop Technology - Build knowledge Continual Testing - Theories are never proven Assumptions - Science has rely on assumptions - Not trivial o Example: Dropping an object. We assume it will always fall Uniformitarianism: Physical processes have always functions in basically the same manner - Gravity - Speed of light Can be complicated - Climate (glaciers etc.) - Plate tectonics (Changing rate) Common Misconceptions - Scientists are always changing their mind! o Often due to news articles Misunderstood scientific method Misunderstood research results - Conformation Bias o If we see something we like we do it o If we see something we don’t like we don’t do it - Anecdotal evidence - Common Sense- mathematical sense - Causation vs. correlation Who are Scientists? - Anyone using the scientific method Where do scientists work? - Big universities or government o Doing all types of research o Must publish - Industry Where does the money come to fund? - Industry o Consumers - University and Government o Government NSF, NIH, NOAA, NASA, Defense o Non- profit National geographic o Industry Oil, computer Geology 101- Earth Formations Science and the nation - What is the gain of science? o Economic o Health o Defense o Engineering (of all sorts) Geology: the scientific study of the “composition, behavior, and history” of the earth or other planetary body - Geologists study every aspect of earth (and other planets) o Land o Air o Oceans Divisions of Geology - Petrology - Volcanology - Geophysics - Structure - Hydrology - Paleontology - Paleoclimatology - Geochemistry …. (Many more) Why is Birmingham there? - Near iron ore deposits - Near limestone Birmingham Steel - Red mountain is made of iron ore - Many different coal and limestone deposits - Iron ore is not usable iron- you must smelt it o Iron ore and limestone and coke (coal and charcoal) Alabama is made 70% of confederate iron 1920’s- Birmingham made 25% of the US supply 1970’s- close of many mines Geology and Alabama Economic Industrial Mineral (2007) - $1.34 billion in value - 2, 347 employee’s Coal (2007) - Worth more than $1 billion annually - 70% of Alabama electricity is from coal - 3, th3 Employee’s (2007) - 13 annually (2013) Oil and Gas - 2.4 billion - briths $500 million to state in fees/ taxes - 16 thtionally in oil (2015) - 16 nationally in gas (2014) If something is not grown, it is mined Career in Geology - Everything human use is either grown or mined o To do this geologists must Find Grade Extract Usually clean up… the material that is to be used Who hires? - Industry - Government - Universities Big Bang- GA (billions of years ago) - 13.7 GA (billions of years ago) - Formed universe as we know it - NOT creation of all matter - 3 major pieces of evidence o 1) Expansion of the universe Einstein 1917- cosmological constant Edwin Hubble- 1929 All galaxies are moving away from us o 2) Abundance of Light Elements Early Universe very hot No atoms could from Cooling brought formation of Hydrogen and Helium Built model- made prediction 24% of ordinary matter should be helium o 3) Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Heat left over from big bang Predicted – 1918 Found- 1965 Time line - 13.7 GA o Hydrogen o Helium - 13.5 GA o Nebulae formed - 12.9 GA o First stars - 4.57 GA o Our solar system comes together - 4.54 GA o Earth Formed - 4.53 GA o Moon formed - 4.5 GA o Differentiation Earth Structure - Magnetic field- keeps in atmosphere - Atmosphere - Internal layer Earth Magnetic Field - Geographic north- magnetic south - Magnetic poles wander and reverse What is the Earth made out of? - Iron- 32.1% - Oxygen- 30.1% - Silicon- 15.1% - Magnesium- 13.9% - Other- 8.8% Geology Notes April 5 Paleography 90% of continental crust that we have today This is growing throughout the entire eon Supercontinents Large land masses nearly all continents Constant splitting and reassembling Profound affect on climate Rodinia – first supercontinent Pannotia reverse of rodinia Atmosphere Amount of oxygen increases so much Algae is causing the leap of oxygen How do we know this o BIF bandit iron formation Cannot form unless a certain amount of oxygen is in the air o This changes chemistry of ocean Life Eukaryotic evidence = 2.7 Ga First fossils from 2.1 Ga Symbiotic relationship Life Plants Ocean – algae Land algae o Fungi fossil 650 to 544 Ma o Molecular clock= 1.3 Ga Ediacaran Fauna – soft bodied – very unlikely we have the fossils for them 565 Ma (million years) Worms, jellyfish No shells Underwater Soft bodied fossils Snowball Earth – glaciers everywhere Glaciers on land Possible frozen ocean Mass extinction ends eon End of the Proterozoic Eras instead of eons End of Precambrian this cover 90% of Earths history Paleozoic Era Early Middle Late Early Paleozoic Break up of Pannotia Epicontinental seas Taconic Orogeny o New England Ends in glaciation Life Cambrian Explosion o Massive diversification of life Plants In oceans o Algae o Seaweed Land o Simple fungi o Algae o Liverwort Animals Diverse shelled animals Trio bites Sponges Corals Echinoderms First vertebrate o Jawless fish Middle Paleozoic Paleogeography Climate warmed and sea level rose o Reefs Progenies Plants Vascular plants o Woody tissue, seeds, veins, o Could grow larger Large swampy forests (mosses and ferns) Animals Diverse shelled animals Fish: jawed, lobe fin, ray fin Spiders and insects 1 amphibians Tiktaalik Cross between fish and tetrapod Fish o Fins o Scales o Gills Tetrapod anything that has these four appendages o Flat head o Ribs o Neck o Fins support weight Late Paleozoic Paleogeography Global cooling o Sea level drop Pangaea forms Alleghanian orogeny o Appalachians o Ancestral Rockies Plants Gymnosperms o Conifer o Cycads (palm like) o Ginkgo Animals Amphibians diversify 1 reptiles o Eggs with shells End of the Paleozoic Era Giant extinction event at 248 million o 96% of marine species o 70% of terrestrial species o Largest in history Mesozoic Early Paleography Break up of Pangaea North Atlantic Ocean Inland seas Plants Gymnosperms diversify Animals st 1stswimming and flying reptiles 1 turtles Coral Dinosaurs! Warmblooded Huge sauropods Feathered birds last dinosaurs Mammals Very small Not like modern Late Paleography Pangaea broken o India Warming and sea level rise o Inland seas Laramide orogeny Plants st 1 flowering plants Flowering plants and hardwoods take over Animals Modern fish Dinosaurs diversify Mammals diversify End of Mesozoic KT boundary extinction event o Meteor o Dinosaurs (except birds) o 75% plant life Cenozoic Paleogeography Himalaya formation Atlantic and Pacific separated Climate Cooler climate o Grasslands Ice age: o Creates land bridge Plants Flowering plants and gymnosperms diversify 1 grasses Animals Mammals diversify and flourished o Giant mammals at first Evolution of Humans th Geology 101 Notes April 7 Energy and Mineral Resources Sources of energy Oil and natural gas formation and extraction Coal formation energy sources Ores and minerals Where does energy come from? Sun o Solar energy o Plant matter o Fossil fuel o Wind Gravity o Tides o Falling water Chemical Reactions Nuclear Fission Geothermal – happens in the center of the Earth Oil and Natural Gas Hydrocarbon compounds Remains of marine algae and plankton 90 oil shale o black organic shale 160 oil and natural gas 250 natural gas Oil window is from 90 – 160 degrees Celsius Oil and Natural Gas Trap Source rock organic rich shale Reservoir rock: high porosity and permeability o Sponge o Porosity bunch of holes o Permeability holes next to each other Seal Rock Where is oil found? Anticline Fault Salt dome Stratigraphic Finding Oil and Natural Gas Generate seismic waves Look for folds Extracting Oil and Natural Gas Drilling o Puncture the seal rock Pumping o Brings oil to the surface Refining Oil Crude oil is distilled Process depends on grade o Sulfur content o Specific gravity Products made from a barrel of crude oil Diesel 12 Jet fuel 4 Other product 7 Gasoline 19 Petroleum gas 2 Other types of Formations/ extractions Tar Sands o Viscous oil in sand o Cannot pump Mined then heated Heated then pumped o Very expensive Oil Shale o Has not reached oil window o Mined then heated o Very expensive Fracking o Hydraulic fracturing Extracting natural gas o Increases well production o Drawbacks Groundwater contamination Land use issues Running out of oil Other sources exist o Liquefied coal o Oil shale o Tar sands o Methane hydrate Not economically viable at current prices and technology When will we run out of oil? Geologist o Soon Economists o Will stop using it first Coal Plant material buried o Low oxygen o Water squeezed out o 50 % C= Peat o 70 % C= coal Coal Production Coal not made all the time Plenty of coal for now Coal Extraction Strip mining o Coal < 100 m Underground mining o Coal > 100m o Very dangerous Drawbacks of Fossil Fuels Air pollution o Particles and gases o Acid rain Carbon dioxide o Greenhouse gas Byproducts o Mine runoff Spills o Groundwater o Ocean Fatalities in mines o A lot Alternate Energy Sources 90% of world energy needs from non renewable fossil fuels Possible alternate energy sources o We cover 5 Nuclear Power Energy release when nucleus is split (fission) Drawback o Controlling nuclear reactions Lot of work and planning Potential meltdown o Nuclear waste Damaging to living organisms Long time decay (decades centuries) Wind Must have steady breeze Clean Drawbacks o Noisy o Ugly o Hazard to wildlife Solar Sunlight converted to electricity Clean Drawbacks o Not efficient o Not cost effective Hydroelectric Two kinds o River No pollutants Drawbacks Dams o Tidal No pollutants Drawback Construction Geothermal Use Earths eternal heat where it comes near surface Use in two ways o Water o Steam to turn turbines Drawbacks o Conditions limited Geology Notes April 14 Hydrologic Circle - Circulation of Earths water supply Tributaries - Side channels that flow into the main channel of a stream Drainage Network - A group of interconnecting stream that form patterns reflecting the underlying geology Dendritic - Drainage network pattern that looks like a branching tree formed due to uniform underlying geology and slope Water Shed - Land area contributing water to a stream Divide - Imaginary line separating one basin from another Continental Divides - Water flowing down either side of this divide will flow to different oceans Permanent Stream - Stream that flows all year long because it is always at or below the water table Ephemeral Stream - Stream that does not flow all year because it is above the water table; dry climate Turbulence - Twisting, swirling motion Discharge - Volume/ time (gallons/ minute) in one section Sediment Load - Total volume of sediment carried Competence - Maximum particle size a stream can carry Capacity - Total quantity of sediment a stream can carry, depends on competence and discharge Deposition - Decrease in velocity that causes sediment to dump out of the water Base Level - Lowest elevation a stream can reach Floodplain - An area next to a stream that regularly gets flooded Recurrence Interval - Average number of year between floods of the same size Annual Probability - The likelihood that a flood of a given size will happen at a specific location during any given time Oceans and Coasts Urbanization - Increased paved areas - Building in floodplains - Pollution Agriculture - Increase sediment in streams - Change the stream chemistry o Fertilizers o Animal waste - Ecosystem change Dam Construction - Changes ecosystem o Migrating fish o Sediment load o Nutrients - Flood control o Positive and negative Overuse- our water - Central Arizona project canal - Los Angeles canal Ocean Floor Features Continental Shelf Continental Slope Abyssal Plain Seamounts Canyons (underwater) - Rivers cut into sediment Continental Margins - Passive - Active - Makes different shorelines Water - 3.5% o Halite, gypsum o Dense (how salty it is) o Salinity depends on location and temperature - Temperature o Latitude o Depth Currents - Flowing water in defined area o Surface o Deep Surface Currents - Driven by wind/ affected by Coriolis effect Deep Currents - Down welling - Upwelling - Caused by o Density (thermohaline circulation) Temperature Salinity Tides - High and low tides - The larger tidal bulge is on the side closer to the moo - Smaller tide on the other side of earth opposite of the moon - Tidal reach Waves - Energy moves forward - Water stays put Open ocean waves - Energy moves forward - Water stays Breaker - Friction between wave and ocean floor Wave Refraction Long shore Current - Costal Landforms Beach - Near shore - Intertidal zone - Backshore - Dune - Some beaches grow - Other erode Beaches: barrier islands - Sand islands - Always changing Tidal Flat - High Tide- covered by water - Low Tide- exposed Rocky Coast - Embayment - Headland - Always Changing Fjords - Glacial valley - Flood after glaciers melt Coastal Wetland - Shallow Water - No Wave Action - Temperate climate o Salt marsh - Subtropical climate o Mangrove swamp Coral Reef - Shallow, warm - Grows until conditions change - Erodes into coral sand Estuaries - Ocean rises into river valley - Mix of fresh and salt water What determines type of coast? - Tectonic Settling - Sea level - Sediment Supply - Climate Human Interaction with the Coast - 44% of the world population lives less than 150 km from coasts - 53% in US - Coasts always changing - What does this mean? Sea Level Rise - Only a matter of Time Beach Erosion - Groin- barrier built to keep sand from eroding Geo Notes April 21 Beach Erosion - Jetty protect harbor entrance - Breakwater- decreases wave energy - Riprap – decrease wave erosion - Beach Nourishment o Bring in new sand Pollution and Destruction - Biggest effect on wetlands and coral reefs - Water chemistry changes - Sediment amounts - Construction Natural Destruction - Large and small storms cause damage in several ways o Winds o Waves Removal of dunes, wetlands, beaches o Storm surge Affected by tide, wind, air pressure o Waves + Surge= Hurricane Hydrologic Cycle - Circulation of earths water supply Groundwater - Rain water that sinks - Water trapped in rock during formation - Months to thousands of years Porosity - Percentage of pore space Permeability - Ease of flow between pores o Size, number, shape of conduits Aquifer- allows water to flow Aquitard- retards water flow Water Table - Follows land surface Darcy’s Law - More permeable = faster - Steep slope = faster Using Groundwater - Wells o Ordinary well o Seasonal Well o Artesian well Works like water tower - Spring o Place where groundwater naturally flows to the surface - Hot springs o Hot water comes to surface o Very deep groundwater forced up by pressure or pathway o Geothermal regions Magma near the earths surface Can humans deplete groundwater supplies? - Yes o Lowering the water table - Saline intrusion - Reversing flow - Land subsidence Groundwater Quality - Most is safe to drink - Soft water – salt - Hard water- calcium, magnesium - Hydrogen sulfide- rotten egg - Iron- rich Contamination - Septic tanks - Farm runoff - Mine runoff - Storage tanks - Industrial (small too) - Landfill Caves- created by groundwater Speleothems - calcium filled water - evaporate and deposits calcite - grows 1-2 mm/ year Soda Straw - Young stalactite - Hollow Stalactite - Not hollow - Water drips off end - Grows like icicle Stalagmites - Mound on floors of cave Both grow toward each other Flowstone - Sheets of water down falls Cave bacon Sinkhole - Cave collapse Geo notes April 26 Why is New Orleans below sea level - Human activity o Wetland removal No where for water to go o Artificial Levees No new sediment o Extracting Groundwater Comparing sediment - Isostacy o Lithosphere maintaining equilibrium What are deserts? - Dry region that has o No permanent streams o Less than 15% surface vegetation coverage o Less than 25cm rain/ year - Can be hot or cold Types of deserts - Subtropical o Global air circulation - Rain Shadow - Coastal - Continent Interior o Far from ocean o Air moisture used over continent - Polar o Global air circulation o Cold air is dry Weathering and Erosion Desert Weathering - Physical weathering o Wedging, abrasion, jointing, biological, mass wasting - Chemical o Desert varnish- microbial action on clay Water Erosion - Flash floods - High competency and capacity - High turbulence Wind Erosion - Wind is a fluid- erodes like water o Energy level determines grain size Desert Deposition - Alluvial Fan o Abrupt change in velocity o Stream dumps coarse sediment - Talus Apron o Pile of debris o Gravity - Salt Lake o No outlet o Water collects and evaporates o Salt concentrates - Playa o Dry lake bed - Dunes o Wind moves sand o Wind carries small grains away o Larger grains only move so far Dune Formation - Sand blows up one side - Falls down other side Types of Dunes - Amount of sand - Wind direction and speed Formation of Desert Landscape - Mass wasting - Weathering - Erosion Desert Pavement - Natural stone mosaic with soil underneath Soil Crust - Organisms on surface Desertification - Changing non deserts into deserts - Causes o Deforestation o Overgrazing o Agriculture o Water mismanagement o Drought Geo Notes April 28 Glaciers Glacier - Made of ice - Move slowly Formation - Large amount of snow that doesn’t melt - Gentle slope - Stratified - Compact over time Glacier Ice - Water absorbs non blue light wavelengths - Less air after compaction Types of Glaciers - Mountain - Continental - Polar - Temperate Mountain Glacier (4 Types) - Ice cap o Top of mountain - Valley Glacier - Cirque o Fills low places - Piedmont Glacier o Valley glacier spreads out into plain Glacier Movement - Gravity is prime mover - Each glacier is moving at a different rate - Two main types o Basal Sliding Slides on melt o Plastic Deformation Solid changing shape Occurs below about 60 meters Ice cracks above 60 meters - Glacier always move downslope or out from center - They also advance and retreat o Larger or smaller over time o Advancing- larger o Retreating- smaller o Causes Amount of snow Summer temperatures Icebergs - Calving (falling off) into ocean Glacial Erosion - Incorporation- of rocks - Plucking - Bulldozing - Embedded Rocks o Striations o Polishing o Dust Erosional Landforms - Arête (Knife) o Ridge caused by 2 glaciers - Horn (Matterhorn) o Peak shaped by three glaciers - U- Shaped Valley o Scooped out by glaciers - Hanging valley o Cuts then stops o End abruptly - Fjords o Costal valleys filled with water o Sea level change Glacial Deposition - Sediment tumbles from the mountains onto the glacier - Moraine o Pile of sediment Lateral – side of glacier Medial – middle of glacier End – end of glacier - Till o Sediment dropped by glacier Unsorted - Erratic’s o Large random debris - Glacial Marine o Iceberg deposits - Glacial Outwash o Sorted - Loess o Windblown clay - Varves o Glacial lake deposits Depositional landforms - Reworked moraine and till - Erratic’s - Kettle hole Global Consequences - Ice loading and glacial rebound o Isostacy - Sea level change History of Glaciation event - Till deposits - Small frequency events - Most resent o Pleistocene Ice age - Ended o 11,000 years ago - How? o Till deposits o Pollen o Fossils Which force makes glaciers move? - Gravity Geology notes 3/29/16 Other pieces of evidence Anatomy skeletons, teeth, anything left behind o Fossils o Modern Vestigial organ o Organ that no longer functions in the same way that it did Embryology o Way bone develops Genetics o PNAS o Phylogenic relationships among the major cetartiodactly subgroups Biogeography Homology o The sameness o How anatomy looks the same in different creatures If organisms are always changing to better fit their environment, why do they go extinct? Extinction Climate change Tectonic activity o Causes sea level to rise o Habitat change Asteroid or comet impact New predators How old is Earth 4.5 billion years Use a football field How do we know? Geological features o Grand Canyon o Coal beds o Mountains Dating methods o Relative age o Numerical age Uniformitarianism Rates of natural processes remain basically the same Relative Age Does not give calendar age Based on logical principles Principle of relative age dating Original horizontality o How is sediment deposited Fairly horizontal Superposition o Apply to Sedimentary only Undeformed o Older on bottom o Can get tricky Lateral Continuity o Sediments are deposited in continuous layers o Can be distributed later Cross cutting relationships o Formations in relation to each other Baked Contact Inclusions Geology Notes Fossils and Evolutions What is a fossil? - An organism, part of an organism, or traces of an organism pre secured in rock - Fossilization o Process of creating a fossil - Paleontology o Study of fossils How Fossils are made? - Low oxygen environment - Rapid burial - Hard parts Microfossils Macrofossils Types of Fossilization - Frozen or dried - Amber or tar - Preserved or replaced - Per mineralization - Carbonization - Molds and casts (replica of original) - Trace fossils - Extraordinary fossils (DNA) How fossils are used - Separate them into groups o Morphology (way the bones look) o Same taxonomgas living organisms] How do we know? - Evolution and natural selection - Evolution is both fact and theory o Natural selection is theory that explains fact Natural Selection - Organisms are different - Same differences are advantages - More advantages = more offspring - Change of gene frequency in population (evolution) Natural Selection - Population of organisms are always changing to adapt to their environment o Change gradually or change quickly
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