Greek and Roman Mythology Notes Bundles
Greek and Roman Mythology Notes Bundles CL 222
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Greek and Roman Mythology Notes Bundle Aphrodite - On the back of the coin, in a sexual position - Venus is the Roman name Plato’s Symposium - Etiological Myth - Aristophanes (comedic playwright)- character in plato’s symposium - Original humans: double- shaped, were acrobatic, double of everything - Male- sun - Female- Earth - Androgynous- moon - Acrobatic Origin of Love - Love= the desire and pursuit of the whole - Eros (cupid) is the greatest god - Restoration of our ancient nature - Warning: further bisection (quartering) Eros/ Cupid - Irresistible god of sexual love and longing - “First of all, then, Chaos came into being, but then Earth, the wide- breasted, ever sure foundation of all the immortals who hold the height of snowy Olympus, and must Tartarus in the heart of wide- pathed earth, and Eros, who, most beautiful among the immortal gods, limb- loosener, in the breasts of all gods and men overpowers their reason and wise control - Flowers and gardens/ portrayed as a Boy - Alcman: “Eros plays like a boy, walking on the tips of flowers.” - “Eros arises when the spring blossoms come - Generation- primal moisture - Gen 2: “ in the that the lord God made the earth and the heavens, when no plant of the field was yet - Eros= personification of primal moisture - Especially the dew (Tender boy) - Semen= dew, female wetness - Latin= dew Adonis - Myrrha/ Aphrodite- a girl that lusted for her dad and had Adonis with her dad - Persephone - Boar Hunt- Adonis gets slashed in the groan, from his groan comes a plant - Dying god of vegetation routine= Adonis - Fertility goddess and the male god who dies and returns - Attis, Asherah- Adonai- same name as Adonis - Astarte (Assyiran)- Baal Priapus - Dionysus + Aphrodite= Priapus (Child) - Their child turns out to be an embarrassment (had a big phallus) - Silenus’s ass - Lampsacus (Northwest Asia Minor) Apotropaic - Large phallus with wings used as a wind chime Aphrodite’s Attributes - Voluptuous, Naked - Eastern Garb - Foreign, decadent behavior - Sparrows, doves Voluptuous- Venus - Charm - Invoked early on in prayers - Mother of Aeneas (Anchises - Roman Race - Mars (Rhea Sylvia)-Romulus and Remus Aphrodite - Shield bearer - Hold helmet - Cupid in front of her Apollo Battle of lapiths and centaurs- cover photo Apollo - Mycenean Greek- Apollo didn’t appear in this- language is usually put onto pots o In this early form Apollo name was missing - Linear B - Combines several traditions and divinities “Phoebus” Apollo- drives chariot that represents sun in the sky - Bright shining pure - Sun God - Archer God, just like his twin sister Artemis o Known as the god who strikes from a far- refers to arrows and beams of light - God of reason- shines reason into the dark minds of human beings o As the god of reason he also gives wisdom, seen inscribed at the temple of Apollo Rides a tripod - Has a lire and bow/ arrow “Smintheus” Apollo- mouse god - Mouse god o Send and evert plagues - Medicine - Asclepius- son of Apollo- took over the duties of medical practice o Became so good at it that he began to raise the dead, violating the laws of zeus o Zeus threw a lightning bolt at him o Told how to cure various diseases - Paiawon (Paean) o Could bring physical healing o - “Epikourios” Apollo (Bassae)- temple in the mountains o People in the area was receiving a plague o Means ally o Apollo took the plague away o Lends aid in times of need - Miasma o Pollution- total and internal o Apollo could cleanses for sins - Castalian Spring o Washed away sins - Purification (Orestes) o Ritual o Took a pig and killed it poured blood all over the person - Python o Killed python at Delphi and took over the site o For killing the snake he had a punishment - Vale of Tempe o Apollo was to stay here and wash away sins from killing the python o Lead a rebellion against Zeus- lost, sentenced to be a slave on earth for ten years. Prophecy - Delphi o Oracle- gave prophecies to people o Originally held by Gea - Sibyl - Gea/ Themis o Delphi belonging first - 1400 BC to 381 AD o Functional site at this time to get oracles - Omphalos- Naval Stone o Stone where Zeus thought the center of the earth was o Stone is the stone that Cronus swallowed instead of Zeus o Known as the belly button of the world - Tripod - Laurel/ Ethylene- o Trance or high- horse trying to throw of her rider o - Loxian o Ambiguous responses Perpetual Youth - Dorian Greeks saw him as a rite of passage god o Helped boys become men - Lykeios o wolves - Animal Delphinios o Two epithets that relate to animals o Delphonios- dolphins o Tripod- dolphin is in it Music - Requires reason and harmony - Lyre is his musical instrument - Leader of the muses Hyperboreans - Nearness- pollution, servitude, cleansing - Helps youth - Distance: Iliad - Love Affairs - Winter vacation’s - Transcendence - Cassandra- princess that Apollo fell in love with- taught her the art of prophecy- she would always tell the truth but no one believed her, Daphne- cupid shot an arrow at Apollo and he falls in love with her, Marpessa- Apollo fell in love with her but another guy was also in love with her and she didn’t choose Apollo, Sinope- another person apollo liked- she wished to remain a virgin forever - Kouros- statues of young men who are clinching their fists and looking straight forward o One foot stepping into the future Artemis and Athena Coin of Athena - Athena sitting on a chair, elbow resting on her shield - Only divinity wearing a helmet - Holds Nike in her hand - Brings victories to cities Artemis - Homeric Hymn to Artemis - Carries golden arrows, is a virgin, strikes deer with her arrows Famous for the hunt - Sister is Apollo with his golden sword and they are twins - She is a hunter - Lives in the mountains, woods, and sea - Runs and leaps - Sowing death among the race of wild animals Mother of Artemis and Apollo is Leto Rite of Passage - Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis, 19: “to the cities, Artemis does no often come down” o She doesn’t like cities and feel uncomfortable in them - Eschatiai- refers to just beyond the cultivated fields - Uncultivated VS. Cultivated - Unploughed and unspoiled meaning she is a virgin she hasn’t had sex - Men: soldier, citizen, husband - Women: wives, bearers of children, home managers. Artemis takes care of the women until they get married then it’s the man’s job. - Is eternally virginal - A shrine to Artemis is the Brauron (connected to Athens) young men had gone out to hunt and came to Brauron and killed a young woman bear (she- bear). Symbolic sacrifices. - Young girls of Athens would go to this. Sacrificed their childhood toys to Artemis. Rites of Passage at Brauron - Iphigenia at Tauris - Attica (region around Athens) - She-Bear (human sacrifice) - Sequestering of girls; sacrifice of toys - Dancing and reenactment - Footraces - Moon- passive body (Apollo- sun- active body) Rite of passage in myth - For men: boar hunt - Odysseus (Euryhleia) - Actaeon - Iphigenia (at Aulis and Tarus) Athena Parthenon - Glaukopis: owl-eyed or gleaming eyed - Keen-sighted (intellect) - Olive tree (Poseidon and the contest for Athens) - Pallas Athena- story is that athena fought a giant named pallas and fileted its skin and used it as a breast plate. Second story is that Triton had a girl named pallas and was to be the ward of Athena. The little girl Pallas thrusted her spear at Athena then Zeus deflected the spear and then strikes out of anger at the kid and kills her - Triton - Palladium- Shrine of Pallas dressed as Athena. City would never fall if the Palladium was still standing. Erichthonius - Hephaestus- gaia- treied to sexually assault Athena and - “earth- born through strife - Daughters of king Cecrops - Acropolis Athena - Poseidon- arion- then Athena built first chariot - Poseidon- Waves- Athena built boat - Hermes- flocks- Athens got wool - Ares- fury in war- Athena represents the structure of battle Created the Chariot Panathenaea - Birthday of Athena. Artemis and Athena Quiz 1. The "Palladium" was o Statue that looked like Athena 2. Athena dueled with Arachne in a contest of o Weaving 3. To what celestial object is Artemis most closely connected with? o The moon 4. What did the young girls of Athens and the surrounding region sacrifice to Artemis at Brauron? o Their childhood toys 5. This divinity tried to sexually assault Athena, but in the end spawned one of Athens' first kings: o Hephaestus 6. Which of these epithets is appropriate for Artemis? o Mistress of animals 7. Actaeon was torn apart by his own dogs because o He saw Artemis naked 8. You would not likely find Artemis here: o City 9. The Panathenaea was a celebration of o Athena’s birthday 10.This epithet is applied to Athena: o Virgin Cybele, the Great Mother A Gold coin from the Roman imperial period, depicting the goddess Cybele. The legend on the obverse reads, “Matri Magnae,” that is, “to the great mother.” - Great life force th Homeric Hymn- to the Mother of the gods - 6 century - “She delights in the clangor of castanets and drums, the roar of flutes, the clamoring of wolves and bright eyed lions.” - Cybele likes wild things - Loss of control - The uncivilized Origins - Greek “mother of the gods” or “Cybele” - Phrygian (Asia Minor)- Mator Kubileya (mother of the mountains) - Ionian Coast and into Greece A Phrygian Goddess - MAtar Kubileya- Mother of the mountains - Magna Mater- Cybele - Hittite goddess Kubaba or Kubebe - Asherah (Semitic), Astarte (Syrian), Aphrodite (especially as manifested by Venus Erycina of Sicily) - Fiercely protective mother - Sexual energy and nurturing power Her Cult - Great variety throughout the ancient world, from Phrygia, Greece, Rome, and the empire - In general: ecstatic worship - Galli priests - Eunuchs - 206 BC, only way to get Hannibal out. Rome: procession, bathing the statue, mendicant priests, display of the knives - Transsexuals Attis - Consort (Greek creation) - Shepard figure wearing Persian or “Trojan” clothes - Nature boy - Ultimate worshiper and petitioner (we humans can relate to the fact that he dies) - Pomegranate, pine tree, almond- this is what as Attis becomes when he dies - Soteriological aspects (Romans) Demeter and Persephone - Demeter- enables the crops to grow - Coin 2 stalks on it Homeric Hymn to Demeter - Girls gathering flowers - Liminal places- between cultivated and uncultivated, passing from one to the other - Flower- gathering festivals= girls soon to be married - Europa (Phoenicia, Crete)- gathering flowers on the seashore and zeus was attracted to him in the form of the bull - Narcissus Flower - A Daffodil= spring time - Aphrodisiac Catullus (Roman Poet) - 1 century BC - “Tell her not to expect my love anymore. Because of that girl, it has fallen like a flower of the edge of a meadow, touched by a passing plough.” The Visit to Hecate and Helios - Clue to the meaning of the story - Hecate us a moon goddess (torches)- wanders about the souls in the underworld- carries torches because it is dark in the underworld - Moon= waning, dying- aspect of the moon - Helios= rising, living- sees everything - Hades Iambe at Eleusis - Demeter becomes zombie like- mourns and weeps the loss of her daughter - Iambe/ Baubo - Iambe’s gestures- fun loving, bawdy, jesting, sexually liberated- - Kykeon- drink given to Demeter - Apotropaic (remember Priapus)- women is possessed by spirits, negativity - Rock- throwing at women’s festivals- for driving out bad spirits Baby-sitting Job - King Celeus - Demophoon orT riptolemud - Ambrosia- food gods eat- in greek means immortality - Temple at Eleusis Pomegranates in Hell - Hades gives Persephone seeds - Young maiden united with death in a bind if marriage - Life marries= drive symmetry Eleusinian mysteries - Lesser (Spring)- declare your intent - Greater (Fall)- - Agora (Marketplace) at the foot of the acropolis in Athens - Requirement’s- Greek, bloodshed - Mystes= initiates (mum, mute, mystery) - Hiera- sacred objects - Pig washing and sacrificing Procession to Eleusis - Iambic behavior - Shrine to Aphrodite - Mirthless rock - Mourning well - Well of the beautiful dancers - Temple of Demeter at Eleusis - Kykeon Kore - Daughter - Perfect expression of the life cycle - John 12:24 “I tell you the truth, unless a kernel of wheat falls to the ground an dies, it remains only a single seed. But if it dies, it produces many seeds.” - Symbols: torches wheat stalks, pomegranates, cock - Kolyva Hades- and the underworld The Dead - Surviving individuality - Umbrae= shades (ghosts)- long for light since the underworld is dark - Breath (Spiritus)- thought that this brought people life - Connected to their corporeal remains- bodily remains secure certain respect - Secure shelter- idea that the dead are near their remains - Ancients believed the shades could hangout around their tombs - Domus aeternus - Estruscans – people who lived north of the romans, made tombs like a house. Tried to provide support for the shades meaning something the shades could get into such as a statue. o Used paintings, romans used wax figurines Warding off angry spriits - Anthesteria- greek celebration, ghost invitations sent out to eat dinner - Parentalia- roman, took a picnic out to the graves where they ate over the shades - Eulogies - Achilles and Polyxena - Tying - Pinning - Oedipus Consultation of the Dead - Council of the elders - Odysseus - Aeneas - Pictures- Anchises bids the cumaean sibyl and Aeneas farewell. Preparing the body - Cremation - Inhumation - Generative properties of fire - Funeral pyre- like bonfires stack up the wood and put dead person on top with momentums - Impurity of the dead - Hell and the west - Tartarus Sisyphus - Corinth/ Aegina - Thanatos - Death, the binder, is bound - Returns from hades to punish his wife’s impiety - Reversal Tantalus - Zeus and a girl named Pluto - Asia Minor - Nectar, ambrosia - Pelops stew Picture- this Italian vase from 300 bc shows a different version of the sroty where a The Danaid Sister - Descendants of Io - Aegyptus and Danaus - Egypt and Libya - Argos - Wolf came out of forest and killed a bull near the city walls - Leaking water pots - Significance- Loutrophoria Ixion - First murderer - Hera- cloud - Centaur - Fiery wheel - Spinning wheel - For eternity Tityos - Rape of leto - Apollo and Artemis - Thunderbolt of Zeus Other aspects of hell - Hell and the sun’ - Styx (Oaths) - Iris- coma - River of fire - Lethe - Forgetfulness - reincarnation Herakles 2 Achelous- it could change shapes, always had horns and a shaggy beard Horn- aggressive, source of plenty Cornucopia is brought by this horn Hercule and Rome - Geryon - Cattle raiding and manhood - 7 hills of rome - Cacus- Aventine- fire breathing 8 arms - Evander - Ara Maxima - Forum Boarium= Cattle Market - Aeneas - Hesperides Herakles And the heroic pattern Picture fighting the hydra on a coin Heroic pattern - Lord Raglan - 1936 - 22 components of a hero’s life Introduction to Greek and Roman Mythology - Tend to live around acropolises Underlying Principle of the class - Humanities - Insights into our humanity - Universality- transcends cultures - Root metaphors - Universal subconscious - The global mind - Joseph Campbell/ Jungian psychology Carl Jung - Sun, oscillating phallus, wind - Papyrus of the “Mithraic” flute coming out of sun Life and the wind - Dove= Agion Pneuma, Spiritus Sanctus - Wind, ghost, breath - Breathe our last, expire, give up the ghost - Pythagoreans and the beans - Elements: sun, tube, wind - Archetypes= paradigms of thought - Myths are waking dreams Death and the Maiden - Iphigenia-Agamemnon- Achilles - Eurydice- Orpheus - Antigone- Creon - Alcestis- Admetus (Marriage bed) - Artemis (Diana) Mythology - Logy root - Muthos= traditional story - Artificial myths- worked by the artist hand, put on paper/ work it down - Religion and epithets- adjective describing the divinity - Aphrodite Nymphia - Aphrodite Peitho (Athens)- persuasive - Aphrodite Ambologera (Sparta) - Aphrodire Pandemos (Athens- Theseus)- brings people together Anthropomorphic - Vs. the Egyptians - Hebrews- Golden Calf- Exdous - Paul- Romans - Minotaur, medusa the gorgon, Centaurs Subject of Myths - Cosmogony and Theogony - Titans and Olympians - Heroes (Herakles, Theseus, Perseus, etc.) - Folklore and Legend Skepticism - Paul and Barnabas (Acts 14:8-15) - Lystra in Asia Minor - Zeus and Hermes - Xenophanes - Plato- - hellenistic Philosophers- embedded in the myth - Euhemerus- saw the names of the mythological gods inscribed on a pillars, believed that myth were exaggerated stories about real people - Lucretius- roman philosopher, no mythographer, myths were created by stupid. Introduction to Greek and Roman Mythology Quiz 1. The “Dark Ages” of Greece, as described in the “Timetable of Myth” in your book, refers to a period when o writing disappeared from Greece, after the collapse of the Mycenean civilization, and so we have little information what was happening. 2. Carl Jung developed the notion of archetypes, that is, the existence of o patterns or paradigms of thought in humans that can be detected through dreams 3. This Greek philosopher argued that the old mythographers (people who create myths) should be kicked out of his ideal city because the gods that they dreamed up act immorally and so provide a poor example for the citizens: o Plato 4. Which of the following best defines the word “epithet” as used in this class: o an adjective describing a particular function of a deity 5. Think about your timeline. Who of these was born last? o Jesus 6. The people of Lystra showed their faith in the ancient myths by trying to carry out a sacrifice to Paul and Barnabas, calling Barnabas Zeus and Paul, the speaker, o Hermes 7. This Roman philosopher argued that myths were not allegories created by some intellectual, but were really born out of the ignorance of early humans about the workings of nature: o Lucretius 8. Myths are called “artificial” when o A poet writes them down\ 9. The “anthropomorphic” nature of Greek gods indicates that the Greeks - did not envy nature but saw man as the crowning achievement of god’s creation. 10. Which of the following best describes the underlying interpretive principle of this class - universal subconscious of the human race --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- Hesiod’s Theogony Art- Aphrodite coming out of sea covered by a sea shell, she is surrounded by Hermes, Cupid, and Poseidon. Truth VS. Falsehood - Divine Revelation- someone revealed it then someone wrote It down - Muses- help people be creative, also known as the nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. - Zeus and Mnemosyne (Memory) - “Listen, you country bumpkins, you swag-bellied yahoos, we know how to tell many lies that pass for truth, and we know, when we wish, to tell the truth itself.” - Mediators A Special Glossa - The use of poetry - “the holy spirit of its own accord makes intercession for us with groaning’s which cannot be uttered.” – Rom. 8:26 - Transcendency of the divine- people were afraid of this Generations of the Gods - Chaos and Gaia (Gea) - Ouranos (Sky) and Gaia (Earth) become lover, first generation of the gods - The Titans (six sons and six Daughters), Cyclopes (represent thunder and lightning 3 of them), Hecatoncheires (hundred handed giants and guards of the titans). - As these children were coming out the birth canal Ouranos pushed them back in, all 18 of them. - Cronos and the scythe (Gaia created the scythe made out of unbreakable steal). Gaia wants her children free. Cronos takes the challenge and cuts of Ouranos genitals. - Cronis + Rhea (brother and sister), they mate and form the second generation of gods. Everytime Rhea has a baby Cronos swallows his baby hole. Rhea comes up with a plan, the next time she has a child she hides him and gives Cronos a rock. This child is Zeus. - Corybantes/ Curetes- every time Zeus cries they come and bang on shields to help Cronos not hear him. - Titanomachy- clash or battle (Zeus Challenges Cronos and eventually overthrows him), Gigantomachy- another huge battle to defeat them, they put mountains on them. Since they can breathe fire this makes volcanoes Weltanschauung (world view) - Greek World –as view as seen in the creation story 1. Blurring of Boundaries - Division into opposites (but not polar opposites) - Interconnections, interrelations, intersections, merging’s, passageways - Example: Chaos and Gaia seemed like total opposites Night and Day Erebos (darkness) and Nyx (black night) Ether (Light) Aphrodite/ The Furies Aphrodite/ Hephaestus Aphrodite/ Ares - The meaning of “chaos” (hole of nothingness) in Greek - Related to “chasm” - Mega chasma (made by gaia) - Tartaros (grim and dank, cannot reach the bottom till four years) 2. The Power of Metis - Ouranos- stuffed his children down - Cronus (Kronos) ate his children- rules with terror and force, just like Ouranos - Zeus comes to power and maintains it by intelligence - Hesiod: “Rhea hatched a metis” Metis (clever plan) - Titanness Metis- emetic (causes you to throw up), Zeus makes alliances with some Titan’s - Hecatoncheires- Zeus frees them from prison in the underworld - Cyclopes (Zeus frees them, asks them to build the thunderbolts)- thunderbolts - Cronus ignored Prometheus’ prediction: “Victory will go to him who tries to win, not by force, but by ruse” (intelligence will win) - Rhea has a metis to start the plan - Zeus and Metis (emetic) - Zeus and Prometheus - Zeus Metioeis= counselor - Cf. David and Goliath story 3. Knowledge alienates gods and men - Prometheus creates mankind, and other creature - Instructor and benefactor (Story of Io), Io is a Greek girl and Zeus had an affair with her. Hera founds them but in Zeus’ quick thinking he turns Io into a cow. Argos is a guard for the cow, Hera orders him to do this. Io is saved by Hermes and then she travels the world. - Prometheus gave the creature and mankind different gifts. He taught them things like Building shelters, judging the coming seasons, use of numbers, words and letters, medicine, cooking, metalworking - “holocaust”- to totally consume is demanded by Zeus - In his enthusiasm: trick of the sacrifice- hides gut and covers it in fat to trick Zeus - Zeus removes fire (symbol of human advancement) because of the trick - Theft of fire in a fennel stalk - “sowed in man blind hopes” - Hephaestus: forged Pandora - Prometheus: adamantine steel, gave fire back to mankind, Zeus punishes Prometheus by removing him from human beings. - Caucasus mountains In Scythia - Man’s benefactor removed - Alienation- knowledge alienates human beings - Promise of a seed that will one day free Prometheus from his chains: Io and Herakles The Archetype of the Flood - Greeks and Romans had their own flood story (Deucalion and Pyrrha) - The Flood is a symbol of the beginning of the redemption (humans wash away all that is old and tainted) - It’s a new start, a new beginning - Baptism= mini-flood - Water of birth Pandora: Magical Woman - Punishment (Hephaestus/Vulcan and fire) - “all gift”- given a bunch of gifts from the gods, she is beautiful - Has a box that has terrible things in but also has hope. - Distraction/ magical qualities - Rivalry (indirect power)- battle of sexes - Double curse (children) Pandora’s Box - Source of all evils - Sprites - One last one begs to get out to alleviate the other ills - Delusion, anger, envy Hesiod Theogony Quiz Although he was ugly and lame, he forged many beautiful objects in his workshop and married the most beautiful goddess, Aphrodite: - Hephaestus The Furies are horrific, vengeful sisters of Aphrodite, but they have a loving side in that: - they work to keep families from harming one another. What did Ovid believe was the best tool for describing and explaining human nature? - MYTHOLOGY She was born from the sea from the severed genitals of Ouranos - Aphrodite Which phrase best describes the iron age? - Everyone lived by stealing and violating boundaries Which of these statements best describes the Greek view of creation? - the world came into being by dividing into opposites, but there were always gray areas and connection between the opposites Prometheus told Zeus that he could defeat the Titans if he used this - intelligence The root -machy means - clash The second (2nd) generation of the gods were, for the most part, locked up in the belly of Gaia (Mother Earth), in a great gaping chasm called - Tartaros Io, the cow girl, and Zeus' former girlfriend, met Prometheus, who told her that one day her seed would... - free him from his chains and reconcile him to Zeus. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- Zeus and Hera - Zeus is the supreme divinity - DHEU- (Zeus) - Sanskrit: dyanus pitar (Jupiter) - Gaelic: duw - Old Germanic: Tiw - French: Dieu - Spanish: Dios - Oscan: Diuvei - English: deity, divine Sky God - Nephelegereta: cloud gather - Ombrios: of the rain - Keraunos: thunderer - Association with oak trees, Dodona, and Dione - Olympia- site of Olympic games, Zeus had a temple there and a statue that was one of the seven wonders of the world Olympic Games honored gods - Crete- this is where Zeus was kept before he challenged Kronos - Mt. Lycaeus- sanctuary of Zeus - Lycaean Zeus- thought to be god angry at the sins of man and needed to be appeased - Arcadia-northern part of Peloponnese - Wolf- priest turned into this when he was banished Additional epithets - Xenios - Guarantor of oaths - Protector of suppliants Volvere Aestus Volvere- Roll Tide Roll Zeus and Universal Order - Athena- Metis is mother that Zeus swallowed - Horea (seasons) and the Fates (Moirai) - Three Graces- attraction - Persephone - Nine Muses - Apollo and Artemis - Hebe- cup barer of the gods and Zeus got rid of Hebe and got a little Trojan boy named Ganymede (Zeus had sec and erotic feelings for him), Ares, Eileithyia (third child of Hera and Zeus, no child is born without her here, she represents child birth) Zeus and the Fates - Moirai - Parcae - Moira= allotment - Clotho- spins the thread that represents your life - Lachesis- measures out how long your life will be - Atropos- no turning back, inevitable, wields scissors to cut the thread Zeus and the two jars - Homer’s Iliad 24.527ff. - Priam, King of Troy - Achilles vs. Hector - Two Pithoi - Peleus, Myrmidons, Thetis - Mixture – of blessing, joys and sorrows Philosophical Zeus - Hellenistic philosophers - Monotheistically - Stoics - Cleanthes - Nature, reason, providence, fate, law - Z0- - Logos - normos Zeus and Hera Quiz Which of these is a contribution that Zeus makes to the universe? - He maintains orderliness and justice in every corner of the universe. At Olympia and during the Olympic Games, Zeus Horkios watches over this: - The swearing of oaths According to the Stoic Cleanthes, Zeus - Permeates all matter Hera is the goddess of childbirth, a duty that she shares with her daughter ________. - Eileithyia What animal is associated with Mt. Lycaeus and the worship of Zeus there? - Wolf Athena was born from - Zeus' head Achilles told Hector that next to the throne stand two: - Jars Which of these trees is Zeus most connected to? - Oak The Greek name of the Fates, the Moirai, has to do with one's - Allotment When some of the gods tried to overthrow Zeus from his throne, Thetis helped him by appealing to - one of the hundred-handed giants Poseidon, Hephaestus, Hermes Picture - A mosaic found in Zeugma, Turkey - In the picture below Poseidon you see Ocean and Tetyes Poseidon - The Homeric Hymn to Poseidon - “I begin to sing about Poseidon, the great god, mover of the earth and fruitless sea, god of the deep who is also lord of Helikon and wide Aigai. O Ennosigaios (Shaker of the Earth), to be a tamer of horses and a savior of ships! Hail Poseidon Gaienokhos (Holder of the Earth), dark- haired lord! O blessed one, be kindly in heart and help those who voyage in ships!” o Shakes the earth, he is known as a tamer of horses and is his favorite animal, I fyour in trouble on the sea Poseidon is who you pray to, bad anger management problems. Walls of Troy - Laomedon, Poseidon, Apollo - Built the walls of troy - When finished and Laomedon was pleased the two god went to go get the pay. Both gods responded to this by sending a sea monster to terrorize the city. Told to send his daughter to be sacrificed to the sea monster. Amphitrite- daughter of Nereus - Poseidon wants to marry her by force and tries to rape her - Poseidon grabs her and is very violent - She slips away from him and swims to the deep - Poseidon calls all the dolphins to find Amphitrite so he can marry her properly - She is escorted back to marry Poseidon - Have two children one named Triton who likes to blow a horn. Nereus Doris had 50 daughters Contest with Athena - Patron divinity - Acropolis - Poseidon- trident- water (Erechtheum) the name of the monument - Athena- olive tree - Flood around the base of the acropolis - Athena vs Poseidon Only two gods fighting for the patron divinity o Poseidon’s gift was water and Athena’s was an olive tree o They chose Athena’s olive tree o Name of city is Athens o Flood because Poseidon is mad and city became unlivable o Built a temple for Athena and Poseidon Hephaestus - Homeric Hymn 20 to Hephaestus - “Sing, clear- voiced Muse, of Hephaistos famed of inventions. With bright-eyed Athena he taught men glorious crafts throughout the world-men who before used to dwell caves in the mountains like wild beasts. But now that they have learned crafts through Hephaistos the famed-artisan (Kyltoteknes), easily they live a peaceful life in their own houses the whole year round. Be gracious, Hephaistos, and grant me success and prosperity - Fire - Hera’s counter to Athena - Lame, weak legged, club footed thrown off Mt. Olympus by Athena because she thinks he is ugly - First expulsion from mt. Olympus - Magical chair - Second expulsion (Zeus) - Lemnos- Volcano where his forge was located - Homer: Nectar, laughter The Necklace of Harmonia - Ares and Aphrodite= Harmonia - In the retinue of Aphrodite, opposite Eris - Cadmus at Thebes - Oedipus, Antigone, Semele, Polyneices and Etocles - Argos - Dedicated at Delphi - Hephaestus realizes that Harmonia isn’t his daughter and makes a necklace that curses that family. Hermes - the god of shepards and travelers - God of hinges, doorways, and passageways - God of trickery and theft - Master of trade and contract - Crafty in his speech and deceitful in his approach - PSYCHOPOMPOS - Invented the HERM (road markers, garden adornments) Who was Pan? - A son of Hermes, had a beard at birth and struck terror into the nymphs (panic) - God of the woods and pastures (arcadia) - Connected to pao and pasco - Plays the syrinx and has goat features - He increased the flocks (sexuality was pronounced) and protected domestic one - Hunters, shepards, fisherman, bee keepers Hermes the Mediator - Opens roads and marks them (Apollo’s cattle) Shepard’s and sheep - Facilitates trade and communication, but perjurer too - Pandora’s deceitful words, but leads the wife to her husband - Hermanion Hermes and Techne - Art or skill or resources and wits - Hermes uses all kinds of technai - Seduces father Zeus with his masterful art of persuasion - Even the invention of the lyre is part of his techne - Why did Zeus fall for this deceitful language? The spirit of Kakometis - Metis- cunning Poseidon, Hephaestus and Hermes Quiz On the first day of his life Hermes… - Stole Apollo’s cattle From what did Hermes tricky nature derive? - The fact that Zeus lay with Maia while Hera slept What does Hermes do to people when they die? - Guides them to the underworld Poseidon’s main attribute is… - Trident One of Poseidon’s best known temples is built at Sounion. What did Jason hang up inside of it? - His ship the Argo Hermae was often adorned with a - Large phallus Why did Hera give Aphrodite to Hephaestus in marriage? - So he could release her from a trap that he had set for her Who helped Poseidon by convincing Amphirtrite to marry him - His dolphins Thetis went to the forge of Hephaestus to... - To obtain amour for Achilles What epithet fits Hephaestus? - Club footed Medea/ Jason and the Argonauts - Picture of Medea – in a chariot pulled by snakes Jason - peilas - Lolchos (Volos) - Aeson - Aeetes, king of Colchis - Argo- Argonauts - Medea (Hectate) - Sounion - Corinth Eurupides’ - Corinth - Nurse- “Medea broods with hate” - Attendant with two sons: news of banishment - Chorus: encourage Medea to come out - Medea on the lot of women - Kyrios- Servant relationship - The question of power (battle of the sexes) Creon asserts his power - “Medea, you must go” - Guile, charm, persuasive speech (Pandora) Jason the Jerk - Jason justifies his behavior self- righteously - Medea is furious with him - Chorus: “Exile sucks” - Aegeus, king of Athens arrives - Medea promises to use her sorcery to give him what he wants of he will promise to give her safe haven Medea has a bright idea - Golden robe and cap (poisoned) - Persuades Jason to give them to his new bride - To win over a reprieve for the children - Attendant - Messenger - Nurse - Medea carries out her plan of execution Oedipus the King The house of Laius - Thebes (Amphion and Zethus, sons of Lycis) - Cadmus > Polydours> Labdacus> Laius - Laius protected (Pelops palace in Elis) - Amphion and Zethus die early - Laius returns, kidnapping Chryssipus - Imprecation uttered by Pelops - Laius falls under a curse - Marries a noble woman Jocasta Birth of a child - Oracle at Delphi - Loxian response: “You will have a child that will kill you and marry your wife - Exposure - MT. Cithaeron - Servant of Thebes and shepherd of Corinth - Polybus and Merope of Corinth Oracle at Delphi - A symposium at Corinth - “You will kill your father and marry your mother” - Crossroads - Sphinx: “What creature walks on four legs in the morning , on two legs at noon, and on three legs at evening, and is strongest when it walks on the least?” - King of Thebes The Search for Truth - Oracle (Creon): murderer of Laius must be removed - Oedipus begins search, heaping curses on the killer - Tiresias- blind seer - Messenger: Polybus is dead - The Veracity of Oracles is called into question - Oedipus confirms story through the servant The Finale - Jocasta hangs herself - Oedipus uses her broaches to stab himself in his eyes - Asks to be sent into exile 1) Know Thyself - Wise sayings of the oracle at Delphi - Oedipus has an exaggerated case of self blindness - Tiresais accuses him of being blind - Brought down curses on himself in blindness - Blinds himself - Irony of the sphinx’s riddle - Cf. the roman triumph 2) Personal Accountability - Should we pity or despise Oedipus - Predestination of the Oracle - A tertium quid? - Paradox of Zeus control - Tension between predestination and personal accountability - Tower of Siloe - Oedipus focus is on the wrong place - Benign outcomes The Aftermath of the Trojan War A big itdea - Odysseus and Pallas Athena - Trojan Horse - Pretended offering - Big as a mountain, hollow - Greeks: hide on the west side of Tenedos Initial responses to the horse - Trojans throw open their gates - Astounded by its vastness - Minerva’s gift - Views vary on what to do with the horse Laocoon - Priest of Poseidon - Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes- I fear greeks even when they bring gifts - Spear to the belly - FATES intervene – make it inevitable - “else Troy would still be standing and Priams lofty citadel unshaken” Sinon - A “lying” Greek (actor) - Palamedes - Odysseus’ cunning malice - Apollo’s oracle (reverse Iphigenia) Priam frees sinon Death of Laocoon - Slaying a great bull at the altars by the seashore for Poseidon - Along with his two sons - Pair of serpents with monstrous coils - Eyes with blood and fire Bringing the horse into the city - “we broke the walls, exposing the city’s battlements” - Four times it stopped - Cassandra (Apollo) - Helen Post party - Drunken stupor - Pregnant horse (“teeming with men”) - Desen Chaos in the city - Aeneas - Creusa (King Priams daughter) - Exchange of armor - Rape of Cassandra - The ghost of Hector, son of king Priam and queen Hecuba The death of Priam - Hecuba - Polites - Pyrrhus- neoptolemus - Hector - “And Pyrrhus sneered: ‘so, og and tell my father the latest news; do not forget to mention, old messenger boy, my villainous behavior and what a bastard Pyrrhus is. Now die!” The escape of Aeneas - Hector - Achises and Ascanius - Creusa - Tongues of fire - MT. Ida The division of Spoils - Agamenon- Cassandra - Odysseus- Hecuba - Neoptlolemus- Andromache (hectors wife) - Death of Astynax - Menelaos- Helen - Achilles- Polyxena - Trojan War Real war with layer of mythology Late Bronze Age (1300 BC) Mycenaean’s Agamemnon Black sea trading route vs rape of Helen Heinrich Schliemann - 1822- 1890 German - Father, Lutheran minister - Loved Homer, Especially the Iliad - Believed that the Trojan war was real Schliemann’s life - Amsterdam - Indigo market in Russia - 1849 (California) - Gunpowder, Crimean War (1854- 56) - Contraband Cotton (1860- 65) - Gifted in languages IN Greece and turkey - 1869 went to Greece, married a Greek girl - Troy- 10 layers (amateur) - Layer 2- treasure - Layer 6- large walls - Layer 7a- Homeric Mask of Agamemnon- picture Homer - Composed illiad and odyssey - 24 chapter each - Poetic epics (dactylic Hexameters) th - 9 year of the war - Not a Bronze Age Greek - End of Dark Ages, c. 800 BC - Doiran Greeks - Blind bard, performed/ sang Milman Parry - Serbo- Croatian oral poets (yuagolavia) - Improvisation - Formulae - Special poetic language - E.g., epithets - Dictated? A woman? Homeric Weltanshauung - Achilles and Patroclus- the buddy system - The importance of kleos - Hubris: haughtiness - Ate: delusion, derangement (suitors, e.g., and Agamemnon) - Ruin
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