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Biology 102 Unit 4 Notes Bundle

by: l_welden

Biology 102 Unit 4 Notes Bundle Bio 102

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Notes from Lecture in Outline Form for all of Unit 4 (climate, bees, energy, etc.)
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Jeremy Chandler
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by l_welden on Monday May 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
Biology 102 Unit 4 Week 1 Notes Day 1  I. Climate A. Definition: The aggregated pattern of weather over time­­­does not necessarily mean  temperature 1. Temperature changes affects changes in patterns 2. Climate change: any substantial change in climate that lasts for an extended period  (decades or more) 3. Global Warming: recent and continuing increase in the average global temperature B. Where do we get our information?  1. Modeling (such as for hurricanes) ­­­some published models are not as robust as  others 2. Need to think about where you get your data from and how robust the models are  3. Models are constantly adjusted and improved upon for predictive climate science  4. Models are not simply biased towards desired results  C. Extreme Events 1. A shift in average events over time 2. Uses historical data to keep track of this 3. As frequency of extreme events increases, accurately predicting outcomes becomes  more challenging 4. There is large year­to­year variation on top of long­term trend D. Global Climate change 1. The Greenhouse effect: trapping of heat in Earth’s atmosphere ­ Includes CO2, water vapor, and methane ­ Transparent to solar radiation ­ Absorb or reflect heat ­ Contribute to increases in global temperatures in what is often called the  greenhouse effect ­ Increase in greenhouse gases enhances the effect ­  Leads to global warming ­ Last decade gas been warmest in the last 130 years­­­new record set in 2014 ­ Very obvious increase in carbon emission in the last 1000 years 2. Artic Warming ­ Artic is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth ­ Affects many organisms o Polar Bears (rely on packed ice) ­Ocean: plays an important role in land climates ­ Why can we not compare ice in a glass to ice in the oceans: there is ice on land  instead of all the ice is in the water! ­what will be do with all this water? ­ice is very important for climatic records ­ice is also important because the snow reflects heat, so if we don’t have snow and  ice, the landscape will absorb more energy from the sun ­Ice­albedo: feedback­positive feedback climate process where a change in the area of snow­covered land, ice caps, glaciers or sea ice alters the albedo  E. The Carbon Cycle 1. Movement of carbon atoms between organic and inorganic molecules in the  environment 2. Fossil Fuels a. Are limited i. Demand for oil will increase over the next 25 years ii. Sources of fossil fuel are finite iii. Takes millions of years to replenish 3. Carbon Footprint: the measure of the total greenhouse gases produced by human  activities a. Burning Fossil Fuels b. Rice and Cattle c. Deforestation d. Concrete Production 4. The average US citizen consumes 12,133 kilowatt hours of electricity per year 5. Most common energy resources have byproducts, except for solar and wind  6. Emilania huxleyi – diatom a. Photosynthetic plankton species covered in calcite disks  7. Ocean Acidification:  a. We emit 30 B tons of CO2 annually b. The Oceans take up about 40% c. CO2 in water makes carbonic acid d. Oceans have become over 20% more acidic e. Harder for phytoplankton, coral, and crustaceans to make shells f. Phytoplankton support ocean like as they convert C02 to o2 8. Effects of Climate Change on other Ecosystems  a. In many plants and animals, life cycle events are triggered by warming  temperatures or day length b. As global temperatures warm, day length remains steady, natural interactions  may become out of sync i. Snowhares can be seen better against a green landscape ii. Plants may bloom before pollinators have emerged  iii. Combined effects of climate change on forest ecosystems in western  N. America have spawned catastrophic wildfire seasons 1. Warmer weather helps bark beetle 9. Zika Virus  a. Genus Favivirus, Family Flavivirdae  b. Related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile Virus Day 3 II. Possible causes of CCD 1. Climate Change 2. Pesticides (neonicotinoids­possible link) 3. Habitat loss 4. Parasites/Predators (giant hornets)  5. Viruses A. Climate Change: could influence many variables on the list B. Pesticides: insect takes it in through pollination and then the pesticide attacks the  central nervous system of the honeybee ­ People sprayed mass amounts of DDT ­­­ Paul Muller showed it was an  effective insecticide  ­ Rachel Carson (Silent Spring) ­­­ birds affected by DDT and died after eating  worms affected by DDT, the worms ate the DDT from tree leaves that fell in  the dirt ­ DDT works by targeting the nervous system of many insects ­ DDT impacted all organisms in ecosystems ­­­ overtime, if you eat a lot of  organisms with DDT, it affects people and bigger animals ­ Bans/controls on pesticides and other chemicals after Silent Spring is  published in 1960’s ­ Substainability: use of Earth’s resources in a way that will not permanently  destroy or deplete them o Biocapacity: ability to sustain human demand given available Resources  Mesaured in global hectares (gha) – the biological productivity  of an average hectare ( about a soccer field)  Earth has an estimated 12 B gha available; about 1.8 per  person, but we use 2.8 per person on average currently­­­US  has a larger footprint than most world populations o Natural Resources: raw materials that are obtained form Earth and are  considered valuable even in their relatively unmodified state o Ecological Footprint:   Collective demand placed on natural resources  Measure of how much land and water is required to supply the  resources a person or organism uses o  Nonrenewable resources o Pollution ­­­ air or water pollution is a contributing factor in  declining populations  o Acid Rain   Kills microbes  Poisons plants  Metals  Kills fish o Goal of Stubstainable Development o LEED certification  Substainable materials  Greensburg has one of the highest per captita of  LEED buildings Day 4 I. Sustainable By Design A. Technology 1. Smart Grid ­­­ nuclear power, thermal power, hydraulic power, photovoltiac, wind generator ­­­ things that use are ecological vehicles, cities/offices, homes,  factories 2. Smart meters  3. Longevity: can we recycle old products into green sources 4. Things wrong with renewable sources: ­ No solar power because expensive, uses hazardous chemicals, and bad ones  have to be disposed of ­ Windmills ­­­ affect birds, environment, expansive and expensive ­­­ can we  rearrange them to make them ecologically friendly and cheaper?  ­ Nuclear : what do we do we nuclear waste ­ Biomass Supplies: we take carbon dioxide out of the air that plants use ­­­ no  net gain of carbon ­ Wind/Solar power technologies are currently more expensive than those based on oil, coal, and natural gas ­ Carbon offset: you somehow offset the carbon you produce with something  that will negate remaining CO2 emissions ­­­ instead of trees, we can use  algae blooms and microscopic organisms that are photosynthetic ­ If we do not figure out how to regulate fuels, we risk having a boom or bust in human population  B. Biodiversity 1. Loss of Biodiversity ­­­ extinctions in line with this 2. Biodiversity matters because: ­ Expanding human population threatens biodiversity and the loss of natural  ecosystems ­ Healthy ecosystems: purify air and water, decompose wastes, and recycle  nutrients ­ Wetlands: buffer coastal populations against hurricanes, reduce impact of  flooding rivers, filter pollutants ­ Estimated average animal value of ecosystem services each year in the US is  more than 33 trillion 3. Biological diversity includes genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity ­ Genetic diversity: raw material that makes microevolution and adaptations to  the environment possible ­­­­ we can combat the loss of diversity in plants  with the Svalbard seed vault, which houses seed from around the world in  Norway­­­­however, we have no guarantee that they will germinate ­ Species diversity:   o Victims of human­caused extinctions  Chinese River Dolphin  Hawaiian Crow  Northern White Rhino 4. Causes of Declining Biodiversity ­ Habitat destruction and fragmentation o Agriculture o Urban Development o Forestry o Mining – ex. Strip mining o Theodore Roosevelt – responsible for organization of national parks  (1  one was Yellowstone in 1872) ­­­ do we need to regulate national  park attendance to avoid overexploitation?) ­ Invasive species o Competed with native species o Preyed upon native species o Parasitized native species o Often better competitors for food o Ex. Cane Toad ­­­ originally from S. America and brought to Australia in efforts to control the cane beetle, but they did not and have been a  nuisance since o Ex. Giant Hornet ­­­ predator of Japanese honeybee population­­­ honeybees fight back swarming around the hornet and cook the hornet  by beating their wings, creating heat at 117 degrees F.  ­ Overexploitation o Harvesting at rates that exceed the ability of populations to rebound o Has greatly affected:  Tigers  American bison  Galapagos tortoises  Passenger Pigeons o Ecological research is the foundation for finding solutions to these  problems and reversing the negative consequences of ecosystem  altercation o Conservation biology: a goal­oriented science that seeks to understand  and counter the loss of biodiversity  Aims at sustainging the biodiversity of communities and  environments o Restoration ecology: uses ecological principles to develop methods  o Biodiversity hot spots:   Large number of endangered and threatened species  Exceptional concentration of endemic species (those found in  only a specific environment) o Movement corridors help o Goal of Substainable Development  Food  Wood/raw materials  Water o Recycling  Plastics are everywhere  Effects environment immensely­­­ especially ocean environment  Creates garbage patches ­ Pollution 5. Mass extinctions 1. Over the past 540 million years, the fossil record shows evidence of periodic  mass extinctions 2. Happen throughout geological history 3. 250 M: Permian extinction a. survivors spread and diversified b. colonized new areas c. adaptive radiation d. punctuated equilibrium: periodic bursts of species change as a result of mass extinctions ­­­ allows new organisms to settle in and survive 4. 65 M: Cretaceous Extinction a. Dinosaurs b. Climate cooled, seas receded, many plant species died out, dinosaurs  (not birds) became extinct, thing layer of clay rich in iridium  i. Maybe due to a meteorite that landed near Yucatan peninsula? ii. Was atmosphere clouded out? 5. Sixth Mass Extincion: a. Now?  b. May be living in or contributing to the sixth mass extinction


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