Biology 102 Unit 4 Notes Bundle
Biology 102 Unit 4 Notes Bundle Bio 102
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by l_welden on Monday May 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Biology 102 Unit 4 Week 1 Notes Day 1 I. Climate A. Definition: The aggregated pattern of weather over timedoes not necessarily mean temperature 1. Temperature changes affects changes in patterns 2. Climate change: any substantial change in climate that lasts for an extended period (decades or more) 3. Global Warming: recent and continuing increase in the average global temperature B. Where do we get our information? 1. Modeling (such as for hurricanes) some published models are not as robust as others 2. Need to think about where you get your data from and how robust the models are 3. Models are constantly adjusted and improved upon for predictive climate science 4. Models are not simply biased towards desired results C. Extreme Events 1. A shift in average events over time 2. Uses historical data to keep track of this 3. As frequency of extreme events increases, accurately predicting outcomes becomes more challenging 4. There is large yeartoyear variation on top of longterm trend D. Global Climate change 1. The Greenhouse effect: trapping of heat in Earth’s atmosphere Includes CO2, water vapor, and methane Transparent to solar radiation Absorb or reflect heat Contribute to increases in global temperatures in what is often called the greenhouse effect Increase in greenhouse gases enhances the effect Leads to global warming Last decade gas been warmest in the last 130 yearsnew record set in 2014 Very obvious increase in carbon emission in the last 1000 years 2. Artic Warming Artic is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth Affects many organisms o Polar Bears (rely on packed ice) Ocean: plays an important role in land climates Why can we not compare ice in a glass to ice in the oceans: there is ice on land instead of all the ice is in the water! what will be do with all this water? ice is very important for climatic records ice is also important because the snow reflects heat, so if we don’t have snow and ice, the landscape will absorb more energy from the sun Icealbedo: feedbackpositive feedback climate process where a change in the area of snowcovered land, ice caps, glaciers or sea ice alters the albedo E. The Carbon Cycle 1. Movement of carbon atoms between organic and inorganic molecules in the environment 2. Fossil Fuels a. Are limited i. Demand for oil will increase over the next 25 years ii. Sources of fossil fuel are finite iii. Takes millions of years to replenish 3. Carbon Footprint: the measure of the total greenhouse gases produced by human activities a. Burning Fossil Fuels b. Rice and Cattle c. Deforestation d. Concrete Production 4. The average US citizen consumes 12,133 kilowatt hours of electricity per year 5. Most common energy resources have byproducts, except for solar and wind 6. Emilania huxleyi – diatom a. Photosynthetic plankton species covered in calcite disks 7. Ocean Acidification: a. We emit 30 B tons of CO2 annually b. The Oceans take up about 40% c. CO2 in water makes carbonic acid d. Oceans have become over 20% more acidic e. Harder for phytoplankton, coral, and crustaceans to make shells f. Phytoplankton support ocean like as they convert C02 to o2 8. Effects of Climate Change on other Ecosystems a. In many plants and animals, life cycle events are triggered by warming temperatures or day length b. As global temperatures warm, day length remains steady, natural interactions may become out of sync i. Snowhares can be seen better against a green landscape ii. Plants may bloom before pollinators have emerged iii. Combined effects of climate change on forest ecosystems in western N. America have spawned catastrophic wildfire seasons 1. Warmer weather helps bark beetle 9. Zika Virus a. Genus Favivirus, Family Flavivirdae b. Related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile Virus Day 3 II. Possible causes of CCD 1. Climate Change 2. Pesticides (neonicotinoidspossible link) 3. Habitat loss 4. Parasites/Predators (giant hornets) 5. Viruses A. Climate Change: could influence many variables on the list B. Pesticides: insect takes it in through pollination and then the pesticide attacks the central nervous system of the honeybee People sprayed mass amounts of DDT Paul Muller showed it was an effective insecticide Rachel Carson (Silent Spring) birds affected by DDT and died after eating worms affected by DDT, the worms ate the DDT from tree leaves that fell in the dirt DDT works by targeting the nervous system of many insects DDT impacted all organisms in ecosystems overtime, if you eat a lot of organisms with DDT, it affects people and bigger animals Bans/controls on pesticides and other chemicals after Silent Spring is published in 1960’s Substainability: use of Earth’s resources in a way that will not permanently destroy or deplete them o Biocapacity: ability to sustain human demand given available Resources Mesaured in global hectares (gha) – the biological productivity of an average hectare ( about a soccer field) Earth has an estimated 12 B gha available; about 1.8 per person, but we use 2.8 per person on average currentlyUS has a larger footprint than most world populations o Natural Resources: raw materials that are obtained form Earth and are considered valuable even in their relatively unmodified state o Ecological Footprint: Collective demand placed on natural resources Measure of how much land and water is required to supply the resources a person or organism uses o Nonrenewable resources o Pollution air or water pollution is a contributing factor in declining populations o Acid Rain Kills microbes Poisons plants Metals Kills fish o Goal of Stubstainable Development o LEED certification Substainable materials Greensburg has one of the highest per captita of LEED buildings Day 4 I. Sustainable By Design A. Technology 1. Smart Grid nuclear power, thermal power, hydraulic power, photovoltiac, wind generator things that use are ecological vehicles, cities/offices, homes, factories 2. Smart meters 3. Longevity: can we recycle old products into green sources 4. Things wrong with renewable sources: No solar power because expensive, uses hazardous chemicals, and bad ones have to be disposed of Windmills affect birds, environment, expansive and expensive can we rearrange them to make them ecologically friendly and cheaper? Nuclear : what do we do we nuclear waste Biomass Supplies: we take carbon dioxide out of the air that plants use no net gain of carbon Wind/Solar power technologies are currently more expensive than those based on oil, coal, and natural gas Carbon offset: you somehow offset the carbon you produce with something that will negate remaining CO2 emissions instead of trees, we can use algae blooms and microscopic organisms that are photosynthetic If we do not figure out how to regulate fuels, we risk having a boom or bust in human population B. Biodiversity 1. Loss of Biodiversity extinctions in line with this 2. Biodiversity matters because: Expanding human population threatens biodiversity and the loss of natural ecosystems Healthy ecosystems: purify air and water, decompose wastes, and recycle nutrients Wetlands: buffer coastal populations against hurricanes, reduce impact of flooding rivers, filter pollutants Estimated average animal value of ecosystem services each year in the US is more than 33 trillion 3. Biological diversity includes genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity Genetic diversity: raw material that makes microevolution and adaptations to the environment possible we can combat the loss of diversity in plants with the Svalbard seed vault, which houses seed from around the world in Norwayhowever, we have no guarantee that they will germinate Species diversity: o Victims of humancaused extinctions Chinese River Dolphin Hawaiian Crow Northern White Rhino 4. Causes of Declining Biodiversity Habitat destruction and fragmentation o Agriculture o Urban Development o Forestry o Mining – ex. Strip mining o Theodore Roosevelt – responsible for organization of national parks (1 one was Yellowstone in 1872) do we need to regulate national park attendance to avoid overexploitation?) Invasive species o Competed with native species o Preyed upon native species o Parasitized native species o Often better competitors for food o Ex. Cane Toad originally from S. America and brought to Australia in efforts to control the cane beetle, but they did not and have been a nuisance since o Ex. Giant Hornet predator of Japanese honeybee population honeybees fight back swarming around the hornet and cook the hornet by beating their wings, creating heat at 117 degrees F. Overexploitation o Harvesting at rates that exceed the ability of populations to rebound o Has greatly affected: Tigers American bison Galapagos tortoises Passenger Pigeons o Ecological research is the foundation for finding solutions to these problems and reversing the negative consequences of ecosystem altercation o Conservation biology: a goaloriented science that seeks to understand and counter the loss of biodiversity Aims at sustainging the biodiversity of communities and environments o Restoration ecology: uses ecological principles to develop methods o Biodiversity hot spots: Large number of endangered and threatened species Exceptional concentration of endemic species (those found in only a specific environment) o Movement corridors help o Goal of Substainable Development Food Wood/raw materials Water o Recycling Plastics are everywhere Effects environment immensely especially ocean environment Creates garbage patches Pollution 5. Mass extinctions 1. Over the past 540 million years, the fossil record shows evidence of periodic mass extinctions 2. Happen throughout geological history 3. 250 M: Permian extinction a. survivors spread and diversified b. colonized new areas c. adaptive radiation d. punctuated equilibrium: periodic bursts of species change as a result of mass extinctions allows new organisms to settle in and survive 4. 65 M: Cretaceous Extinction a. Dinosaurs b. Climate cooled, seas receded, many plant species died out, dinosaurs (not birds) became extinct, thing layer of clay rich in iridium i. Maybe due to a meteorite that landed near Yucatan peninsula? ii. Was atmosphere clouded out? 5. Sixth Mass Extincion: a. Now? b. May be living in or contributing to the sixth mass extinction
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