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Psych 3870 Midterm Notes

by: haley3592

Psych 3870 Midterm Notes PSYCH 3870 - 01


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These notes cover all of the materials from readings and supplemental online materials for the first exam in the course.
Sleep and Sleep Disorders
Dennis Miller
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by haley3592 on Tuesday May 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH 3870 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dennis Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 05/03/16
Psych 3870: Sleep & Sleep Disorders Exam 1 Study Guide Lesson 1: Nature of Sleep and History of Sleep Research  Definition of Sleep: o “A suspension of normal consciousness” that is completely reversible in a short time o Sleeping people can process information while asleep, ignoring some stimuli and responding to others while remaining asleep  Stages of Sleep o EEG: Electroencephalogram records electric activity in the brain o Calm or Relaxed Wakefulness  Alpha Waves (8-12 cps) o Sleep Stage 1  Beta Waves (18-30 cps)  Theta Waves (6-8 cps) o Sleep Stage 2  Sleep Spindles (14cps)  Large, slow K-Complexes begin to appear o Sleep Stage 3  First appearance of large, slow (1-2 cps) Delta waves, 50% of the time o Sleep Stage 4  Delta waves present more than 50% of the time o REM Sleep  Same brain waves as Sleep Stage 1  Rapid Eye Movements  Normal Sleep Cycle o Gradually pass through stages 1-4 about 45min after going to sleep o Remain in sleep stage 4 for some minutes  Longer amount of time for more sleep deprived o Then begins reversing through the stages backwards (3-1) o Enters sleep stage 1 (complete cycle) about 90min after going to sleep  90min sleep stage is repeated for the rest of the night o Amount of sleep in stages 3, 4 gradually disappear  Replaced by Stage 2 sleep o Amount of REM sleep increases with each cycle  REM period can exceed 30min in a sleep session of 8-10hrs o Normal Cycle is very fragile, can be altered and disrupted by many sources  History of Sleep Research o Sigmund Freud  Interest in dreams, dreaming o Hans Berger  First to observe and report human brain waves in 1929  Observes alpha waves during sleep onset o Nathaniel Kleitman  Discovered REM sleep  Generally regarded as first expert sleep psychologist o Eugene Aserinsky  Graduate Student in Kleitman’s laboratory  First to observe periods of rapid eye movement in sleeping infants (1950s) o William Dement nd  World’s 2 leading sleep researcher for decades  Observed high frequency of dreams reported out of REM sleep  Founded 1 sleep clinic and sleep medicine at Stanford University in 1970  One of the first to recognize significance of sleep apnea and other sleep medicine  Significance of REM Sleep o Two discoveries important to Sleep Research  Discovery of brain waves and discovery REM sleep o Dement & Kleitman Dreaming after REM Sleep  ~90% of adults awakened from REM sleep reported they were dreaming  Eye movement occurs while dreaming because eyes follow the events in from of you, exactly as you would while awake  Eye movement objectively identifies those who are dreaming  Longer REM sleep periods led to longer dream reports  All people dream every 90min a night o Impact of Dement & Kleitman  Unparalleled Progress in Research  All mammals show REM sleep similar to human sleep  Drug effect studies, particularly alcohol  Changes in sleep throughout life  Need for Dreams o Dement study on REM deprivation and ‘Personality Change’  Three consecutive nights, volunteers are awakened whenever evidence of REM sleep is observed  Typically woken 8-10 times on first night, then twice as many times the second night, 30-50 times on third night  Dement believes to have found an increase in ‘REM Pressure’  Reluctant to admit ‘personality change’ was simply irritation after being awakened 30-50 times a night  Effort to prove mental health effect associated with REM deprivation was not successful  Example of what happens when investigator is convinced of an outcome before the start of an experiment o Dement study on Sleep Deprivation interference on Mental Health  Volunteers asked to forego all sleep period for up to 200hrs (~8 days)  Peter Tripp, a New York disc jockey  Stayed awake for 200hrs, continuing daily broadcast  Worked from a glass booth in Times Square  Began showing psychotic-like behavior  Later learned that Tripp used drugs to stay awake  Sleep Medicine o First Sleep Clinic at Stanford University in 1970  Continued research on narcolepsy and sleep apnea  Entirely overlooked disorders now had a clinic from which to be researched Lesson 2: Sleepiness, Fatigue and Sleep Debt  Introduction o Problems created by excessive sleep debt  911 Operator falls asleep during possible break-in phone call  Police & Staff asleep at a senior living facility, missed buzzing call buttons, phone calls and police siren  Exxon Valdez supertanker accident that resulted in major Alaskan oil spill  Daytime Sleepiness o Variation in reports about how willing patients are to describe daytime sleepiness  Complain of sleepiness after one night of bad sleep compared to those who do not complain despite longstanding sleep issues  Reporting poor sleep despite having sleep recording that show quality sleep o Daytime sleepiness is most critical sleep issue  Location on the sleepiness/alertness continuum is most important determinant of how we perform  People function at a less than optimal level more often than we are aware  Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) o Developed by Dement & Carskadon in 1970s o Clients connected to sleep recording apparatus 10am – Noon; 2pm-4pm; 6pm; each time they go to sleep o Precise moment that patent goes to sleep is recorded using the EEG o Average time to go to sleep during sessions is 0-5min = “Extreme Sleep Tendency” o … 5-10min = “Borderline Sleep Tendency” o … 10-15min = “Manageable Sleep Load” o … 15-20min = “Excellent Alertness”  Sleep Debt o Adults require 1 hour of sleep for every 2 hours awake o Brain accounts for the amount of sleep owed  Lost sleep must be paid back sooner or later  Even an hour of sleep for every lost hour o Sleep Debt = Low MSLT Score o Significant Sleep Debt in American high school and college students  Frequently complain of difficulty in..  Waking up and feeling alert in the morning  Staying awake in morning classes  Staying awake in early afternoon classes  Staying awake when driving late at night (especially when alcohol is a factor) o Alcohol and Sleep Debt  Alcohol in presence of sleep debt is known to be potent  Sleep deprivation is similar to alcohol intoxication in the negative impact of performance  The Anatomy of Fatigue o “The idea that all wakefulness is sleep deprivation” o Sleep deprivation begins when we awaken and accumulates throughout our entire period of wakefulness  The Cost of Sleep Deprivation o Sleep difficulties in occupational grou0s  Airline pilots, Medical Professionals, Interstate Truckers, Athletes, Military  The Limits of Sleep Deprivation o Randy Gardner, Record for Continuous Sleep  Record for continuous wakefulness, ay 264 hours in 1960s  Assistants, supporters, colleagues verified his achievement  Reported having no ill effect, other than massive fatigue o Studies in rates have shown that total sleep deprivation is ultimately fatal  As few as 16 days until death o Effects of REM deprivation are unclear o Non-REM deprivations appears to have similar negative effects as total sleep deprivation  NREM sleep may be more biologically necessary than REM sleep Lesson 3: The Biological Clock  Vocabulary o Biological Clock  Internal neural mechanism  Regulates body and behavioral functions on a 24hr schedule or circadian rhythm o Chronobiology  The study of clock-time effects on biological and behavioral processes o Circadian Rhythms  From Latin, “circa dies” meaning “about a day”  Any process that fluctuates on a daily cycle of about 24hr o Entrainment  Occurs when a biological process and clock time are in synchrony o Free Running  An experimental condition wherein all Zeitgebers are removed  Used to study effects on entrainment o Jet Lag  A temporary loss of entrainment that occurs after rapid east-west travel across a number of time zones  The more time zones, the greater the effect o Zeitgeber  A German noun meaning “time giver”  Any of many environmental indicators of clock time  EX: Wristwatch, Daylight, Traffic Noises  The Biological Clock o Not a dual homeostatic responsibility  Not responsible for feelings of drowsiness when sleep deprived as well as feeling alert when well rested o Actually is a Dual, Two-Sided Process  Gives rise to the Opponent-Process Model…  Opponent-Process Model of Sleep and Wakefulness o Two Components  One solely responsible for promoting sleep, the other solely responsible for promoting alertness  Levels of alertness are results of two interacting components o 1. Accumulating Sleep Debt, or Sleep Load produces homeostatic sleep drive  Sleep debt accumulates at a constant rare throughout wakefulness  Sleep debt reaches a peal at the person’s betimes o 2. Clock-dependent alerting  Two Peaks  Midmorning and Early evening  Two Low Points  Early afternoon and Middle of Night o Combining Sleep Debt and Clock-Dependent Alerting  Two Peaks of Wakefulness  Midmorning and Early Evening  Two Low Points  Early afternoon and Bedtime  Larks and Owls o Larks prefer to arise early, feel most alert in the morning o Owls prefer to stay awake late, feel most alert at night o More owls in adolescent/young adults, More larks in elderly  Free-Running Cave Studies o Studies to observe effect of removing all Zeitgebers from living space for weeks or a month o Volunteers instructed to free-run  Sleep or engage in activities solely based on their own preference o Early cave studies indicated volunteers preferred 25 hr day over a 24 hr day  Reversed their days and nights after 2 weeks  Role of Light and the Biological Clock o Light levels in the cave studies were bright enough to maintain a level to permit daily waking activities  May have been enough to allow for entrainment o When all light was removed the true cycle ended up being close to 24hr o Light is believed to be most powerful Zeitgeber o Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)  Location of the Biological Clock  Located Directly over the Optic Nerves, therefore directly influenced by visual activity  Role of Light Bulbs in Circadian Rhythms o Argument that Edison’s light bulb is singularly responsible for widespread sleep debt o Light bulb makes living an Owl-Lifestyle very convenient Lesson 4: Changes in Sleep with Growth and Aging  Neonates and Beyond o Neonatal Period: First 2 weeks after full-term delivery  Neonates sleep an average of 16-18hr per day  Normal Range is large, between 10hr (or less) to 20hr (or more) every day  Little Entrainment, Equally likely to sleep during night and day  REM compromised 50% total sleep time in neonates  Compared to 20-25% total sleep time in adults  Promotes idea that REM sleep promotes new long-term cognitive development o Infancy  Day-night entrainment appears after 4-6 weeks  After 2-3 months, average infant expected to be more awake during the day and more asleep at night  By 5-6 months, consistent day-night pattern established  Total Sleep Time 12-15hr per day  REM compromises 40-50% of total sleep time  Toddlers and Children to Age 10 o Toddlers: Age 1-3  Average 12hr per day sleep, with one to two daily naps (until age 5) o Children age 10  Average total sleep time drops to 10hr per day  Typically fall asleep quickly, wake up refreshed and active o Parasomnias begin to appear  Parasomnia: A disordered behavior occurring during sleep that does not disrupt sleep itself  EX: Sleep Talking, Bedwetting  Parasomnia may develop due to “immature nervous system”  Sleep in Teenagers: Aged 13-19 o Serious problem of sleep debt in American teenagers  Research shows teenagers actually need 9.5hr of sleep per day  More similar 10-12 year old than young adults  80% of teenagers show an owl-type of sleep-wakefulness cycles  Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) o Peak alertness at night corresponds to a later morning low point  Parents become more permissive when enforcing bedtime rules  Teenagers are more impaired by sleep debt than adults  Equal amount of sleep debt impact teenager more than adult  Early-start high schools in US are especially hard on owl teenagers  Most college freshman (age 17-19) living in dormitories continue owl lifestyle  Not expected in upperclassmen (age 20-25) o Melatonin and DSPS  Hormone Melatonin levels increase at night (and in Winter) and decrease during the day (and in Summer)  Melatonin signals human body to begin puberty  Teenagers have decreased melatonin levels o Strategies to control Teenage Sleep Debt  Afternoon naps, Bright Light in the morning, Limit radio/TV in evening, Avoiding exciting activities in evening, Avoiding caffeine in evening…  Sleep in Young Adults and Middle-Aged (Mid-20s – Middle-Aged) o Considered “average” sleep cycle o Total sleep time is 7.5-8hr per day o Sleep Disorders (EX: Narcolepsy) become more common in these years  Special Sleep Considerations in Women o Sleep problems often reported during menstrual periods o Disruptions is Sleep during Pregnancy is common  Increased fatigue in first trimester  Inability to sleep comfortable in later trimesters o Menopause leads to increased insomnia  Hot Flashes occur several times in one night  Sleep in the Elderly o Sleep in the elderly is more fragmented and disrupted than younger humans  More awakenings and fewer episodes free of interruption o Lark lifestyle, peak alertness in morning o Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS)  DSPS opposite, makes elderly go to bed earlier o Sleep Apnea disorders as high as 30-40%


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