Week 15, Last Lecture!
Week 15, Last Lecture! Psych 361
Popular in Developmental Psychology
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
4.11.16 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development o Kohlberg used the “Heinz” dilemma in his research on moral development He was less interested in whether or not people believe Heinz should have stolen the drug and more concerned with their reasoning Kohlberg believed the development or morality occurred in stages and he used Piaget’s stages to map on his own stages of moral development He suggested children progress at different rates and that not all children or adults reach the highest stage o Pre-conventional Level – children base their moral judgements on the consequences of their behavior to themselves (on whether it will be rewarded or punished) Stage 1: children are oriented toward obedience and punishment Stage 2: good behavior is views as allowing people to satisfy their own needs and perhaps the needs of others Most 7 to 10 years olds are at the pre-conventional level o Conventional Level – moral reasoning judgements are based on conformity to conventional standards of right and wrong (social rules) Stage 3: children believe it is goof to meet the needs and expectations of others. Moral behavior is what is normal and what the majority does. Social approval more important than rewards Stage 4: moral judgements are based on rules that maintain social order and on abiding to laws Stage 3 and 4 level emerged in middle childhood (20% of 10 year olds) Many don’t develop past this level o Post-Conventional Level – moral reasoning is based on the person’s own moral standards or universal ethical principal Stage 5: We should obey social rules because they benefit everyone and are established by mutual agreement. If the rules become destructive or unfair then they can be broken Stage 6: Universal principles or community practices determine right and wrong Recognize that sacrifices have to be made to do what is right. Heinz knows that stealing the drug is the only way for him to save his wife LAST UNIT! ADOLESCENCE Adolescence (Ages 11-18) ClickerQ: What is the HPA Axis? Connection between hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal gland Hormones o Body chemicals that regulate hunger, sleep, mood, stress, sexual desire, reproduction and other bodily reactions including puberty o Pituitary – a gland in the brain that responds to signals from the hypothalamus by produces hormones o Adrenal Glands – glands located above the kidneys that produced hormones (including cortisol and precursor to androgens) o Gonads – testes and ova which produce sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone) HPG – gonadotropins sequence that kick starts puberty that awakens sexual interest Puberty o The time between the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development (lasts around 3-5 year) o Primary Sex Characteristics – body characteristics that are directly involved in conception and pregnancy (i.e. testes, ovaries) o Secondary Sex Characteristics – physical traits not directly involved in preproduction (i.e. body hair, increased height, breast development) o Girls Age 9 – ovaries begin to increase production of estrogen and progesterone Age 10 – develop breast buds 11 – pubic hair begins to grow 11.5 – peak height spurt 12 – widening of hips 12.5 – menarche 2 13 – ovulation (fertile and can have babies) 16 – full breast growth o Boys 9.5 – testes increase production of testosterone 10 – testes and scrotum grow larder 11.5 – pubic hair begins to grow 12 – penis growth begins 12.5 – spermarche 13 – peak height spurt 14 – shoulders broaden 15 – voice lowers and facial hair grows Age and Puberty o Puberty normally begins between ages 8 and 14 Puberty before the age of 8 is referred to as precocious puberty; puberty that begins after the age of 16 is referred to as very late puberty (both are rare) o Genes – most of the variability in the onset of puberty is due to genetics and different ethnic groups differ in the average age of onset of puberty o Body fat – girls with more body fat reach puberty earlier Secular trend – shift in age of puberty over last century as a result of changes in diet and lifestyle Leptin – increases body fat, increases body fat and triggers puberty o Stress – elevated (cortisol) results in earlier onset of puberty o Early puberty is associated with lower self-esteem, more depression, poorer body image, substance use and sexual activity in girls, more aggression and law breaking in boys ClickerQ: What does the term proximodistal growth refer to? Development starts from center of body and proceeds to the extremities Physical Changes o Growth spurt – relatively sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty Increases in weight precede increases in height Growth proceeds from extremities to core Muscle spurt occurs 1-2 years later Lungs triple in weight Heart doubles in size and heartbeat slows Lymphoid system decreases in size (teens less susceptible to respiratory ailments like asthma and colds) Skin becomes oilier, sweatier and prone to acne and hair becomes coarser and darker Diet and Nutrition 3 o Growth spurt requires nutrients and minerals that easily become deficient in adolescents who consume too much junk food Menstruation and increased physical activity depletes iron and can result in anemia Calcium is required to support added bone mass Eating Disorders o Body image becomes a big concern in adolescence Dissatisfaction with body image can result in dieting and eating disorders o Anorexia Significantly low body weight, fear of weight gain (BMI < 17) and disturbed body image and denial of problem 5-20% die by organ failure or suicide o Bulimia (symptoms present at least once a week for 3 months or more) Binging and purging, uncontrollable urges to overeat, sense of self is tied to weight The Adolescent Brain o The maturation of the limbic system and reward centers results in surges of emotions, excitement and sensation seeking behaviors o The immature prefrontal cortex means that many of these emotions and thrill seeking behaviors go unchecked o Increased activity in reward centers increases mood and happiness o Increased myelination results in peaks in reaction time 4
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