After Spring Break Notes
After Spring Break Notes His 104A02 (Professor He)
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Date Created: 05/05/16
3/1 Song Dynasty Song Politics The founding of Song Dynasty Based on Tau Dynasty War lords destroyed Tau Dynasty Periodization: Northern Song (960-1127) and Southern Song (1127-1279) th o Wang Anshi Reform (mid-11 century) o Tried to propose many things, but was not successful 1. “Green Sprouts” (Agriculture); Irrigation a. A form of Agriculture. The state loaned money to peasants and not the landlords. This was to help the peasants because it is a lower interest rate compared to the landlords. 2. Military Reform: Baojia system (collective responsibility) a. Baojia system was that every 5 house holds would make a Bao and every 5 Baos would make a big Bao. If one household had something to take care of, all 5 households should work together. 3. Education and Government a. Proposed a new kind of textbooks based off of Confucius. He used textbooks used made by himself and annotated by himself. He said the Government needed to be down sized and reduce the size of the Government. i. His reform would be very good, but his enemies made up things to make the reform bad and made it a failure. People hated him for his personal behavior, his habits, and his looks. Had a bad temper and liked to argue with people. Government changed significantly Emperor took control of everything Remembered as the Golden Time Marco Polo came to China and was impressed and said he never saw any city this size Song Dynasty troubles: Military force couldn’t Government expanded too big. There were many Bureaucrats More landlords started to grab big chunks of land and posed a threat to the government The Song Dynasty was not defended by the Great Wall. China lost half of their territory because of Barbarians Wang Anshi Great leader, Politician, And literature writer The End of Song Dynasty Foreign Threats 1. Khitans (Qidan) a. Originated in North Eastern part of Asia. Nomadic people and did not settle until later. Became the biggest threat to not only China, but also Korean and Palhae. Dominated in this area for more than 100 years. The survivors of the Khitans state relocated in Western Liao state. The Mongols completed crushed the Khitans and Western Liao. In foreigners perspective Khitans were Chinese so the Europeans started to call China Cathay. 2. Western Xia a. Tanguts. Co-operated with the Tau Dynasty. Tau Emperor gave Tanguts the sir name Li. This was older than the Song Dynasty. They then became an independent state. Bigger threat then the Khitans to China. Western Xia did not have the ambition to destroy China. People who followed the Western Xia regime were disappointed because they the people thought they would one day fight their way back to China. Maintained territory in North Western China until the Mongols destroyed them. First target for the Mongols to attack. 3. Jurchens (Ruzhen) and Jin Dynasty a. Replaced the Khitans. From the North East, from where the Khitans were and they were oppressed by them. Jurchens hated the Khitans because of this. Jurchens became most dominated in North East. They were able to capture the China capital and this is why the Song Dynasty ended. Jin literally means Gold. Jin Dynasty was North Western China until the Mongols attacked them. The Jurchens bullied the Mongols and because of this, the Mongols wanted to attack them. The Jurchens who stayed in the North East Asia was fine and lived their lives. Jurchens still exist today. 4. Mongols a. Agreed the fight with the Song Dynasty to fight the Jurchens. The Most dominate people of the history of human beings. It dominated in most of Asia, some of Europe, and some of Russia. Major impact on different part of the world. Destroyed many Chinese states and regimes. They just changed everything. Believed that the Mongols brought the Black Death to Europe. o The End of Song Dynasty o Jurchens destroyed them. Many of the women in the palace and bureaucrats were captured. The capital was weak. The southern Song Dynasty was destroyed by Mongols. The last Emperor of the Song Dynasty was a baby and a fisherman was carrying the baby and reached the last bit of land and just jumped in the ocean and went suicide because the Mongols were hunting them down. o Japanese scholars think that the Chinese culture was destroyed because of the Mongols. Khitans fought Korean tribes and dominated. They also adopted Buddhism as religion. Emperor Huizong He did everything right, wrote many poems, and created unique paintings. He just couldn’t rule. He believed in Daoism. 3 days before the Jurchens took them, he appointed his son as Emperor and then they were both captured. Terms to Know Northern Song Dynasty Southern Song Dynasty Hangzhou Khitans Western Xia Jurchens Wang Anshi’s Reform Song Society and Culture Gentry: the New Social Class This changed the civil service exam Only the rich people could afford to take the Civil Exam. The merchants class and the landlord class. These kids had a better chance to pass the exam. Gentry class was a competition internally. Gentry class were elites even if they did not pass the exam. All the lands were evenly distributed between the sons. This would mean that just because your father is rich, it does not mean that your family will stay rich after you die. o Neo-Confucianism (Song and Ming): Zhu Xi o New creation during the Souther Song Dynasty o Created in Song Dynasty and prevailed in Ming dynasty. He did not write a lot of things and annotated many Confucius texts. o It was created because China was on the verge of total destruction. Scholarship Sima Guang His first day, he abolished everything proposed Created Zizhi Tongiian for emperors to learn how to rule. 3/3 The Golden Times (Song Dynasty) Commerce Maritime Trade; Maritime Silk Road Maritime offices were made to collect tax Certain places in China made specific places for foreigners to live in. Ex: Muslims were traders and they made most of the city, but lived in a certain place in the city Maritime Silk Road, China was a great part of it It started in Eastern Coast of Africa (Swahili) East Africa all the way to South east Asia and then from there to South Eastern China is the Maritime Silk Road route. This is very different compared to the Tang Dynasty o Manufacture and Technology o Cotton textile; Gun Powder; Movable Type Printing; Compass o Cotton Textile was Great invention o Sothern China to Western China is when cotton was developed. o Still was not the best in the world. o It took about another 100 years for their cotton to be improved o After 1500, the introduction of American cotton improved Chinese cotton o Gun Powder was first item developed o The Chinese never used it for a weapon, they used it for firecracker. o Revolutionized the military o Moveable type Printing o This did not Change the Chinese printing or publishing business because scholars carved one page. It was faster then using this device. o 19 century is when they started to use moveable type printing o 16 century Korean developed bronze printing o Compass o Was used by navigators in the ocean o Yellow Emperor made the compass to defeat the barbarians (China founding story) Paper Money used and this is the earliest it was used Over issuance of paper money made the paper money decrease its value Terms to know Gentry Zhu Xi The Origin of Mongols Originated in Northern China One of the most dominated conquerors in the world Changed the world Mongols Expanded Northern Asia to the rest of Asia and to Eastern Europe Russians were dominated and ruled by Mongols Active in Eastern part of Europe Tried to take over Egypt The Pope tried to convince the Mongols to convert to Christian The Rise of Mongols had to do with the change of climate The Origin of the Mongols Genghis Khan (1162-1227): the Founder Genghis literally means Ocean and Khan means leader Leader of the whole world after he unified all the Mongol tribes Temujin His father needed to name the new born baby as a consequence His father was ambushed and killed, so Temujin was an orphan He became a leader when he was a teenager Mongols tolerated local laws and religions and respected the land lords They tolerated all types of religions Converted to religion when they took over a new region Very mobile and could ride their horses across frozen rivers Asked their enemies to surrender or they will massacre the whole village if they didn’t Turkic people stayed and interacted with the Mongols Turkic people claimed to be Mongols o Orginizations: Yassa as Law o Made the Mongols very flexible Military Campaigns Western Xia The first target for Mongols to attack because they were the closest After a couple years, the Western Xia surrendered and they lived in peace with the Mongols Jurchens: Jin Empire Second target because the Jurchens bullied the Mongols Was not totally defeated until another 50 years for them to completely conquer the empire Chinese worked with the Mongols to defeat the Jurchens Khwarezmid Empire Very powerful and able to conquer many parts of Asia Attacked Jerusalem and this started the crusades The Mongol leader sent 500 men to do business with the Khwarezmid Empire The Emperor ordered to kill the Mongol business men When they started war with the Mongols, they were weak and the Empire did not last long The King was hunted down by the Mongols and was killed by his own people After the Mongols won, they made two rivers flood the whole area where the Khwarezmid Empire was After Khwarezmid Empire was defeated, the Western Xia was always betraying the Mongols, so there was an order to kill off the whole family tie Terms to know Genghis Khan Yassa Western Xia Khwarezmid Empire 3/15 3/22 The Genpei War (1180-1185) War between two families “Cloistered Emperor” o Minamoto no Yoritomo Taira no Kiyomori People hated them Defeated because of bad luck The great leader died untimely, 1 year after war started The tale of Heike Outcome of collective authors Oral literature Japanese Romance Message was nothing is permanent Made into films and tv series and etc The founding of Kamakura Bakufu Bakufu means tent Government A military organization, Shogunate Took care of different aspects of economy The emperor was a Shinto priest Emperor was expected to allow everything the Shogunate proposed They were weak In the beginning, the were a click of tribes Minamoto no Yoritomo Only high ranking people had sir names Defeated Taira and killed his half brother His men were handpicked by him and loyal to only him, not the emperor His brother was believed to be a hero People showed great sympathy to his dead brother o Became Shogun in 1192 o Name given after defeating Ainu o Shogun given for highest ranking person in country Started the Kamakura Bakufu Mianmoto Yoshitsune Half brother who died He won the war for his country One of the most popular heroes in Japan Became a Comi Terms to know Cloistered Emperor Minamoto no Yoritomo ATaira no Kiyomori The tale of Heike Ming Dynasty (1369-1644) The Return of Chinese Rule The Foundation of Ming Dynasty Late Yuan Dynasty Destroyed by peasants o Emperor Hongwu (1328-1329) o Reunited China o Had very unique personal experience o From poor part of China and did not have any education from school o Became laborer as a small child and educated himself o Famine hit his village and most of his family died o Became a Buddhist monk but dismissed because of overcrowding o He became a beggar o Became a warlord after father-in-law died o First emperor that was a beggar o Fought local warlords He encouraged people to come back to Chinese ways Hated scholars Hongwu’s Pro-Agriculture Policies: Pro peasants Lijia; Relocation of People; The whole village divided into 10 household. The unit of 10 house holds was a Li. 10 Li’s were called a Jia. They were responsible for what they people did Put people in different locations to make economy more stable Communications system He needed to keep different parts of China informed. He made highway system Political reforms and early power struggles: civil Warfare Did not trust bureaucrats He killed many people because of the power struggle After so many killings, the chairmen were all killed He believed he was Confucian supporter After he died the eldest grandson became emperor because his eldest son died young Other sons felt they should be rewarded for helping their father, so they revolted after the grandson was emperor The eldest grandson killed himself as a result 3/24 Foreign Relations Zheng He’s Expedition (1405-1433) Made great effort to build big ships Lead 20,000+ people and needed to coordinate them Had 7 voyages Diplomacy voyages He was Muslim Seen as Super Natural person o The Japanese Pirates o Not all “Japanese Pirates” were Japanese o Many were Chinese fishermen and joined Japanese regime to avoid China’s tax o A lot of samurais lost their master so they were not samurais during Revolution o They became pirates because they couldn’t be business men Mongols and Manchus Mongols Oirats (Lenin?) Middle of 14 century, they were kicked out Oirats had nothing to do with Golden Family Oirats originated from Asian part of China They stole an emperor for a year Many Russians have Oirats blood Jurchens Manchus Jurchens Ruled China for a little abit Northeaster China were Manchus people Established their own state and posed a threat to Ming dynasty Neo-Confucianism (Song and Ming Dynasties) Li: Heastnly Principle 1 important, Key word in books Being public is good and private (selfish) is bad Qi (ki)ndEnergy 2 important A way a person can fulfill maximum potential Gewu: Investigation of things o Neo-Confucianism in Ming Dynasty o School of Mind o Literally means school of heart o Believed they did not have to investigate things everyday because you understood your heart and mind o Discriminated against in Chinese hierarchy, but became rich o Lower class were newborns Not pure from Confucianism, it was a hybrid of Buddhism and Confucianism and many others Popular because of government sponsorship and because of the test Neo-Confucian textbooks became new textbooks Neo-Confucian is very related to Buddhism Society, Economy, and Culture Influx of Silver Silver came from Spaniards conquering Aztecs Peasants were required to pay tax with money, not something they made This made people become more urban o “Single Whip Method” and Its Consequences o Single means of payment 1. Pro-agriculture surplus of grains 2. People had to find a way to sell the surplus Ming Commerce Not highest class in society politically, but they were rich Major force to fight the government Demanded past times and entertainment Ming Novels Great form of entertainment to kill time Intellectuals started to invest time into novels Paper making and printing was cheap because of the technology Some novels written by the publishers Romance of Three Kingdoms Was not a novel It covered a 100 year time span A book about Chinese politics Games based on this book Journey to the West Based on real history story, Humorous novel 700 AD Person went to India for a couple of decades, learned the language, and brought back texts and translated them to Chinese until he died Going to India was the major plot of the story. In the process he was to meet 4 of his disciples. They had powers to fight monsters and demons. Spent a dozen of years in the dessert and met Buddha and got his texts. Water Margin Based on real history story End of Northern Song Dynasty About the military peasants’ leaders People died miserably Became commercialized The difference between country time and city was time and leisure. City people bought books, went to tea houses Terms to know Hongwu Zheng He Japanese Pirates Li Qi Single Whip Method Journey to the West Romance of Three Kingdoms 3/29 Kamakura Period (1185-1333) Kamakura Bakufu The “Tent Government” = Bakufu = Shogunate o Shogun: “Great general who subdues eastern barbarians” o Leaders of Japan Gokenin: Vassal (Originally recruited samurais to protect and fight for shoguns, but later became independent samurais) Die hard supporters of Shogun Hojo Clan: the de-facto leader of Kamakura Japan Helped Minamoto to win the war The Hojo clan served the position of Shoguns The outsiders did not know this The end of Kamakura Bakafu Started to build wall and make strongholds The government on the verge of bankruptcy and can’t keep the promise to the sunrise to keep the paying them Mongol Invasions: Kamikaze o Emperor Go-Daigo (r. 1318-1336) o Last attempt to fight the sunrise (shoguns) o He secretly ask sun rise to fight Kamakura bakafu o Ashikaga Takauji helped fight o He was kicked out of the capital and had to go to the southern part of Japan o Kenmu Restoration (1333-1336) o He did not have his own military force o He promoted a lot of people who were related to the Imperial family, but did not give privileges to those who helped him o Ignored the needs of the samurais South and North Court Period (1336-1392) and Civil Wars: Ashikaga Takauji The north was defeated by Ashikaga South court said Go-Daigo was real emperor The south was the real emperor because of the three items he was able to bring with him were considered the three divine items Terms to know Bakafu Shogun Gokenin: Vassal Emperor Go-Daigo Kenmu Restoration South and North Court Period 3/31 Muromachi Japan and Koryo Kingdom in Korea Muromachi Period (1336-1573) Ashikaga Bakufo Stronger unified regime o Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358-1408) o The end of South and North Court and the start of Muromachi Period o He used military force to make the south give up and he agreed to the south that the princess of the south and the north would alternate to be the empress o This never happened because the North was stronger and the North assumed their princess was the empress From Shugo to Daimyo (late 15 century) Shugo means guardian Daimyo became local war lords, local leaders on behalf of the Ashikaga Bakufu (government) Daimyo literally means big names 1600s became independent war lords after 1600 Japan became unified again and Daimyo became local leaders to protect Japan Economy and Culture Economy was always in trouble 1. Tributes and taxes Important sources of revenue 2. Loans from Wealthy families Lent a lot of money to sun rise and other institutions 3. Trades Trade with other East Asia countries, 4. No drama A religious culture popular drama. Performing arts After 1600 replaced by another theme 5. Neo-Confucianism Prevailed because Chinese came to Japan to escape Mongols Not government sponsored Foreign Relations 1. Japanese Pirates 2. Foreign Trade 3. Christianity Roman Catholic Church sent Missionaries and those Missionaries became doctors They occupied a specific China island, Macau. Christians tried to convert Japanese people to Christianity and they were kind of successful Jesuits were willing to learn other languages and cultures Christians said that the Japanese needed to believe in one more Kami, God. Christian missionaries were more successful in Southern Japan Government suspicious of the Christians who had power because they wouldn’t be loyal to Japan Koryo Kingdom (918-1392) Later Three Kingdoms (892-936: Silla, Later Packche, Later Koguryo) o The founding Wang Kon (877-943) initially a military leader and then the founding king of Koryo Kingdom Korean regimes were longer th Samguk Sagi (1145), Amguk Yusa (the 13 century) Two history books Both authors recognized the Three Kingdoms Sagi literally means historical book Sagi set a rule how to write a history book Sagi was Buddhist, but his book was only about historic facts Amguk Yusa was written by a monk Yusa literally means antidotes It was mythologies and history combined His stories were polluted with other religions Both books were the first books to talk about Chinese Continued Sataechuui (Serving the Great) Mentality to serve leaders South Korea still implements this policy Korean government tried to avoid confrontation with continent powers This policy can cause confusion because o Invasions of Mongols: became vassal state of the Mongols Harassment of Japanese pirates Korean king and Chinese tried to write letters to the Shoguns to try and stop the Samurai pirates Buddhism Tried to convert country to Buddhism to unify the country Relationship with Ming and Its Demise (1380s and 1390s) Terms to know Ashikaga (Muromachi) Bakufu Ashikaga Yoshimitsu Shugo Daimyo Later Three Kingdoms Wang Kon (877-943) Sataechuui (Serving the Great) Samguk Sagi (1145) Samguk Yusa (the 13 century) 4/7 The Rise of Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) Wars and Rebellions in Late Ming Political Conflicts Some emperors went on strike o Corruptions o Cruel punishments to stop corruption Overconcentration of Lands Families got bigger and needed more land Peasant’s War: Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong Peasants got postal jobs because it was cold and crops weren’t growing Peasants overthrow Ming by 1644 Government couldn’t pay soldiers so they joined the peasant’s war Li Zicheng attacked the capital directly and then the emperor went suicide Zhang decided to fight in Western part of China The Rise of Manchu Genealogy: From Jurchens to Manchus o Manchus in Ming Dynasty o Manchus called themselves Jurchens o The Ming taught them things needed to survive o Became the strongest The Formation of Manchu State Eight Banners Social system and Military system Conquering Ming Old leader of Manchu died and the new emperor was a young child and no one had confidence in the young child Many Chinese worked for Manchu Early Qing and high Qing Policies and Political Adjustment There were just a little changes from Ming to Manchu o Foreign Relationships and Expansions o Took 80 years to stabilize 1. Three Feudatories (1673-1681) a. Three leaders that helped defeat China and they were given territories b. Qing decided to attack them, they were unpopular, so Qing won 2. Taiwan (1683) a. Farmers emigrated there and there was no true government b. The Dutch came over and it was the Dutch territory c. Ming loyalist crossed the rover to take Taiwan from the Dutch 3. Russia (1689): Treaty of Nerchinsk a. Russia started in today Ukraine b. Overthrew Mongol rule c. Kept expanding east and west until the Russians reached the pacific coastal line i. Treaty of Nerchinsk: first modern treaty between China and another greater power. It was the first time that the Chinese empire was limited ii. Russians thought it was unfair 4. Tibet (1706) 5. Zunghar (1759) 4/14 Opium War Internal Unrest and Foreign Aggression Arrow War (1856-1860): The Second x (China vs. Britain + France) o China did not want to renew the treaty o The Chinese sent men to get illegal things from the Arrow ship o China was defeated again Beijing was captured by the British and France, but the emperor escaped o Fought in Northern China Taiping Rebellion: A Christian Movement in China o Hong Xiuquan was the leader o Massive rebellion warfare and most deadly war before world war 1 o He dreamed that God told him he is the younger son of God and was sent to kill all the monsters and evils o He went back to his home village and converted the people and gathered up an army o Believed that Manchus were devils o Fought all the way up to Nanjing Renamed Nanjing heavenly kingdom o Eager to overthrow the Manchu empire and this is why the Manchu were more worried about them than the French and British Zeng Guofan and Hunan Militia: A Revival of Neo- Confucianism o Hunan were tough people o Hunan Militia defeated the Taiping Rebellion o Zeng hated the Taiping army because he hated their movement o Was impressed by the foreign tools that the Taiping army used Self-Strengthening Movement (1870s): Tongzhi Restoration Yuanmingyuan was a beautiful garden that was destroyed by the foreigners o Called the garden of gardens o Used to celebrate birthday A lot of Christian missionaries went to the Nanjing willingly to help them Choson Dynasty, Korea Choson Dynasty or Yi Dynasty (1392-18297) o Koryo was sent to attack the border between Korea and China but he didn’t and returned to the capital and took over Class (Civil Service Exam) o Noble’s man class o Originated from a military class early on and changed from military to poets, artists, etc. 1. By the 1930s, there were 1685 Yangban families with a history of 300-500 years 2. Eligible for assuming positions of the 4 rank and above 3. Had a special Civil Service Exam for the class a. Lower class had a separate test, they could have taken a military one 4. Controlled 70% lands and population in Korea 5. Most presidents of South Korea come from Yangban class The Toyotomi Wars: 1590s o Toyotomi tried to invade Korea twice o Chinese sent troops and them and Korea defeated Toyotomi both times The invention of Korean Script o Elites still used Chinese characters o The lower class used the Korean Script Administrative Structure Turtle ship was the reason why Japan couldn’t attack them Terms to Know Arrow War Taiping Rebellion Hog Xiuquan Zeng Guofan Choson (yi) Dynasty Yangban Meiji Restoration (1868) Transformation Closed State: Nagasaki as the commercial port o Shogun disliked the idea of traveling to other countries and banned most of international trading o The foreigners were allowed to stay on a island near Nagasaki Contacts with the external world: the Dutch and Russians o Russians had conflict with Japan o The Dutch merchants told the Japanese to not mess with the foreigners because they wouldn’t be able to win a fight against them Commodore Perry (1794-1858) o Sent by U.S. to talk to Japan’s government o He threatened to bomb them if they did not sign the treaty o Rewarded by the United States for opening Japan o Had two visits to Japan Unequal Treaties o Japanese perspective, it was unequal because they did not want to work with foreigners o This opened up some places for U.S. to trade with Japan o Shogun needed to make a decision to fight or not, but he was indecisive and he did nothing Revolution Xenophobic Sentiment and Young Samurai’s terrorism o Samurais never felt economic issues o Lower class Samurais became teachers and doctors Tokugawa’s Reform Uprising: Choshu and Satsuma o Started to Revolt and sent people overseas to study o They called for overthrowing the Shogun government o A lot of Samurais were not modernizers, they did not like the Shogun because the Shogun did not look at the Samurai as high class “Restoring” imperial rule o People believed that the emperor was a god because the emperor was far away from people before the Restoration o Emperor became closer with people Tokyo literally means East Capital Meiji Government’s Reforms Political Reform and Modernization Constitutionalism The end of Samurai class: Class suicide o Outlawed Samurai class o They thought they would renew their class and got no recognition as class o Many of them joined the army and navy o The government gave them their own businesses but they were not businessmen Rebellions o Saigo Takamori (1827-1877) Well respected military leader Wrote poems and essays He was the enemy of the state for training new Samurais Parliament sees him as the last Samurai 4/19 Sino-Japanese War Japanese Expansion (Hokkaido and Ryu-kyu) and the Korean Issue o Ryu-kyu islands were independent o Hokkaido o Korean Issue was Chinese Issue Treaty signed in 1870 andChina and Japan agreed to have no military presence in Korea The uprising of the Tonghak Peasant Army o After Chinese sent army to help Korea, they did not know they broke the treaty, so Japan sent military too China-Japan War (1894-1895) o China would not imagine loosing to Japan because the scholars made China look superior and Japan nothing Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) o China had to pay money to Japan o China gave up on Korea o Sick man of East Asia was the name given to China after loosing to Japan Japan also got Taiwan Terms to know Commodore Perry Meiji Restoration Satsuma Saigo Takamori Tonghak Peasant Army Ryu-Kyu Islands Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) Treaty of Shimonoseki Reforms and Revolutions Boxer Rebellion 1898 Reform o called 100 day reform o failed because of the resistance of the conservative people o Emperor Guangxu led the reform to try to gain political power o He was put on house arrest after the reform Empress Dowger Cixi (1835-1908): the most powerful th Chinese woman in the second half of the 19 century o She was the only wife who gave birth to a son o Her son was given the name Tongzhi o Her son died young and he never had a kid o The next kid from the imperial was given the name Guangxu. She kept picking babies so she would be able to maintain her own power in the government o She wanted to get rid of the last emperor and wanted to find another baby because when he reached 20, he wanted to be emperor Boxer Movement (1899-1900): A religious and political movement o Boxers were peasants and not professional athletes o They believed they were invincible o They did not like foreigners, hated Christianity They attacked foreigners and kicked out o Used to kill the foreign people in China, mainly missionaries and the British embassy in Beijing Empress Dowger Cixi decleared war on everyone, so the 8 powerful government sent millions of troops and boxers to fight China Boxer Protocol (1901) o A treaty, official document that was signed to confirm the defeat of China by the boxer movement o China had to pay a dozen of governments, 450 million ounces of silver, as a penalty when signed the treaty Liang Qichao (1873-1929) Founder of modern Chinese journalism and novel Became an opponent of monarchism later 4/21 The 1911 Revolution Qing’s Reform o Led to the civil service exam to be terminated (1905) o This was an unpopular decision New Army: Westernized Qing Army o Their original army was weak o New Army was used to protect Qing Dynasty, but they are the ones who overthrew them o Only literate people would be recruited by government for New Army o Many scholars and intellectuals joined the army because of the reform o 6 and ½ divisions of new army divisions Sun Yat-sen: A veteran revolutionary o People say he was born in Hawaii o Launched 10 revolts o When he was in another country, Chinese secret police kidnapped him o Minor factor in later Qing government Wuchang Uprising (1911): the End of Qing o Had 1 new army division o Many new army joined the revolution o October 10 1911, New army soldiers fired at the buildings of Qing government o The Revolt was not well organized o Started as a minor incident Yuan Shikai o Veteran military leader and politician o Puyi (3 year old emperor the last one) father did not like Yuan o Known to the whole world because he was Korea Ambassador o Reappointed as governor as northeast part of China, he did not like boxers o 1899 he expelled all the boxers from northeast China o Widely known reformer o Became warlord The Founding of the Republic of China (1912) o Tried to make nationalist party the bigger party Warlordism o It was the warlords who controlled Chinese politics o The 6 divisions would multiply o A lot of military leaders became warlords and politicians o This was a dark age for Chinese, but in reality, they tried to reform China Nationalism and Imperialism in Japan Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) o Significant because the Japanese government got a lot of money and the military was able to expand Russo-Japanese War (1904-05): Japan gained worldwide recognition as an international power o Russia became major rival against Japan o Japanese government mad that Russia didn’t pull out of China after Boxer problem was done o Japan defeated Russia o First time an Asian power was able to defeat an European power o Russia was able to fight more troops, but they could not defeat them o Japan was able to defeat Japan because Japan was closer to the war in China o The Chinese government was secretly in support with Russia because Russia wouldn’t pull out of China o The battle ground was far from Russia capital and they had troubles moving their men, the British did not like Russia, so they made it harder for the Russians. o The British government were not willing to see Japan to gain land from Russia o This was disastrous moment from Russia perspective Annexation of Korea (1910) Terms to know Sino-Japanese Boxer Rebellion Empress Dowger Cixi Sun Yat-Sen The 1911 Revolution Yuan Shikai Russo-Japanese War East Asia in the 1910’s and 1920’s May Fourth Movement in China: Background Called enlighten movement because the intellectuals wished they could give enlightenment to the poeple Chinese delegate was forced to give up peninsula after the Japanese got it back from the German Political Unrest and National Disunity: Warlordist China o China was split into 2 o Scholars believed that confusion was not needed any more in China, they wanted to change everything o The Introduction of Foreign Learning: MR. Democracy and Mr. Science May Fourth Movement The treaty of Versailles: 1919 and the Shandong Issue o It was about Shandong peninsula issue Student’s Protest o Protested so the Chinese wouldn’t sign the treaty o China didn’t sign, but Japan still took it as theirs New Cultural Movement 1. Protests (1919) 2. Movement (1915-1925) a. Communist party Rural Base Area The Nationalist Unification of China (1926-1928) “North Expedition” Communist Uprising after 1927 o Chiang Kai-Shek launched surprise attack on communist people Base areas: Communist-controlled regions o Communists stayed here to fight nationalist The Long March (1934-36): Communist’s Escape o Communists were able to reach north west China Base area in North Shanxi: the End of Long March Japanese aggression and the Second United Front o 1931 Japan tried to start taking over China Chinese Civil War (1946-1949) Japan’s surrender and broken ally (1945) October 10 Agreement (1945) o A seize fire peace treaty o Both sides agreed army force should be nationalized o No one took it serious The wars (Three great campaigns) o o People in Beijing surrendered to Communist o Nationalist government capital taken over The founding of People’s Republic of China Terms to Know North Epedition Long March Yan’an October 10 Agreement (1945) People’s Repiblic of China
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