Psych Exam Review Questions
Psych Exam Review Questions 1300
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Heli Patel on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 1300 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Herb Agan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see PSYC1300- Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
Chapter 1 1) What is a theory? ○ A general principle or set of principles proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related. 2) What are the goals of psychology when studied as a science? ○ Describe, explain predict, and influence behavior and mental processes. 3) What is critical thinking? ○ The process of objectively evaluating claims, propositions, and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence presented. 4) Why is the experimental method of research so important? ○ It is used to find causeeffect relationships between two or more variables. 5) What is a variable? ○ Any condition or factor that can be manipulated, controlled, or measured. 6) What is the difference between a control group and experimental group? ○ Control group is not given any treatment. It is used for comparison. The experimental group is exposed to the independent variable. Chapter 2 1) What is a neuron? ○ A specialized cell that conducts impulses through the nervous system. 2) How do you measure the strength of the brain to respond to stimuli? ○ frequency of action potentials 3) If you fall and hurt, what chemical will the brain release? what you hope for /? ○ A chemical substance that is manufactured and released in one part of the body and affects other parts of the body. 4) What does the central nervous system consist of? ○ Spinal cord and brain 5) According to research, what determines handedness? ○ Genes and learning 6) Why do female brains have more gray matter? ○ The more white matter there is in an area of the brain, the more neural communication there is in it. women’s superior abilities in the domain of emotional perception may be attributable to the fact that they have more gray matter than men do in the right hemisphere where information about emotions is processed. Chapter 4 1) What does daydreaming, meditation, intoxication, and sleeping have in common? ○ They reduce bodily functions and activity 2) What is the most significant environment cube that affects the circadian rhythm? ○ Jetlag and shift work 3) What is the effect of not getting enough sleep? ○ It can lead to lapses in concentration and emotional irritability. It also may lead to suppression of neurological activity in the temporal lobes. 4) What does REM sleep mean? What happens during REM sleep? ○ REM Rapid Eye Movement ○ Large muscles are paralyzed, respiration and heart rate are fast and irregular, brain sensitivity increases, and rapid eye movements and vivid dreams occur. 5) What is the effect of a small amount of sleep on cognitive behavior? ○ Lapses in concentration and emotional irritability. 6) What is the body’s natural way of protecting itself from harmful substances? ○ The body develops a drug tolerance. Chapter 8 1) According to Piaget, what is a plan of action based on previous experiences? ○ Schemes 2) What is the process by which new objects, events, experiences or information are incorporated? Assimilation 3) What is it called when an object exists, even though you cannot see it? ○ Object permanence 4) What are two forms of adolescent egocentrism? ○ Imaginary audience and personal fable 5) According to Erikson, when does searching for one’s identity begin and what is the stage called?It begins during adolescence. It is called the identity crisis. 6) When an older individual reflects back on their lives and they feel it is not worthwhile, what emotion do they experience? Despair Chapter 11 1) What is the central idea of psychoanalytic theory? ○ The central idea of psychoanalytic theory is that unconscious forces shape human thought and behavior. 2) What is the purpose of defense mechanisms? ○ Superego; defense mechanisms protect selfesteem; personality stages are characterized by a focus on different areas of the body. When it cannot solve problems directly, the ego may use a defense mechanism, a technique used to defend against anxiety and to maintain selfesteem. 3) What is projection? ○ Attributing one’s own undesirable traits, thoughts, behavior, or impulses to another A lonely divorced woman accuses all men of having only one thing on their minds. 4) According to Carl Rogers, what are the conditions on which positive regard is set? ○ Individuals often do not become fully functioning persons because in childhood they did not receive unconditional positive regard from their parents. To gain positive regard, they had to meet their parents’ conditions of worth. 5) What creates selfesteem? researching?? ○ The sense of selfesteem is influenced by comparisons of one’s real self to one’s desired self. Most people’s selfesteem is based on what they perceive to be their strengths and weaknesses rather than on a single desired accomplishment or trait. ○ One source of variations in selfesteem arises from comparisons of actual to desired traits. For example, a tonedeaf person who desires to be an accomplished musician might suffer from low selfesteem. 6) What is unique about trait theory in understanding human ?? personality? ○ Qualities that we observe and infer from a person's behavior that account for consistency in their behavior. ○ Source of Traits deeply underlying qualities/characteristics that gave rise to the more observable traits. Holy grail of personality theories ○ Trait theory Conception of personality that postulates the existence of underlying dispositions or characteristics that direct behavior Short Answers 1) What are the 3 sources of authority? Define and explain. ● Traditional ○ right to rule, rights of king ○ heredity, father might father right ○ does not change over time ● LegalRational ○ natural law, Weber ? ○ modern state and law ○ magna carta ● Charismatic ○ found in leaders ○ religious prophet ○ Heart ○ creativity, hunches, intuition 2) What are the goals of psychology? Define and explain. ● Description: Identifying & classifying behaviors and mental processes as accurately as possible (Calculate average video game scores for males and females) ● Explanation: Proposing reasons for behaviors and mental processes (Propose that males score higher on video games because they practice more than females do) ● Prediction: Offering predictions (or hypotheses) about how a given condition or set of conditions will affect behaviors and mental processes (is likely to occur) ○ Hypothesize that males and females will obtain equivalent video game scores if they practice the same amount of time ● Influence: Using the results of research to solve practical problems that involve behavior and mental processes (Use the results of video game practice studies to develop games that can enhance females’ achievement in math and science) 3) Nature vs. Nurture define and explain ○ Debate over whether intelligence is primarily a result of heredity or environment. ○ Contributions of heredity and environment to variations in IQ test scores. Studies involving identical twins are important to this debate because twins have exactly the same genes. If identical twins raised together are found to be more alike on a certain trait than are fraternal twins raised together, then that trait is assumed to be more influenced by heredity. Adoption studies have also shown that infants from disadvantaged environments adopted into middleclass families have higher IQs than infants who remain in disadvantaged homes. Early educational experiences may also raise IQ scores. IQ scores have been steadily rising over the past 70 years, because of changes in standards of living. ● Nurture refers to all genes and hereditary factors we have. ● Nature environmental variables thats affect who we are 4) What is ego? Describe its 4 functions and 3 ways it grows. ○ Ego is the center of consciousness, will power, and decision making ● orient us to time and space ○ roots us in reality and awareness gives groundness ● separates us from others ○ help us stand on our own feet ● sets boundaries ○ to control instincts fosters socialization ● establish an identity ○ around an authority figure ○ creates a sense of belonging. ● Ego grows over time ○ Needs are specified (food, clothes, shelter, warmth) this builds trust ○ Stimulation awakeness (conscience) ■ “mobile,” new things, experience ■ creates inner validation, “I AM” ○ Approval builds belonging (needs) ■ 07: Parents ■ 714: parents & peers ■ 1428: Parents & peer & self 5) Explain the scientific method ○ Consists of the orderly, systematic procedures that researchers follow as they identify a research problem, design a study to investigate the problem, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and communicate their findings. The knowledge gained is dependable because of the method used to obtain it. The scientific method includes the following: ■ Step 1: Observe and theorize ■ Step 2: Formulate a hypothesis ■ Step 3: Design a study ■ Step 4: Collect data ■ Step 5: Apply results to the hypothesis 6) Erikson's Maxims of stage development 1. A crisis occurs when the inner needs and the other environment demands a change in the person 2. The crisis creates a change of perception for the individual 3. It is a time of great vulnerability and the development of the new strengths 4. At each stage the individual is confronted with two ways of coping: a maladaptive way or a fulfilling adaptive way EXAM: CHAPTERS 10, 3, 7, 5, 6 (in that order) NatHigh Vitality Low vitality Nurture Giftedness Introverted Soft, Indulging STAR CLINGING VINE home Harsh, demanding TYRANT, “nero” TURTLE home Question on Exam: 3 ways to remove mask: 1. Suffering quickens consciousness, humble the ego, reveals inner strength 2. Radical encounter with a higher power inner turmoil, surrender, “rock bottom”, mysterious metanoia 3. Loving another over time transforms you, out of selfcenteredness into self sacrifice CHAPTER 3: Senses and Perception 1. What is the relationship between sensation and perception? ○ Sensation furnishes the raw material of sensory experience, whereas perception provides the finished product. 2. What is the sense that refers to the position and movement of body parts in relation to each other? ○ Kinesthetic sense 3. What is gustatory delight? ○ Sense of taste 4. Why do women have more pain tolerance than men? ○ Women release more endorphins than men 5. What is the effect of having a cell phone while driving? ○ Inattentional blindness, drivers slow down, stop at green lights, pass through red lights and stop signs, fail to stay within the lanes, have slower reactions, have more collisions with pedestrians. 6. What is an illusion? ○ A false perception or a misperception of an actual stimulus in the environment. Think about the baby albert? Experiment CHAPTER 10 1. According to Hassless scale what occurs stress (student out the most) in college? ○ Having too much to do, and not enough time to do it ○ Troubling thoughts about the future pg 329 2. What is the social readjustment rating scale. What doesn’t it reveal? ○ Holmes and Rahe’s measure of stress, ranking different life events. It doesn’t reveal how the person copes with the stressor. 3. What is the criteria for PTSD? ○ Prolonged and severe stress reaction. Flashbacks, nightmares, intrusive memories. Poor cognition. Survivor guilt, moral injury 4. What is it about the workplace stress that damages a woman's well being? ○ Sex discrimination and sexual discrimination. Managing work and family can be hard. 5. What research student showed the effect on stress on body/ brain? ○ Hans Selye ○ General adaptation syndrome (GAS), the predictable sequence of reactions that organisms show in response to stressors. It consists of three stages: the alarm stage, the resistance stage, and the exhaustion stage 6. How does general adaptation syndrome work? First stage: alarm stage ■ Adrenal cortex releases glucocorticoids that increase heart rate, BP, and blood sugar, supplying energy that helps a person deal with a stressful situation fight or flight ○ Second stage: resistance stage ■ Adrenal cortex continues to release glucocorticoids to help body resist stressors. ○ Third stage: exhaustion stage ■ If individual cannot resist, all stores of deep energy are depleted and disintegration and death will follow. CHAPTER 7 1. What is the mental process of involved in acquiring storing and using information? ● Cognition 2. What does concept of conformation biased assumption? ● If it worked once it will work again 3. According to Robert Sternberg, which type of intelligence is least likely to be academic success ? ● Contextual (practical intelligence), street smart 4. Why do girls better in school? ● Generally attributed to girls’ approach to studying. 5. What are two components of emotional intelligence? ● Personal: awareness and management of our own emotions ● Interpersonal: Sensitivity to others’ emotions (empathy) 6. What are the learning traits of creative individualism? ● Expertise in a specific area that has been built up over years of disciplined study and practice. ○ Open to new experiences and ideas ○ Curious and inquisitive ○ Independent thinkers ○ Hard work and persistence in the face of failure CHAPTER 5 1. How does classical conditioning work? ● A type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another. A stimulus is any event or object in the environment to which an organism responds. 2. What are the two terms that describe change in classical conditional, extinctio ● In classical conditioning, this happens when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus. ● In operant conditioning, extinction can occur if the trained behavior is no longer reinforced or if the type of reinforcement used is n ● In classical conditioning, when a conditioned stimulus is presented alone without an unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response will eventually cease. For example, in Pavlov's classic experiment, a dog was conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell. 3. What is generalization? ● In classical conditioning, the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus. 4. How does classical conditional affect our eating habits? ● Taste Aversion: An intense dislike and/or avoidance of a particular food that has been associated with nausea or discomfort.The pancreas “learns” cues, such as sweet tastes on the tongue, to pump out insulin 5. Describing the concept of Shaping behavior? ● Shaping: An operant conditioning technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behavior by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response, thereby gradually guiding the responses toward the ultimate goal. 6. According Seligman, what is one factor that contribute to someone staying in a abusive relationship ? ● Positive reinforcement ● Humans who have suffered painful experiences they could neither avoid nor escape may also experience learned helplessness. 7. How does behavior modification work in the practical world? ● Learned Helplessness: A passive resignation to aversive conditions that is learned through repeated exposure to inescapable or unavoidable aversive events 8. How does classical conditional affect our eating habits? ● Smell and taste are closely linked. Food odors are conditioned stimuli and they can make a person think they are hungry even if they just ate. ● Pancreas adapts to food cues through classical conditioning. The presence of a sweet taste on the tongue (conditioned stimulus) is a reliable cue indicating that a rise in blood sugar (unconditioned response) will occur. The pancreas “learns” to pump out insulin whenever you eat or drink something sweet. The pancreas will respond to an artificial sweetener in the same way. Without the presence of real sugar to bring up the blood sugar level, however, the insulin will cause the blood sugar level to drop below normal. Whenever the blood sugar level drops below normal, the body signals the brain to motivate you to eat, so you begin to feel hungry. Over time, the pancreas will learn to discriminate between the taste of artificially sweetened beverages and drinks that contain real sugar. The insulin response to artificial sweeteners will then become extinguished, while the link between the taste of sugared beverages and the insulin response will be maintained. ANSWER TO A QUESTION: Extinction and generalization CHAPTER 6 1. What is hardware and software of human memory system? ● Hardware: Brain structures involved in memory ● Software: Learned memory strategies 2. What is the process of transferring information in storage memory? ● Encoding 3. When does consolidation occurs ? ● While encoding information into the brain 4. What does act of repeating information for short term memory? ● Rehearsal 5. What is a major problem of memory in cramming for exam? ● Displacement: When the shortterm memory is filled to capacity, each new, incoming item pushes out an existing item, which is then forgotten. 6. What is the active process called of avoiding unpleasant memory? ● Motivated Forgetting SHORT ANSWER: 1. STAR, TURTLE …..? ○ nature/nurture NHigh Vitality Low vitality Nurture Giftedness Introverted Soft, Indulging home STAR CLINGING VINE Harsh, demanding home TYRANT, “nero” TURTLE 2. Define (2) boundaries and their purpose. Give the types of boundaries with examples of each. What is the effect of boundaries on relationships and freedom? ○ Boundaries are a system of setting limits to control oneself and to control other's effect on oneself. ○ External: skin, touching, closeness, distance ○ Internal: thoughts, feelings, ideas, beliefs, perceptions, values, world views ○ Boundaries increase our freedom and human connectedness by keeping us from being a victim or offender. 3. What are walls? Give 3 examples. ○ For selfprotection, defense mechanism ○ Anger, fear, humor, sarcasm, talking too much, food, sex, work, intellectualism, silence, religion 4. What are egocentric roles? Explain, what does it have to overcome? ○ Star, turtle, clinging vine, tyrant ○ Egocentricity creates problems, stress ○ Suffering quickens consciousness, humble the ego, reveals inner strength ○ Radical encounter with a higher power inner turmoil, surrender, “rock bottom”, mysterious metanoia ○ Loving another over time transforms you, out of selfcenteredness into self sacrifice 5. What are 3 Sternberg concept of theory of intelligences name, example, describe? ○ Analytical componential, mental abilities most closely related to success on traditional IQ and achievement tests ○ Creative experiential, creative thinking and problem solving ○ Practical contextual, street smarts ■ Triarchic theory of intelligence, which proposes that there are 3 types of intelligence: ● Componential intelligence, refers to the mental abilities most closely related to success on conventional IQ and achievement tests. He claims that traditional IQ tests measure only componential, or analytical, intelligence. ● Experiential intelligence, is reflected in creative thinking and problem solving. able to solve novel problems and deal with unusual and unexpected challenges. Another aspect of experiential intelligence is finding creative ways to perform common daily tasks more efficiently and effectively. ● Contextual intelligence, or practical intelligence, might be equated with common sense or “street smarts.” intelligence are survivors, who capitalize on their strengths and compensate for their weaknesses. They either adapt well to their environment, change the environment so that they can succeed, or, if necessary, find a new environment. 6. What are two forms (definition of classified/operant condition with example) modified behavior? name, describe, example who worked on it? Which one is positive/negative? ○ B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. ○ Classical conditioning ■ Pairing with a stimulus ■ Little Albertmiceloud noise ■ Horse whip bell ■ Dog food bell ○ Operant conditioning ■ Shaping ■ Positive reinforcement certain behavior increases as a result of the presentation of something pleasant after the behavior dogtreat ■ Negative reinforcement behavior increases as the result of removing something unpleasant after the behavior traffic leave early ■ Positive punishment behavior decreases as the result of the presentation of something unpleasant after the behavior1 ■ Negative punishment A decrease in behavior that results from a removed consequence.A teenage girl stays out for an hour past her curfew, so her parents ground her for a week. 7. Define complex. Give 3 characteristics (on worksheet: characteristic of how complexes affect our personality). Give 2 example of complex and how are they resolved? ○ Complex: an emotionally charged idea or image around a common human trait that is incompatible with normal feelings. A reaction that outweighs the actual situation ○ CHARACTERISTICS OF HOW COMPLEXES AFFECT OUR PERSONALITY ■ Complexes are normal. We all get “complexed.” An exaggerated emotional reaction means we are alive and, maybe, needing to grow or heal. ■ Complexes come from unamended ideas, beliefs, perceptions, and reactions needing further development. ■ Complexes, whether positive or negative, can put us under a state of duress with compulsive thinking and acting, diminishing our sense of responsibility. ■ Any complex is a universal pattern of experience (an archetype) trying to find its functional or healthy expression. Something is seeking to “right itself.” ■ Complexes operate autonomously and often interfere with our willful intentions, disturbing our memory and conscious performance. ■ Understood complexes lose their power to affect us.They do not disappear, but, over time, their grip can loosen. Working on complexes is the work of a lifetime. ■ A complex does not in itself signify a neurosis. A complex becomes pathological only when we think we don’t have it. Suffering is not an illness, it is human.
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