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by: Lauren Caldwell


Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > LIFE 103 > LIFE 103 COMPREHENSIVE FINAL STUDY GUIDE Units 1 4
Lauren Caldwell
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400+ questions on lecture: including matching, true-or-false, tables, traditional, and situational questions. *This is the same exact file as what is found on Sellfy -> -> ->
Macrobiology; Plants and Animals
Erik Arthun, Tanya Dewey
Life103, Tanya Dewey, life, 103, csu, comprehensive final
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Lauren Caldwell on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Erik Arthun, Tanya Dewey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Macrobiology; Plants and Animals in Biology at Colorado State University.




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Date Created: 05/05/16
Unit 1 1. What is reflected in the idea of uniformity? 2. Define diversity. 3. What is the series of “bins” that classify and categorize organisms? 4. What are the three domains? Provide an example of each. 5. What two types of data are used to create phylogenies? 6. What is the basis of the Endosymbiotic theory? What two organisms were involved in the origin of this theory? 7. True/False: A Taxonomy is a branching diagram that reflects the evolutionary history of a group of organisms. 8. What is the difference between Homology and Analogy? Provide an example of both types of structures. 9. True/False: Mitochondrial DNA evolves rapidly and is used to explore recent evolutionary events 10.Ribosomal DNA is used to explore ancient/recent evolutionary events while Mitochondrial DNA is used to explore ancient/recent evolutionary events. 11.The study of which type of DNA (Mito or Ribo) led to the discovery that fungi is more closely related to animals than plants? 12.What does “Endosymbiotic” mean? 13.What was it, in the endosymbiotic theory, that evolved into the mitochondria in this relationship? 14.Chloroplasts developed from what ancestral type of Eukaryote? 15.Give an example of horizontal gene transfer. 16.Why do we no longer consider diagrams of life a ‘tree’? What is it now considered? 17.What is the difference between Monophyletic, Paraphyletic, and Polyphyletic groups? 18.What two domains are prokaryotes in? 19.True/False: Archaea are more closely related to plants than they are to animals. 20.What does ATP use pump into the cells of Archaea? a. Why is this done? As in, what does this accomplish? 21.True/False: You can find more prokaryotes in a handful of fertile soil than the number of people alive on earth today. 22.What three shapes do prokaryotes come in? 23.What are the three reasons why it is so difficult to study Archaea today? 24.What percentage of bacteria and archaea are not culturable? 25.What does a prokaryote have in place of a nucleus? 26.What is a cell wall in a prokaryote? How is it different from that of a plant cell wall? 27.Explain what happens when a sex pilus is extended from one bacterium. 28.What is the key difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? 29.What can convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonium? a. Why is this so beneficial to life on earth? 30.True/False: Archaea can be decomposers. 31.True/False: Nearly half of all bacterial diseases are caused by Archaea and Bacteria. 32.Which has a larger genome? A prokaryotic cell or a eukaryotic cell? 33.What shape is a prokaryotic genome? 34.What is the difference in structure between Archaeal and Bacterial cell structure? 35.What is the purpose of a capsule? What single celled organisms have capsules? 36.True/False: Bacterial endospores can remain viable for up to 100 years. 37.How do prokaryotes reproduce? a. What type of growth is this? (think about graphs and charts) 38.Bacterial reproduction is a process of asexual or sexual reproduction? 39.What is the difference between Phototrophs and Chemotrophs? a. What is a similarity between Phototrophs and Chemotrophs? 40.True/False: One difference between Obligate aerobes and anaerobes is that anaerobes are poisoned by Oxygen. 41.What is unique about Facultative anaerobes? 42.What are some causes for diversity within prokaryotes? 43.There are three methods of Prokaryotes exchanging genetic information: Conjugation, Transduction, and Transformation. a. Which one was used in the LIFE 102 lab, the one where we had to write a lab report on it? b. Which one results in lysing of cells? c. Which one uses a sex pilus? d. Which one is between viruses and bacteriophages? e. Which one uses a piece of DNA called the F Factor to produce a critical tool for DNA exchanging? f. Which one “gathers naked DNA fragments” floating around? 44.True/False: Conjugation is considered a “one-way street”. 45.Which is considered the “Extremophiles” – Archaea or Bacteria? Why? 46.What does the root “Halo” mean? Which domain does the term Halophile apply too? 47.What caused the bubonic plague? Archaea or Bacteria? a. What two methods did it travel through to humans? 48.What is nicknamed “the junk drawer of taxonomy”? 49.What is a mixotroph capable of doing? 50.True/False: Protists are Eukaryotic cells. 51.What is the purpose of a cytoskeleton? 52.There are four supergroups within the Eukarya group: Excavata, SAR clade, Archaeplastidsa, and Unikonta: a. Which one got its name from its physical appearance? b. Which one has Brown Algae, “some of the most important photosynthetic organisms on the planet”? c. Which has fungi? d. Which one has kelp and all of its variations in it? e. Which one is divided into three groups, two of which cannot photosynthesize? f. Which one includes the closest relative to land plants? g. Which one has Alveolates? How did Alveolates get their name? h. Which has land plants? i. Which one has three subgroups, two of which can produce hydrogen gas as a byproduct of anaerobic respiration? j. Which one has red algae and green algae? What is unique about the color absorbance of red algae? k. Which has humans? 53.It is estimated that __% of the planet’s photosynthesis is performed by protists. 54.How do fungi eat? 55.Spores are haploid/diploid for fungi. 56.What is the definition of Plasmogamy? 57.What is the process of nuclei fusing over time called? 58.(For fungi) Diploid cells are produced for sexual/asexual reproduction and haploid cells are produced for sexual/asexual cells. 59.Chytrids are the common ancestor of what? 60.Of fungi, which is the most genetically diverse group? (Glomeromycetes, Zygomycetes, or Higher Fungi) 61.What is a very important feature of Basidiomycetes that makes them critical for life on this planet? 62.True/False: Higher Fungi Ascomycetes can be either unicellular or multicellular. 63.What are Mycorrhizae and why are they considered so important in class? 64.What is the advantage of having fungal cell walls made of chitin? 65.What is the name of the tiny filaments that make up mycelia? a. Why do the filaments have a very high surface area? 66.(For fungi) Spores are haploid/diploid. 67.What are lichens the product of? (Hint: it’s a form of relationship!) 68.What is the duty of Sporopollenin when it comes to a nonvascular plant’s reproductive system? 69.Why are plants called “Embryophytes”? 70.What two factors for coming to land as a plant was very important for diversifying? 71.What two factors for coming to land as a plant were listed as challenges for survival? 72.What does “apex” mean? 73.(For nonvascular plants) archegonia are male/female parts that produce _____ while antheridia are male/female parts that produce ____. 74.True/false: Archegonia generally require water as a method of transport. 75.What do we mean when we say nonvascular plants have an “alternation of generations”? 76.Fusion of what gives rise to diploid sporophytes? 77.What is a sporophyte? 78.How are haploid spores produced by plants? 79.Gametophytes and gametes have similar abilities, thus share similar name roots. What is this commonality? 80.Why was “dependent embryos” listed as one of the five traits of land plants? 81.True/False: Gametophytes are the larger and longer-living stage for nonvascular land plants than the sporophyte stage. 82.Gametophytes are HAPLOID/DIPLOID, produce haploid/diploid _______ through mitosis/meiosis, and fuse to form a ________. 83.Sporophytes are HAPLOID/DIPLOID, produce haploid/diploid ______ through mitosis/meiosis, and are released into the environment to develop into ______. 84.What is the duty of the Cuticle? 85.What is the purpose of the Stomata? 86.What does “Mycorrhizae” literally translate to? 87.Archegonia create male/female parts for reproduction. 88.Antheridia create male/female parts for reproduction. 89.True/False: For Bryophyte land plants, the gametophyte stage is the more dominant stage. 90.Provide an example of a Heterosporus organism. 91.Provide an example of a Homosporus organism. 92.What is Peat and what makes it so valuable for the planet? 93.From what do Liverworts get their name? 94.What does Xylem transport? 95.True/False: Phloem transport minerals and water. 96.Lignin is in xylem/phloem and does what? 97.Why was the development of roots so valuable to plants? 98.What are the two Phyla of seedless vascular plants? 99.For ferns, do spores produce a bisexual or either/or sexual spore? 100. What does Gymnosperm directly translate to? 101. What makes up a seed? 102. True/False: The gametophyte is microscopic for Gmnosperms. 103. What is the advantage to the modification to the gametophyte for gymnosperms? 104. What is the benefit of pollin? 105. What are some methods of pollination and seed dispersal? 106. What is the definition of Dessication? 107. Megasporangium develop into male/female gametophytes and produce sperm/eggs for gymnosperms. 108. Microsporangium develop into male/female gametophytes and produce sperm/eggs for gymnosperms. 109. What are the three parts that make up the Ovule? 110. True/False: Megasporangium tissue is Diploid tissue. 111. What is the common name for the Integument? 112. What is the name of the part of the ovule that ultimately becomes the nutrients used by the embryo? 113. What does microsporangium produce? 114. What is the benefit of having female cones on the top of the tree for a pine tree, as opposed to being on the bottom branches of the tree? LIFE 103 Study Guide Unit 2 1. What does the word “Angiosperm” literally translate to? 2. True/False: Angiosperms are considered the most widespread and diverse of all plants 3. What is the actual purpose of the flower? 4. What is the phylum all flowering plants belong to? 5. There are [2/3/4/5] types of modified leaves: what are each called? 6. What is the duty of a sepal? 7. Which of the modified leaves are usually green? 8. Which of the modified leaves are generally brightly colored? 9. Ovules are produced in which type of modified leaf? 10.What structure of the plant produces pollen? 11.If you were to draw a typical flower, what would you call the piece that holds the ovules? 12.The Stamen is made up of two parts: a. What is the purpose of the stamen? b. Which part of the stamen is responsible for producing pollen? 13.The Carpel is made up of three parts: a. Which gathers the pollen that is brought to the flower (is at the very top)? b. Which holds the unfertilized eggs? c. Which connects these two parts? 14.True/False: A fruit is actually a matured ovary. 15.What are some methods of pollination? 16.True/False: Beans, grains, and some potatoes are considered fruits. 17.The flower is a part of the sporophyte/gametophyte generation. 18.Where on a flower can you find microsporangia? 19.True/False: Each pollen grain has three sperm within it. 20.What does each sperm within every pollen grain contribute to? 21.When pollen lands on the stigma, from what structure does a pollen tube extend from? 22.What is the name of the pore that the sperm uses to connect to the egg? 23.What does the Endosperm develop into? 24.True/False: The Central Cell, which produces the Endosperm, has two nuclei within it. 25.What is the ploidy of the Endosperm? 26.What is the name of the leaves that first emerge from the newly-fertilized plant embryo? a. What is the actual purpose of these leaves? 27.What is the ploidy of the seed coat? 28.What is the ploidy of the egg and sperm? 29.What were the two groups angiosperms were originally divided into? What were these two groups based on? 30.We now have four groups that angiosperms are divided into today: Eudicots, Basal Angiosperms, Magnolids, and Monocots. a. Which is considered the “true” dicots? b. Which is considered ‘flowering plants with the oldest lineages? c. Which includes magnolias? d. Which is considered the ‘more evolved form’ of Basal Angiosperms? e. Which includes water lilies? f. Which has one cotyledon? g. Which have parallel veins in leaves? h. Which has vascular tissue scattered throughout the stem? i. Which has vascular tissue arranged in a ring? j. Which includes orchids, grasses, and palms? k. Which includes roses, pear trees, and legumes? l. Which one has a network of veins that spread from one master vein in leaves? 31.What are the five traits of seed plants? 32.True/False: Wheat, rice, and potatoes are all angiosperms. 33.True/False: At our current rate of deforestation, about 50% of Earth’s species will become extinct within the next 100-200 years. 34.Leaves are actually made up of two parts: The ____ is the flattened section, or what is usually considered the whole leaf. The _____ connects leaves to the stem. 35.What is the difference between a Simple and a Compound leaf? 36.How do we know what is a compound leaf and not just a bunch of simple leaves? 37.Give an example of a plant with spines. 38.What common edible plant has Tendrils on it? 39.True/False: Every time a flower from a cacti falls off, it develops into a new plant 40.True/False: An onion is a bulb. 41.Provide an example of a storage leaf. 42.What is the space between nodes called? 43.Where on the plant can you find a Rhizome? 44.Was is the purpose of a Stolon? 45.Provide an edible example of a Tuber. 46.What are the three responsibilities of a root? 47.True/False: Most dicots are taproots. 48.What do root hairs grow off of? 49.What is a radicle? 50.What replaces a radicle when it dies? 51.What is a prop root? Give an example of a plant with a prop root. 52.Provide an example of a storage root. 53.What kind of root do Mangroves have? 54.There are three tissue types in plants: Dermal, Vascular, and Ground. a. Which one has xylem and phloem? b. Which one has piths and cortexes? c. Which one has Epidermis and Cuticle? d. Which one is for transportation throughout the plant? e. Which one is for protection? f. Which one is everything that is not transportation or protection? g. Which one has pits and perforation plates? h. Root hairs are an example of this tissue type. 55.True/False: Phloem is composed of dead tissue. 56.There are three types of cells in plants: Parenchyma, Collenchyma, and Scleremchyma. a. Which is for sugar synthesis? b. Which is for sugar storage? c. Which is the thickest? d. Which is strengthened by lignin? e. Which is dead upon maturity? f. Which cannot lengthen? g. Which is composed of “thicker, uneven cell walls”? h. Which is the least specialized type? i. Which carries out most metabolic functions? j. Which is only in plant parts that have stopped growing? 57.True/False: Meristems are essentially plant stem cells. 58.What is the primary duty of apical meristems? 59.What is the primary duty of lateral meristems? 60.What direction does primary growth grow in? Secondary growth? 61.______ Cambium adds layers of vascular secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem, while ______ Cambium replaces the epidermis of a plant with periderm, which is stronger and thicker. 62.What is the definition of Indeterminate Growth? Does this term apply to humans? 63.What are some examples of plant organs that exhibit Determinate Growth? 64.Root Caps have three zones: zone of cell division, zone of elongation, and zone of differentiation. a. Which zone is where cells lengthen? b. Which zone is where cells become distinct cell types? c. Which zone is where mitosis and cytokinesis produce new cells? 65.True/False: Root Cap growth is defined as a form of Secondary Growth. 66.What Shoot Apical Meristem do leaves come from? Axillary buds? 67.Why do some gardeners remove or inhibit apical meristems? 68.How is vascular tissue arranged in eudicots, and how does it compare to monocots? 69.What is the duty of a stoma? 70.There is more (push/pull) in a plant forcing water up it than there is (push/pull). 71.What is the definition of Mesophyll? 72.What are the two layers of mesophyll in eudicots and how are they different? 73.What is the primary purpose of secondary growth? 74.There are two cambiums associated with secondary growth: vascular cambium and cork cambium: a. Which is ONLY one cell thick? b. Which is both secondary xylem AND secondary phloem? c. Which replaces the epidermis of a plant? d. Which appears as rings in a woody plant? 75.True/False: primary and secondary growth can occur at the same time in the same plant. 76.What two tissue types make up bark? 77.What is heartwood and where can you find it in a woody plant? 78.What is sapwood and where can you find in a woody plant? 79.When is early wood produce in a woody plant? (Seasonally) 80.Water lilies can have leaves appear in two forms: one, the lily pad you see on the surface of water, the other as feather-like laves in the water. These different types of leaves have the same genotypes, but different phenotypes are expressed. This is due to what? 81.What is the definition of Morphogenesis? 82.What is the product of morphogenesis? 83.What is the product of cell differentiation in a plant? a. Following the last two questions, what is the key difference between morphogenesis and cell differentiation? 84.Phloem transport products from ____ to _____ 85.True/False: both xylem and phloem transport resources in all directions. 86.True/false: oxygen is only brought into the plant from the leaves. 87.What is the definition of transporation? 88.There are two pathways through roots for water and minerals: the symplastic route and the apoplastic route: a. Which is the route where materials do not flow through the cell: rather, they flow through the spaces between cells. b. This route travels through the cytosol. c. Which route moves through the Plasmodesmata? d. Which route moves through dead xylem cells? 89.What is the transmembrane route? 90.What is water potential a measurement of? 91.The addition of solutes lowers Si, making the pressure [positive/negative]. 92.Water pressure within a plant is [positive/negative]. 93.Where does the “pull” from within a plant originate from? Aka, what process stimulates this “pull”? 94.What is bulk flow? 95.What are vessel elements of xylem? 96.What is the Casparian Strip in a plant’s duty? 97.What route method (apoplastic/symplastic) is regulated by the Casparian Strip? a. Where is the other route method (apoplastic/symplastic) regulated? Aka, where in this route does the water need to cross a cell membrane? 98.What makes up xylem sap? 99.Where does Transpiration occur in a plant? 100. Negative pressure [increases/decreases] the higher in a plant the water goes 101. What is the difference between Adhesion and Cohesion? 102. What cells regulate the opening and closing of stomata? 103. When is a stomata considered Turgid? Flaccid? 104. In general, stomata are open during the [day/night] and closed during the [day/night]. 105. What is an example of a sugar source? 106. What is an example of a sugar sink? 107. True/False: different plant organs are selectively sugar sinks and sources. 108. Phloem sap movement is largely powered by [negative/positive] pressure while xylem contents are largely powered by [negative/positive] pressure. 109. There are three layers to soil. Name them and their general contents. 110. What is in topsoil composition? 111. True/False: Cations are negatively charged ions. 112. How does Cation exchange impact plant absorption rates? 113. Since fertilizer SHOULD naturally cycle, why do farmers need to buy fertilizer for their fields? 114. About how much of a plant’s mass is water? 115. Other than water, what complex molecule is the most common thing to find in a plant? 116. What is the difference between Macro and Micro nutrients? 117. What are some examples of plant macronutrients? 118. Plants can have a symbiotic relationship with another organism to aid in the absorption of nitrogen. What is one of those key organisms? 119. How do Extomycorrhizae help plants? What about Arbuscular Mycorrhizae? 120. What types of flowers are moths and bats attracted to? 121. Why aren’t birds particularly attracted to sweet smelling flowers? 122. What is the purpose of double fertilization in a plant? 123. What is the fancy word for when a dry seed takes up water? 124. True/False: Cotyledons are generally very thick for both eudicots and monocots. 125. What is the difference between a Staminate flower and a Carpellate flower? 126. Is fragmentation sexual or asexual? 127. What are Adventitious shoots? Are they sexual or asexual reproducers? 128. What is the difference between transgenic organisms and hybrids? 129. What are some potential topics of disagreement when it comes to creating new “super” plants? 130. What are the three steps for chemical signaling within a plant? 131. What is the basic purpose of Auxin? Cytokinin? Giggerellins? Ethylene? a. Which of the hormones listed above is a gas? 132. What are the two major classes of light receptors? 133. What is shade avoidance? 134. What does oscillate mean for a plant, in reference to biological clocks? 135. Where did the name for “Short-day plants” come from? How is it technically incorrect, in terms of how these plants technically work in relation to the presence or absence of light? a. The same goes for “Long-day plants” . 136. What is the umbrella term that is used to describe plants and how they bloom in relation to light? (Hint: it has a Greek root pertaining to “light”) 137. Provide an example of positive gravitropism as well as negative gravitropism. 138. True/False: Thigmotropism describes a plant’s response to heat. 139. How does a vine – or other climbing plants – actually “climb” its host object, in terms of their growth habits? 140. True/False: Environmental Stress can be considered either biotic or abiotic. 141. Membrane fluidity is adjusted when the environment is too [hot/cold], and heat-shock proteins are synthesized when the environment is too [hot/cold]. 142. How is too much water damaging to a plant? 143. What two methods do pathogens have in terms of entering a plant? 144. What are R Genes, and what are they triggered as a response to? 145. What does the acronym “PAMPs” stand for? 146. Do Effector Proteins come from a plant or a pathogen? 147. There are two responses to Effector proteins: Hypersensitive responses and Systemic Acquired Resistance responses. a. Which is the short-term response to the pathogen? b. Which is the long-lasting response to the pathogen? c. Which reconfigures cell walls to confine the pathogen that has already entered? 148. What two types of defenses against herbivories exist for plants? 149. True/False: Plant defense against herbivores can exist on the molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, organismal, population, or community-level for the plant. 150. The snow-flake plant has evolved to look kinda like something has already tried to eat it. How does this protect the plant from other herbivories? LIFE 103 Exam III Study Guide 1. What is the definition of Parisomy? 2. What is the difference between a clade and a taxon? 3. What does the root “zoo” or “zoa” relate to? 4. True/False: humanity has only named about 15% of all life on earth. 5. “The _____ explosion was a time when animal phyla literally exploded in diversity. The  _____ Era holds the oldest identifiable fossils of animals.” 6. Animals are described as Ingestive Heterotrophs ­ what does that mean? 7. List some of the definable traits of animals. 8. Animals are generally [n/2n] dominant. 9. True/False: For all animals, the sperm is flagellated and for some animals, the egg is  flagellated as well. 10. What are Hox Genes responsible for? 11. List these in order of event for a zygote’s development: blastula formation, gastrulation,  cleavage development. 12. The Eumetazoa, translated literally to “____ ____”, includes everything in the Metazoa  group except for what? 13. What is considered the single­cellular sister group to animals? 1. Why do we believe this group of creatures is related to animals? Aka, what living  proof suggests that we emerged from them? b. There are three types of symmetry: asymmetrical, bilateral, and radial. Provide an  example of an animal that is each of the symmetry body types. c. What is the difference between Radial and Bilateral symmetry? d. What is a Coelom? e. Why is having a Coelom advantageous? f. There are three types of coelomates: Acoelomate, Coelomate, and Pseudocoelomate. 1. Which is described as having a true coelom? 2. Which is described as having a fluid­filled cavity, but the cavity is not in  the mesoderm? 3. Which is described as lacking a coelom? 4. Which has the cavity in the mesoderm? 5. Which has the cavity between the mesoderm and the endoderm? 2. True/False: the three types of coelom evolved independently of one another. 3. What is the difference between Diploblastic and Triploblastic creatures? 4. What is a Stoma? 5. What is the literal translation of “Protostome”? “Deuterostome”? 1. Which are we ­ a protostome or a deuterostome? 2. Which develops the mouth first? 3. Which has the first eight cells of the embryo specialized right off the bat? 4. Which has the first eight cells of the embryo indeterminate right off the  bat? 5. Provide an example of both. a. What genes do we accredit the development of the spine to? b. What does the term “cephalothorax” refer to? c. True/False: similar functions and specializations can arise from gene duplication. d. Which of the phyla discussed in class is the most diverse? e. Provide an example of a sessile creature. f. True/False: Most animal life on earth is found in terrestrial habitats. g. What is the difference between a paraphyletic and a polyphyletic group? h. What is the difference between a polyphyletic group and a clade? i. Triploblastic tissue arose from what point in the Animalia phylogenetic tree? j. True/False: All Lophotrochozia have a larval phase. k. True/False: Lophotrochozia has the least diverse body plan variations. l. What is the common name for a Plathelminthes? m. What about the circulation system of the Platheminthes results in the evolutionary  advantage of being flat? n. What do we call creatures that are NOT parasitic? o. What is the differences between a definitive and intermediate host? p. There are four elements to the basic body plan of Mollusca: the foot, the visceral mass,  the mantle, and the radula. 1. Which is a feeding tool? 2. Which contains all of the organs required for basic functioning? 3. Which is the largest part of the animal? 4. Which is responsible for secreting the shell? 5. What is the shell made out of? 6. Which is the part of the animal often associated with movement? 1. 80% of mollusca is composed of Gastropods. Provide an example of a Gastropod. 2. What do Chromatophores on Cephalopods do? 3. What is the common name for Annelida creatures? 4. True/False: The term Invertebrate can be used to describe a monophyletic group. 5. What does Anthropoda literally translate to? 6. Open circulatory systems use _______ instead of blood to circulate nutrients through the body. 7. How many walking pairs do Chelicerates have? 8. Chelicerates get their name from their Chelicerae ­ what are Chelicerae? 9. What are the two body segments of Chelicerates? 10. What is the primary duty of Pedipalps? 11. What class of animals was the first to achieve true flight? 12. True/False: Hemolymph is responsible for gas exchange in open circulatory systems. 13. Think about it: snails, slugs, and worms are often found out and about on the surface  after a rainy day. Why is this?  14. Deuterostomia has three classes in it: Chordata, Echinodermata, and Hemichordata. 1. Which includes acorn worms? 2. Which includes humans? 3. Which includes sea stars? 4. Which includes lizards? 5. Which includes sea cucumbers? 6. Which inhabits nearly all habitats and all elevations? 1. What is a Notocord? What is the human variation of the notocord (as in, its universal to  its class). 2. What is the difference between a Notocod and a Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord? 3. What was the early purpose for Pharyngeal Slits? 4. What does “post­anal” tail translate to? 5. Amniotes is a group that both Reptiles and Mammals fit into; however, mammals are  unique in a few ways. What are some mammalian differences? 6. What does “Gnathostome” mean? 7. What is the lateral line system and what is its purpose? 8. What is the critical difference between Actinoperygii and Sarcopterygii? 9. True/False: ALL tetrapod larval or developmental youth have gills. 10. What anatomical change to the pelvis and spine helps with terrestrial movement? 11. There are three types of amphibians ­ name them and provide examples.  12. What critical development allows reproduction to be independent of water? 13. True/False: Reptiles are ectothermic and endothermic. 14. There are three types of mammals: Monotremes, Marsupials, and Eutherians. Provide  an example of each in television (hint: they are all in animated shows for younger  audiences... I think they’re all on Disney Channel (?)).  15. About what percentage of all Etherians are small and nocturnal? 16. What is the duty of underfur and how does it differ from true fur? 17. How does Vibrissae help mammals? 18. What is the Dentary and where is it on humans? 19. What are the three inner ear bones of mammals called? 20. How did the Pelycosarous achieve thermoregulation? 21. True/False: It is metabolically less expensive to have a larger brain. 22. True/False: it is metabolically more expensive to have larger muscles. 23. Horses, Herbert Hoover, and Horton (from Horton Hears a Who) have Heterodonty. How does this help them? 24. What does a secondary palate separate?  25. What one reptile has a secondary palate? 26. Where do the two extra inner ear bones come from, in theory, in our reptile ancestors? 27. There are four tissue types in Chordates: Connective, Nervous, Muscle, and Epithelian.  1. Which is skin? 2. Which is found in the spinal cord? 3. Which is found in your muscles? 4. Which is for support, connection, or separation? My dog Oliver sporting his underfur like a particular presidential 5. Which is for support, movement, or candidate. For most mammals, contraction? underfur appears lighter in color. 6. Which is a covering? 7. Which is for regulation and control? 1. What is the definition, in class, of an adaptive function? 2. In what three types of animals did the evolution of flight develop independently? 3. True/False: The most diverse animal phyla has colonized terrestrial habitats. 4. True/False: Most phyla are marine. 5. True/False: The most diverse animal phylum is chordata. 6. “The four basic animal needs are to obtain _______ and ________, to _______ waste,  and to _____.” 7. Provide an example of convergent evolution between two unrelated species.  8. We can use the wing of a bat and a bird to describe Evolutionary Constraints. What  about wings is an evolutionary constraint? 9. What are some cons of being a large animal?  10. What are some cons of being a small animal? 11. There is a [positive/negative] relationship between size and metabolic rate. 12. There is a [positive/negative] correlation between animal size and lifespan. 13. There are three ways to increase surface area, since its related to a LOT of things in  homeostasis: Flattening, Folding, and Branching. 1. Which is found in intestines? 2. Which is used in leaves? 3. Which is used in lungs? 4. Which is used in gills? 5. Which is used in the stomach? 14. A [conformer/regulator] responds to external stimuli to match the environment’s  temperature, while a [conformer/regulator] is generally at a consistent temperature.  15. True/False: Both Conformers and Regulators can Acclimate to the environment.  16. Provide an example of a human acclimating. 17. List the order of events in homeostasis from beginning to end: sensor/control center,  stimulus, set point, response.  18. There are four types of heat exchange: Conduction, Convection, Radiation, and  Evaporation. 1. Which has no direct contact? 2. Which is contact between a solid and a gas/liquid? 3. Which is due to the high heat of vaporization? 4. Which is due to direct contact between solids? 5. Which is generally used to cool down? 6. Provide an example of each. 19. Explain how countercurrent heat exchange works.  20. Define Torpor. 21. What is the difference between Hibernation and Aestrivation? FIGURE 1 22. Using Figure 1, determine what points 1­4 symbolize the development of.  23. What two things developed at Point 3 in Figure 1? 24. What three groups can Lophotrochozoa be broken down even further into? 25. What two groups can Ecdysozoa be broken down further into? 26. In Figure 1, Chordata broke away from Echinodermata. What developmental difference  is the most prominent difference between these two groups? 27. If I bit you and YOU get sick, I am [poisonous/venomous]; if I bit you and I get sick, you  are [poisonous/venomous]. 28. What are essential amino acids critical for? 29. What is the definition of an Essential Nutrient? 30. What ingestive ‘thing’ was deemed, in class, as “a substance that makes you ill if you  don’t eat it”? 31. What is the waste product of carbohydrates? 32. True/False: Like Proteins, lipids have storage abilities within the body. 33. True/False: Lipids produce 9 calories per gram, while proteins and carbohydrates  generally produce 4 calories per gram. 34. Which is best, in high quantities, for a migrational animal: carbohydrates, proteins, or  lipids? 35. What are the four stages of digestion? 36. Fill in the table below: Generalists Specialists Number of different things A. _______________ B. ______________ it will eat Size C. _______________ D. ______________ 37. There are four modes of feeding: Filter Feeding, Substrate, Fluid, and Bulk. 1. Which is generally used in marine habitats? 2. Which is defined as drinking liquids full of nutrition? 3. Which is defined as eating the material they are physically in? 4. Which involves eating a lot of big pieces of stuff? 5. Which may include Baleen? 6. Which may include parasites? 7. Which involves Heterodonty? 38. Provide an example of an exclusively carnivorous creature. 39. True/False: creatures that typically use venom consume prey close to or larger than their actual size. 40. Provide an example of a projectile tool used for consumption.  41. What are two differences between herbivores that eat ripe fruit versus herbivores that  eat unripe fruit? (Hint: it involves the chemical composition of what they’re eating, as well as competition). 42. True/False: Nectar is high in protein. 43. In the human microbiome, for every [1/2/3] human cells, there are [7/8/9/10] bacterial  cells. 44. What are some ways bacteria in the human microbiome can impact human health? LIFE 103 Unit 4 Study Guide 1. What is the difference between the double circulatory system of frogs and most reptiles and that of mammals and birds? 2. How does the respiration system of birds differ from all other creatures? How is this most important for them? 3. Oxygenation in single circulator systems occurs in ____ while it occurs in _____ in double circulatory systems. 4. How is Hemoglobin different than blood? 5. Blood carries _______, thanks to various proteins. 6. High pH, or [high/low] acidity environments, picks up O2 molecules. 7. Low pH, or [high/low] acidity environments, release O2. 8. What is the maximum amount of O2 that can bind to hemoglobin? 9. What is Hemocyanin and in what creatures can you find it? 10.Force in the heart stems from a couple of sources; the ____ collects blood from lungs and the body, and _____ force blood into the circuits. 11.What is thicker – atrias or veins? 12.[True/False]: veins have valves. 13.At the capillaries, velocity [increases/decreases] as area [increases/decreases]. 14.What happens to the pressure of blood once it leaves the heart? 15.Which end, the Atrial or the Venous end, has an increase in pressure? Why? 16.Why does hemoglobin have a higher oxygen affinity in the lungs? 17.What does Cutaneous Respiration mean? Provide an example of an animal that uses this. 18.What is a critical quality about lungs that is necessary for breathing on land? 19.O2 is less soluble in water, so the concentration of O2 in water is [higher/lower] at the same partial pressure. 20.[True/False]: Oxygen is harder to extract in a terrestrial environment than it is in an aquatic environment. 21.[True/False]: Counter current exchange in gills is an example of unidirectional ventiliation. 22.Think about it: If a fish is swimming and the water is flowing to the right through the creature, in what direction is blood flowing in the creature? 23.What is an example of Tidal respiration? 24.Think about it: Elephant seals have several special adaptations to allow them to dive as deep and for as long as they do. What compound in the body allows this species to store oxygen? (Hint: its in the muscles) 25.True/False: O2, CO2, and H20 cannot diffuse across a membrane without added assistance. 26.Complete the table below Hypertonic Isotonic Solutions Hypotonic Solutions Solutions The higher A. B. C. concentration is where? In what direction D. E. F. does the water flow? 27.Marine fish are [hyperosmotic/hypoosmotic] to sea water. 28.Sea water is [hyperosmotic/hypoosmotic] to marine fish. 29.What term do we give sea creatures, such as marine invertebrates and some vertebrates, when they are isosmotic with the environment, but differ in the specific solutes in their tissues? 30.How is an Osmoregulator different from an Ionoregulator? 31.Which term (from #30) requires spending metabolic energy in order to lose water and avoid solute loss? 32.What three methods of water intake exist for terrestrial creatures? 33.How is water lost to terrestrial creatures? 34.Think about it: Camel humps are made of fat, not water. How does this attribute to their ability to survive in the desert? 35.Why is evaporation a cooling technique for creatures? 36.Describe the process of counter current exchange in a human. 37.There are three forms of nitrogenous waste: ammonia, urea, and uric acid. a. Which requires energy to generate? (2 answers) b. Which how the lowest level of toxicity? c. Which includes high levels of water in excrement? d. Which has excrement come out as a semisolid paste? e. Which is the least metabolically expensive to generate? f. Which is used by many fish? g. Which is used by birds? h. Which is used by humans? i. Which uses a bladder to concentrate the excrement? j. Which is not very soluble in water? k. Which has the ‘medial’ (not the least, not the most) water? l. Which is the most metabolically expensive to create? 38.What are the four steps to create and excrete waste? 39.What type of cells make up mammalian kidneys? How do their structure impact their function? 40.What artery feeds blood to mammalian kidneys? Through what does blood leave the kidneys? 41.True/False: The Proximal Tubules transport large molecules out of the filtrate. 42.What is the Loop of Henle’s special characteristic, in terms of water permeability? 43.The Distal tubule regulates two chemical compounds – what are they? 44.The ______ Duct collects water and moves it through the kidney, concentrating the urine as it prepares to leave the body. 45.There are two types of Nephrons: what are they? 46.What are the two types of Nephrons specialized for? As in, how do their different forms impact their functions? 47.Think about it: If there is a desert-dwelling Pokemon, what type of Nephron would it have an abundance of? Why? 48.True/False: Water is not lost in ascending parts of the kidney, only descending parts. 49.The outer region of the kidney is called _____, while the inner region of the kidney is called the _____. 50.What type of Nephron is physically long enough to reach the renal medulla? 51.What four types of Innate Immunity do mammal exhibit? 52.What are some forms of barrier defenses for the body? 53.Think about it: In developed nations where bathing regularly with clean, filtered water is common, the average amount of skin oils produced by the human body on a regular basis has increased. Why might this be, and how is this the body’s way of attending to its immune system? Is this a positive or a negative form of feedback? (Hint: it has to do with the oils you are washing away on a regular basis!) 54.Phagocytosis is another term for this type of innate immunity. 55.What are some types of Adaptive Immunity? 56.How are Immunization, Inoculation, and Vaccination related processes? 57.What two types of cells are typically the first to respond to pathogens? 58.What do Dendritic cells do? 59.Histamine causes what change in blood vessels? When it this important or applicable for maintaining homeostasis? 60.What is the general definition of an Antigen? 61.What are some differences between B and T cells? 62.Of the two types of T cells, which is for killing infected host cells? Which retains information of the pathogen for the next time it enters the body? 63.What is the difference between a pathogen and an antigen? 64.Complete the table below Innate Immune System Adaptive Immune System What kinds of animals A. B. have it? Is the response Rapid or C. D. Slow? Is the response Broad or E. F. Specific? Does the response have G. H. ‘immunological memory’? 65.Osmoregulatiry of blood with [increase/decrease] when ADH enters the kidneys. a. Why? 66.Is osmoregularity of blood in the kidneys a positive or a negative feedback loop? 67.Complete the table below: Endocrine Paracrine Autocrine Synaptic Neuroendocri Signaling signaling signaling signaling ne signaling Is it A. B. C. D. E. STRICKTLY hormone signaling? What does it F. G. H. I. J. directly involve? (choose from cells, neurons, or the bloodstream ) Is it a Local K. L. M. N. O. or a Global impact? What is P. Q. R. S. T. impacted as a result? 68.There are two aspects to the endocrine system: Endocrine glands and Exocrine glands. a. Which secretes onto surfaces? b. Which defines ductless glands? c. Which secretes onto surfaces of body cavities? d. Which defines ducted glands? e. Which secretes into blood? 69.True/False: Target cells have hormone-specific receptors. 70.Think about it: Silverback gorillas are alpha males of groups of gorillas. The silver hairs on the back will only emerge when the male establishes his dominance over his group. How does this happen? 71.Think about it: How can a low concentration of hormones impact the body in great ways? As in, how is it amplified, and how is this possible? 72. What makes Pheromones different from Hormones? 73.[Lipid/Water] soluble hormones cannot pass through cell membranes easily. 74.True/False: Specific response to hormone binding can vary among tissue types. 75.How is Parthenogenesis different from sexual reproduction? 76.There are four types of asexual reproduction: Binary Fission, Budding, Fragmentation, and Parthenogenesis. a. Which can be exhibited in hydras? b. Which can be exhibited in flatworms? c. Which occurs when the parent divides into two equal pieces? d. Which occurs when a new individual comes from an unfertilized egg? e. Which occurs when a piece that is cut off from the original grows into a clone? f. Which is the most like sexual reproduction? 77.What are the pros and cons associated with asexual reproduction? 78.Is asexual or sexual reproduction the primary form of reproduction in plants and animals? 79.Define and describe the Red Queen Hypothesis. 80.Why are female creatures typically more selective when it comes to choosing a mate than a male creature? 81.With is different about synchronous external fertilization and asynchronous? What is similar? 82.Think about it: Ironman fish have a greater reproductive success when they are large males. Captain America fish have greater reproductive success when they are large females. Which will be protogynous? 83.What is the difference between action potential and membrane potential? 84.Think about it: Bats have different ear shapes. How does that impact their abilities to hunt and eat? (Hint: it has to do with frequencies) 85.Compare and contrast Protandrous and Protogynous organisms. 86.List the four steps to a sensory pathway: _______ -> _______ -> _______ -> _______ 87.Think about it: Why might Synethesia be a difficult situation to live with? 88.What is the difference between electromagnetic receptors and thermoreceptors? 89.What is the difference between mechanoreceptors and pain receptors? 90.Where can you find chemoreceptors? 91.How do thermoreceptors play a critical role in homeostasis? 92.What type of receptor is a lateral line system in fish? 93.True/False: Cones detect color while Rods are sensitive to light. 94.Think about it: If a poodlepony hunts in the dark and is nocturnal, would it have more rods or cones than a poodlepony variant that functions during the day? 95.Tinbergen has four questions related to behavior and social structure of creatures: What stimulus elicits the behavior and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response How does the animals experience during growth and development influence the response How does the behavior aid survival and reproduction What is the behavior's evolutionary history a. Which two are Ultimate? b. Which two are Proximate? c. Which includes circadian rhythms? d. Which includes fixed action patterns? e. Which includes operant conditioning? f. Which includes parental investment? g. Which compares altruism to selfish behavior? h. Which includes learned behaviors? i. Which is influenced by certainty of paternity? j. Which includes classical conditioning? 96.Is a species is monogamous by nature, it has a _:_ ratio of males to females. 97.What is the difference between polygyny and polyandry? 98.What is altruism and how is it important to creatures that live in social groups? 99.What is reciprocal altruism? 100. Why would electromagnetic receptors be better for aquatic environments than terrestrial environments?


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