COM 202 Week 6 and 7 notes
COM 202 Week 6 and 7 notes COM 202A
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Taylor McAvoy on Friday May 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to COM 202A at University of Washington taught by Malcolm Parks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications II in Communication Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 05/13/16
Week 6 Lecture 11 Thursday, May 5, 2016 Announcements: Example 2 due on canvas 5pm Tuesday Challenge yourself and pick a more complex topic Coming soon: Advisory scores for sections Social networks EX: global Facebook friend connections A world being knit together by online social networks makes connections more visible Network thinking helps us Better see how we relate to others Connect personal relationships to larger groups How actions may influence others beyond the immediate situation- your actions can influence others you haven't met How people and events far away from us may influence us Help us understand how new ideas to diseases spread Social Networks: The structures created by the linkages between individuals or social groups Social networks are composed of nodes and links, the two basic components of social networks Nodes- the elements being linked These can be Individuals- mostly Groups of people Organizations and institutions Devices Websites EX: links between political blogs in 2004 elections Red- conservative Blue- Liberal Yellow- in between Reds and Blues seem to be highly interconnection between themselves but not much mixing, the yellow section and links are very few Link and nodes are two basic ways to think about connections but they can be defined in different ways for different purposes Links- connections between nodes Strength of relationship (who's close to whom) Frequency of communication (who talks to whom the most) Content/behavior (who shares info or behavior with whom) EX of content/behavior If you need to talk to someone about a crisis, who do you talk to Who do you talk to about politics Who do you ask to borrow money Two ways to define a link Haven't talked 0 1 2 3 4 5 Talked often Don’t know 0 1 2 3 Really close What is another way to define links? Workplace COM 202 section Roles in networks Group member- a set of people who have most of their communication with each other Bridge- Group members who have a connection outside the group- useful connections to the group and brings new information Liaison- not a member of a group, but links two or more groups together- but it could have its own social network Isolate- no regular connection with anyone else- maybe a person you saw around but don't know Bridge cannot be a liaison at the same time, its either one or the other Liaisons are less common roles- don't need a liaison to connect groups but it is useful when the groups have little or nothing in common Within a single network the odds are you will have a single role But in the broad scope, you can have many roles The Liaison followed by the bridge are the most powerful roles because they bring in new information that groups wouldn't have gotten otherwise- the Liaison is more powerful than the bridge because they get to choose what information to share to a higher extent than bridges The least powerful role is the isolate The most creative role is the liaison followed by the bridge- they translate what goes on in between groups and rely the message to another group Bridges and Liaisons get exposed to more information- group members tend to get the same information from each other Density of networks- overall Tightly knit have many connections between members and loosely knit have few connections between members The ratio of actual number of links to total number possible Centrality in networks- Individual In the center of things vs being out of the loop Individuals who are directly linked to more people But it is also how many people you links are linked to That is you are more central if you know people who also know other important people - friends of friends Having more connections in a group makes you more central Both are mathematical concepts when studied Example of Network density Section AQ Fall 2012 More connections between students More dense FIG section Section AC Fall 2012 Less connections between students Less dense Not a fig section Example of centrality 202 section Persons Elise and John are the most central because they have the most connections between people in the section who also have connections Persons Tim and Judy have about the same number of connections but Tim is more central because his connections also have more connections with other central people How you are linked to others in a network will influence: a. How you behave- what your role is b. How much freedom you have- dense and central have many opinions influencing your freedom- lots of eyes on your actions c. How much power you have d. The information you receive e. The risks and benefits that come your way Two implications 1. Knowing who the people you are linked to and how they are linked to others is important But people only accurately identify only about 40-50% of their friends' friends We are not as great as recognizing friends of friends as we think we are 2. The more we know about the structure of our social network, the better Who do we know that they know Does my network open my world or close it in? Are there gaps- types of people I'm missing that I want to connect with? How deeply networks influence us British researchers reported in 2007 a gene linked to obesity 30% more likely to become obese with the gene 67% more likely to become obese with both parents having the gene Your social networks are more influential to becoming obese than genes Framingham Health Study 1948 to present People in Framingham, MA Regular checkups People moved and researchers collected contact information 10 years ago researchers realized that this was valuable information about participants' social networks So they started looking at social networks and the relation to health People in the study listed others in the study as their contacts The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years Network of 12,067 people who were tracked from 1971 to 2003 Findings The chances of becoming obese increases 171% if you had a mutual friend become obese 40% increase if you had a sibling who becomes obese 37% increase if you had a spouse who become obese Links of people further out in the network You → friend → friend of a friend → friend of a friend of a friend 1 2 3 Direct indirect indirect Do indirect connections affect your obesity risk? Risk of becoming obese increases 45% if one contact is obese (1) 20% if one of your contact's contacts is obese (2) 10% if one of your contact's contact's contact is obese (3) This works with smoking, loneliness, and other habits Networks make it an infection, contagion These effects extend across the entire network Sexual behavior (Bearman, moody, and stovel 2004) Study of sexual activity in high school in the midwest US 832 students completed 18-month study 70% were sexually active (582) students Of the sexually active 22% reported they were in fully monogamous relationships and no one else in the 18- month period 78% had sex with more than one person or had sex with someone who had sex with someone else One big network 50% of sexually active and 25% of the entire school is connected in the circular structure network Very ripe situation for STDs because of the connections that spread faster Note: Almost 40% in this diagram would say they were monogamous but that couldn't possibly be the case Obesity and sex- 3 degrees of influence Why should networks influence us so much? 1. Shared environment- people act and feel the same way because they share the same setting or situation Everyone gets fatter when fast food restaurants are everywhere Everyone is happier when the weather is good outside Everyone is more anxious at the end of the quarter with finals 2. Selection- people choose relationships based on similarity so that people who are linked are more likely to share feelings and behavior We choose friends, romantic partners, sexual partners, based on similarities People who like fatty food will prefer those who also enjoy it Strongly religious people often prefer to associate with those who share the same faith Reinforcement principle 3. Social comparison and norming- we judge what's normal or appropriate based on what we see others in our social network doing If you see people around you are over weight, you are more likely to think that it is normal If the people around you are sexually active, you are more likely to think that it is ok for you to be too May come in with certain perception but this can change based on social networks 4. Diffusion of direct messages- ideas or behaviors are passed directly from one person to another spreading through a network - "word of mouth" Person A tells Person B that a movie is great so B tells C and C tells D and so on Your influence and how you are influenced can spread further and with more impact than you may think Networks and new idea Where do new ideas come from? Myth: Genius makes them up and succeeds himself Innovation and creativity is a network activity Innovative as a characteristic of social networks Low innovation low innovation High density low density Few bridges no core- lots of new ideas but no resources Both very low and very high densities are bad for innovation High innovation Variable density Bridges to bring new information Dense areas to provide resources 5 questions 1. How much does your current social network support who you want to be? 2. Do you know who your members are linked to? 3. What are the ways to reach out? 4. Does your network pose influence risks? 5. Does your network provide a good mix of support and new ideas? Week 7 Lecture 12 Tuesday, May 10, 2016 Obedience and conformity Paper demonstration Why did so many obey Assumed relevance to the lecture/class Curiosity Easy task Professor as authority figure Everyone else was doing it So easy for us to conform as a big group Types of social power 1. Coercive power Use of force directly Threats Chilling effect of demonstrations force- threating power EX of chilling effect- Someone wants to participate in the May Day protests but they do research online and find that they are heavily policed and decide not to participate Examples of Coercive power (John French and Bertram Raven 1959) Police dispuerse protesters against chemical plant project in mooming, Guangdong province- March 31 2014 May Day protests Seattle 2016 Domestic violence and relationship violence- major health risk for adult women in US Coercive power can be on the Government, federal, state, and personal level 2. Reward power Providing what the other person wants or desires Removing or reducing unwanted or unpleasant things From compliments to cash EX: roommate says they'll love you forever if you help them clean Making it easier for themselves by taking a barrier out of the way- contract- return EX: if I drive you to the airport, you need to do me a favor EX: employee reward power- salary- benefits- office space 3. Referent power Power based on desire to be liked or accepted Power based on admiration or wish to be like another EX: Little cat wants to be like the big tiger We want to be like someone- role model Want someone to like us 4. Expert power Providing information, technical skills, experience Requires trust Experts easy to follow because we believe them How do you judge expertise in your personal areas of interest? EX: I'll show you how to make a cake if you show me how to fix a toaster 5. Legitimate power (authority) Based on position, role Includes resources that come with role Must be accepted Must be combined with other forms of power to last EX: officer in club, professor, manager, law, police, political candidates President has power because of position not personal self Legitimate power is tricky because It has to be accepted It has to be combined with other forms of power Types are often combined to try to be more effective Look for types of power examples in your own life Power is more about the receiver's dependence than about the source's abilities or resources Not what the source has but what the receiver wants "no one can make you feel inferior without your consent" Eleanor Roosevelt Defending family, country, personal safety- don’t accept another person's power in extreme way Who would you die for? EX: debate of police power- coercive or legitimate? Could reject legitimate power but they could still have power by force New media- Mobile phones, social network sites, the internet generally, can undermine traditional power structure Examples Recording industry - consume music for free Publishing industry challenged by online platforms Social media- information to challenge legitimate power Smartphone video and media producers New power structures- especially media power structures emerging Do new media bring new forms of dependence? Thought experiment Think of a small habit you're not proud of Something you've done that you shouldn't have A recent time you were too lazy Now think of your grandmother or someone who's opinion you value Would you have done that behavior if you knew they were watching? What kind of power are you giving this person over you? Referent power- don't want that person to think badly about you Think about who's opinion matters to you so much that you would change your behavior in front of them to gain their approval Mostly the people you are close to, but could it also be for strangers? Yes, public image- professional appearance and behavior Core idea: Being observed by others has a powerful influence on our behavior Can you be too open to other's influence? Yes, there are many cases where this is true What if private parts of your life were out there for everyone to see? Facebook Profile The more other people know about us, the more they can use our desires, tastes, etc. to influence us 2011 Talk by Eli Pariser, author of Filter Bubble and co-founder of MoveOn.org Key points 1. Traditionally journalists, broadcasters and publishers acted as gatekeepers 2. Today, internet upsets process and shifts from human gatekeepers to algorithmic gatekeepers 3. What you get on the web is not the same as what others get 4. We live in a "Filter Bubble" created by invisible algorithmic editing of web- hard to come together to solve problems because we're isolated 5. In the filter bubble You don't decide what gets in You don’t know what's left out- most important 6. Software personalizes our experience of Facebook, Yahoo News, google, etc.- we mostly like this personalization 7. Algorithms show us what they think we want to see but maybe not what we need to see to be informed and effective 8. Filters emphasize what we click on first- placing impulsive choices first Two more things French social commentator Michel Foucault: Modern government don’t need as much surveillance because they have created citizens who watch each other and themselves The more personal information we put out online, the less likely we are to be bothered by the government knowing what we talk about and who we are "Good" surveillance Fitbit and activity trackers allow data sharing with friends- motivational What else could be done with activity data? John Hancock insurance company offers discounts for those who share activity data, but does you premium charge go up with lessening activity? People are sensitive to how people view us and sensitive to faces Nonverbal communication shows us that faces and emotions matter Neurons in the brain respond selectively to eyes and expressions Think of "on their honor" situations Leave money or clean up University of Newcastle (UK) Melissa Bateson On their honor pay system at café Picture of eyes on the pay jar or picture of flowers Tracked the money People paid 2.76 times as much with the eyes than the flowers Week 7 Lecture 13 Thursday, May 12, 2016 Mass media and advertising Nearly every experience we have today is mediated in some way The average American Watches almost 5 hours of TV per day Sees 150,000 violent acts on TV by age 18 Will see 2 million TV commercials by age 65 People often talk about what we see in media We become immersed and dependent on media Then there's all the social media, radio, Pandora, Hulu, Netflix, etc. Many people use Facebook as their primary source of news Americans use electronic media 11 + hours per day 4 hr 51 min Live TV 2 hr 43 min Radio 1 hr 25 min Smartphone 1 hr 6 min Internet 33 min Time shifted TV 13 min Game console 9 min DVD 7 min Multimedia device How does all this media exposure affect us? The Traditional model of media influence Passive receivers uncritically soak up media messages Often called the "Hypodermic model" or "magic bullet" theory of mass media Assumes that media messages have direct and immediate effects on receivers Assumes little feedback, little communication among receivers- passive consumers Hypodermic model in action Example Seth Rogan smokes weed Teen sees Seth Rogan smoking weed Teen smokes weed We hear this example of media influence all the time when people warn about the influence and danger of media messages Beyond the traditional model Old spice ad "look at your man, now back to me" About half of the class saw it on TV and half saw it on the internet first Took old spice sales up 107% It used to be a terrible product and on its way out of being cool The ad inspired a secondary message- parody video by viewers Nearly 5,000 user generated spoofs of the ad One example- "study like a scholar, scholar" Reinforce and change the original message- part of advertising "Cooper" is the star of an Anheuser-Busch responsible drinking commercial that went viral with more than 13 million views during its first week in September 2014 Message about the product but also about not drinking and driving A common form of advertising was inspired by Heineken beer and has a fast pace and indirect shots of the product Heineken ad "the date" 2011 Jaan Pahechan Ho- song from 1965 Bollywood movie "Gum Naam" Facebook made an app that makes personalized valentines serenades with 640 choices Then YouTube 8hour submission project of valentine serenades Transmedia- TV commercials to Facebook to YouTube all tied by a single story line- the ad goes across media Four things Ads do not explicitly offer reasons why their products are the best More of the ads make comparisons between products Modern ad campaigns increasingly employ multiple media platforms They engage users in new ways including: Humor, entertainment, emotional value Making it easy for users to refer ad to others Leveraging user generated content (UGC) How are these ads appealing to consumers? How many ways can we complete this sentence? Buy our product because ____________ Feelings In group Cool Idealized gender roles Humor Five problems with the Hypodermic model 1. Receivers practice selective exposure a. Receivers look for media sources that reinforce what they already think or want to do b. Seth Rogan can only be a bad role model if you're following him c. Lots of evidence for selective exposure (conservatives are more likely to watch Fox News while liberals and independents favor other sources) 2. Receivers practice selective attention- filtering out information that is of less interest or that doesn't agree with them a. So Seth Rogan can only encourage smoking if you notice that he smokes b. Many commercials for example simply don’t capture your attention (that's why advertisers work so hard to get it) 3. Our media choices are affected by our goals a. Our "uses and gratifications" for media - how you want to use media and what you find gratifying- change b. We're actively making choices in order to meet our own individual needs at a particular moment EX: how movie preferences change from time to time depending on mood, etc. Uses and gratifications 5 general needs we might try to meet with media choices Cognitive needs- acquiring information, knowledge Affective needs- emotional, pleasure, feelings Personal integrative needs- credibility, stability, status- makes us look good to others if we have seen or know a certain thing- EX: You see that long awaited movie before all your friends Social integrative needs- connecting with family, friends Tension release needs- escape and diversion EX: video games, guilty pleasure tv 4. Media messages are often filtered through our interpersonal networks a. Classic hypodermic models assume that receivers don’t talk to each other- but we know this is false b. We actively discuss the media and those discussion almost always change the effect of the message May amplify May diminish May change interpretation EX: sports play and announcer's commentary will be filtered through the conversation among our experts on the couch EX: sunscreen campaign in Australia didn’t work well because of what people said about it- didn’t need it 5. Sources get more feedback and are more sensitive to it than the hypodermic model assumes Message testing- messages are tested with potential audience members even before they go out EX: movie sneak preview, political messages polling and ads focus groups Advertisers may influence news coverage 33% of US journalists and news directors say they have been pressured by advertisers New media gives the audience the power to help or hurt a company's reputation- consumers as media producers How do media influence us? 1. By creating automatic associations that bring a product or idea to mind more easily We are often using system 1 with ads so the goal is to get a product with a positive association and create brand loyalty Example: Logos We don't think of them as advertising when we wear them We may or may not think about it but it is always within our view We sometimes judge people by logos Associations between products and people run very deep What do your logos say about you? Do your logos affect how you are seen? Logos travel- EX: T-Shirts in the developing world Tattooed logos Would you get your employer's logo tattooed for a 15% raise? May 2013- Employees of a New York real estate firm were offered this deal Out of 800 employees, 40 accepted within 2 weeks 2. Agenda setting Media do not tell you what to think about an issue as much as they tell you what issues to think about- some topics and sources more important than others Agenda setting- the increased visibility and priority given to an issue as a result of repetition by major media sources a. Traditional "newspapers of record" (New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Washington Post) get more attention so their choices of stories have a greater impact b. TV and the "blogsphere" have become increasingly important c. Set agenda with Longer articles or stories Frequent coverage Larger headlines, placing in prominent position Stories earlier in broadcast or nearer to the front of the paper EX: Nov 2015- Paris bombing receives massive coverage. Fewer and smaller stories about bombing in Beirut just one day earlier 3. Content framing or emphasis framing In addition to putting some issues in spotlight, media organizes the elements within stories in broad ways a. Provide definitions of the problem b. Diagnose causes c. Link elements of a story together d. Make moral judgements e. Suggest remedies Some facts are framed in different ways EX: is the current US budget problem too much spending or too many tax breaks? The "game frame" approach to national issues Stories are framed as a political contest between sides and then followed to keep track of their score as the "game" unfolds EX: primaries in US presidential race Most people can tell more about who leads in the polls than what the candidates policies are Three problems with the game frame and how they distort our understanding and discussion of important issues 1. Always need to find two sides and present them as more or less equal- even if one is very weak (ex climate change deniers) media build up the weak side to make it a better game for viewers 2. By focusing on areas of conflict over areas of potential agreement and compromise-often ignored 3. We create a class of media sources who are more interested in promoting conflict than in solving problems (conflict pays and gets more attention) 4. Scripting and modeling
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