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Study Guide for Test 1

by: Nisha Esmail

Study Guide for Test 1 Pols 1101

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Pols 1101 > Study Guide for Test 1
Nisha Esmail
GPA 3.89

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Ch 1-4
American government
Mr. Glas
Government, government notes
75 ?




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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Nisha Esmail on Monday May 16, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Pols 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Mr. Glas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.


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Date Created: 05/16/16
Exam 1 Study Guide – POLS 1101: American Government Define 1. Government – purpose is to coordinate individual behavior, to arrive at collectively desirable outcome 2. Public good – open to everyone (schools) 3. The types of government Corrupt Pure (Republican) By 1 Tyranny Monarchy By few Oligarchy Aristocracy By many  Democracy Polity (Democratic Republican)  Corrupt o Tyranny  ­ dictator creating laws benefiting himself and not others (BY 1) o Oligarchy – small groups of people who govern for themselves (BY FEW) o Democracy – making liberty for self and not citizens (BY MANY)  Pure o Monarchy – BY ONE o Aristocracy – BY FEW o Polity – BY MANY  4. Direct Democracy – power to govern is held directly by the people 5. Political culture – attitudes and practices held by people that shape their political behavior (morals, beliefs, ideas of what makes  society good) 6. Implied Powers – powers held by Congress but not explicitly written in the Constitution 7. Articles of Confederation – first form of government, but extremely weak 8. Virginia Plan (BASED ON POPULATION) a. Legislative – bicameral proportional b. Executive – unitary, national executive chosen by legislature c. Judiciary – national judiciary chosen by legislature 9. New Jersey Plan (BASED ON EQUALITY) a. Legislative – unicameral, equal b. Executive – plural national exec chosen by legislature c. Judiciary – national judiciary chosen by executive 10. Great Compromise a. Legislative – bicameral with proportional and equal! b. Executive – chosen by people c. Judiciary – chosen by president 11. 3/5 Compromise ­ Slaves would count as 3/5 a person as a vote 12. Bicameralism ­ Two house government a. Senate ­ equal b. House of Representatives ­ population 13. Judicial review – right to supreme court to declare if laws are unconstitutional 14. Enumerated powers (aka Express Powers) – powers written in the Constitution 15. Double Jeopardy ­ someone cannot be tried for the same case twice 16. Due process – fair treatment through the judicial system 17. Concurrent powers – powers shared by state/local and federal govs 18. Reserve power – powers reserved by the states 19. Full Faith and Credit Clause – states within the US have to respect public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of other states 20. Necessary and Proper Clause – grants congress the right to create laws, or act where the Constitution does not give explicit authority to act. Grants congress the right to act on implied laws. 21. Supremacy Clause – federal law and constitution takes precedence over state laws and constitutions 22. Interstate Commerce Clause – gives congress the power to regulate trade with other foreign nations and states  23. Selective incorporation – states cannot enact laws that take away rights from the Constitution 24. Civil liberty – guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot take away (freedom of speech – written In Constitution) 25. Civil right – rights against unequal treatment  26. The Bill of Rights (know the 10 Amendments) ­ !!!!!! MEMORIZE  27. The Missouri Compromise – admitted Missouri as slave state and Maine as free state 28. Equal Protection Clause – no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of laws 29. The 19th Amendment – guaranteed all American women the right to vote = women’s suffrage 30. Affirmative Action – policy of favoring members of a disadvantaged group who suffer discrimination  31. De jure segregation – segregation by law (separate but equal) 32. De facto segregation – segregation by practice 33. The Emancipation Proclamation – Abraham Lincoln’s document that declared that all slaves shall be free 34. Symbolic speech – law used to describe actions that purposely convey a particular message or statement  00 Answer 1. ­What does it mean for a government to be a republic? a. Gov belongs to the people b. Elect people to represent us c. Principle agent theory –  d. Voting – the instrument of accountability e. Ideas of representation f. Virtual representation 2. ­What are the 5 liberties guaranteed by the 1st Amendment? a. Creation of religion b. No prohibiting practice of religion c. Freedom of speech d. Freedom of press e. Assembly and petitioning 3. ­What are the differences between a unitary, confederal, and federal government? a. Unitary – one central government holds all power b. Confederal – states delegate power to central government  c. Federal – power is shared by central governments and states 4. ­What was the name given to those who favored strong state governments during the debate over ratifying the Constitution? a. Anti­Federalists? 5. ­What is new federalism and which president was its primary advocate? a. Transfer of certain powers from federal government back to states b. Nixon 6. ­What is the Articles of Confederation and what were the problems with it? a. 1  crack at constructing a continental gov b. By design it could not fulfil its purposes, too weak 7. ­What is limited government and how do federalism, republicanism, the separation of powers, and the system of checks and  balances limit government activity (that is, how does the American political system seek to limit a “tyranny of the majority”)? a. Limited gov – political system in which legalized force is restricted through delegated and enumerated powers b. Republicanism  i. Gov for the people ii. The republican principle – series of essays (Federalism Papers) iii. elect people to represent us iv. Principle Agent Theory –  v. Voting = agent of accountability vi. Ideas of representation (Virtual Representation) –  c. Separation of Powers  i. Laws are made, enforced (or not), and can be found unjust ii. Vesting clauses in constitution –  iii. But it wasn’t enough… d. Checks and Balances i. Some powers shared between branches ii. Each branch has its own veto power iii. The composition and structure of the branches was a subject of debate e. Federalism i. Division of power between national and state governments ii. The Federal Principle ^^^^^  iii. A Double Security – separated power gives people security to rights 8. ­Which were the Civil War (aka the Reconstruction) Amendments and what did they do? th a. 13th– abolished slavery b. 14  – equal protection clause and due process to all citizens  c. 15  – prohibits voting rights based on discrimination (not including gender) 9. ­Why did the civil war (reconstruction) amendments exclude women from the right to vote? a. 10. ­What is the Lemon Test? What are the three prongs of the Lemon Test? a. Secular Legislative Purpose ­  b. Neither advance not inhibit religion c. Excessive Entanglement ­  11. ­The U.S. has gone through a few distinct periods of federalism. What are they? a. Duel Federalism – functions of state/national gov were completely separate b. Cooperative Federalism – programs of New Deal called for cooperation on all gov levels  c. Regulated Federalism – national government further intervened in state gov decision making by threatening to withhold  federal grants d. New Federalism – reflects return of administrative powers to state governments  12. ­What are grants­in­aid? How do they fit into the practice of coercive/creative federalism? a. Federal government giving money to states for particular purpose b. Coercive Federalism – gov forces states to follow its leads by passing public policy legislation c. Creative Federalism – partnership between federal government and states  13. ­What effect did the Great Depression have on federalism in the United States? a. It brought up cooperative federalism – governments working together 14. ­What are the different terms of office for Congress, the Presidency, and the Courts? a. Congress = Legislative = make laws b. Presidency = Executive = enforces laws c. Courts = Judicial = interpret laws 15. ­What was the significance of the Marbury v. Madison decision? a. It was the first case to apply judicial review – void acts of Congress  16. ­Explain the process through which the U.S. Constitution can be amended a. Amendment is proposed 2/3 vote of each Congress house or by 2/3 national convention (state legislatures) b. Amendment is ratified by ¾ state legislatures and ¾ state conventions 17. ­What are the limitations on free speech rights? On the freedom of the press? a. Free Speech Limits i. Clear and present danger ii. Fighting words iii. Commercial speech iv. Obscenity  v. Slander b. Free Press Limits i. Libel – false statement to one’s reputation ii. Gag order (sort of) – usually criminal procedure, protect defendant to fair trial iii. Prior Restraint – prohibit info from being published, national security 18. ­Describe the process by which Amendments are proposed and ratified. a. Amendment gets proposed i. Legislative route ii. National convention 2/3 vote b. Ratifying Amendments  i. State legislatives ii. State ratifying conventions iii. ¾ vote of congress needed 19. ­What is the exclusionary rule? a. Evidence collected gained from unreasonable search can sometimes not be used against them 20. ­What is eminent domain? a. Government can seize public property 21. ­Where is the right to privacy found in the Constitution? How did it apply in Roe v. Wade? a. It’s not in the constitution b. Right to privacy = right to women for their choice of abortion 22. ­What was the significance of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision? a. Upheld separate but equal 23. ­What was the significance of the Brown v. Board decision? a. Overturned separate but equal  24. ­How did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 put a stop to Jim Crow laws in the American South? a. Civil rights act of 1964 – ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination b. Voting rights of 1965 – outlawed discriminatory voting against African Americans 25. ­What are the Judicial Standards of Review for Civil Rights cases? a. b. c. 26. ­Explain the difference between equality of opportunity and equality of outcome. a. Equality of Opportunity – belief that individuals should have equal opportunity to reach goals and improve their lives b. Equality of Outcome – belief that society should make sure people have access to equal outcomes, able to take advantage of opportunity 27. ­What was the Equal Rights Amendment and why did it fail? a. Amendment to give equal rights to women b. Too many opponents, 35 votes of 38 states were necessary  28. ­What is the significance of the Miranda v. Arizona case? a. Detained criminal suspects must be informed of their right to attorney and self­incrimination (Miranda Rights) 29. ­What governing institution does Article I create? Article II? Article III? a. Article 1 – Legislative b. Article 2 – Executive  c. Article 3 ­ Judicial


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