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Lecture Notes

by: Amy Turk

Lecture Notes MUS-22121-001

Amy Turk

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About this Document

Powerpoints 1-4
Music As A World Phenomenon
Dr. Priwan Nanongkham
susap, hawaii, mele, hula, sacred, pahu, kiribati, maneba, Pitch, timbre, duration, medium, organology, aerophones, flutes, reeds, trumpets, chordophones, lutes, zither, idiophones, lamellaphones, xylophones, gong, cymbals, steel, drums, bells, metallophones, membranophones, tone, vibration, Scale, interval, range, Melody, syllable, melismatic, Rhythm, beat, tempo, accent, meter, duple, triple, free, rhythmic, Density, emic, ethic, Ethnocentrism, canon, Hegemony, diversity, ritual, modernism, transmission, Pedagogy, notation
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Amy Turk on Friday May 20, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MUS-22121-001 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Priwan Nanongkham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Music As A World Phenomenon in Music at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 05/20/16
WORLD MUSIC POWERPOINT 1 ● What is music? ○ everyone has their own definition ○ music is an individual recognition… differs from one person to another person ○ there’s no difference between noise and sound… it’s a cultural/individual definition ○ noise for one person might be music for another person ● no language in the world is universal ● a universal language would have to be understood by every ethnic group ● music cannot convey language in the way that words can ● music is universal = it’s everywhere in the universe ● folk​: refers to common people ○ in the old days, it referred to all farmers ○ today the term folk is not clear ■ no one really knows who the common people are ■ farms today listen to other music too ● classical​: refers to the noble people of the old times ○ today we still listen to classical music ○ there’s no noble people today ○ classical music lasts a very long time… we still listen to it today ● when you learn folk music, you learn it informally ● when you learn classical music, you learn it formally ● doesn’t mean all folk music is simple ● popular music ○ more of an audience ○ some pop music is very classical ■ blues ■ jazz ● country music is not considered pure folk ○ country music today is written to sell ○ has about 20-30% of folk element ● most American classical music comes from Europe ○ we still study Beethoven and Mozart ● American popular music ○ rap ○ pop ○ hip hop ○ country ○ anything that is created for the primary purpose to sell ● ethnomusicology ○ preparation ○ fieldwork ○ analysis ○ ethnomusicologists ○ anthropologists study human culture WORLD MUSIC POWERPOINT 3 ● cultural considerations ○ beyond the sounds themselves ● music and culture ○ music is a cultural creation ■ music is part of culture ● insider/outsider perspectives ○ ex. if studying Japanese music, Americans are considered outsiders and Japanese are considered insiders ○ emic: insider ○ ethic: outsider ○ ethnocentrism ● you use all of your previous experiences to encode new music and try to determine meaning ○ you use your own cultural background to interpret it ■ try not to judge the culture based on your own experience ● ethnocentrism = when you judge another culture based on your own culture’s bias ○ you can’t avoid ethnocentrism completely ● value systems and hierarchies ○ opinions: if you like hip hop music, then hip hop has more value for you ○ hierarchies and value systems always exist in a society ○ canon: a belief ■ ex. Beethoven is believed to be the greatest composer ○ hegemony: cultural dominance ■ ex. white people have cultural dominance ● whatever they listen to has higher value ○ diversity: all music around the world is different and equal in value ■ we promote diversity ● identity issues ○ people can have more than one identity ○ has nothing to do with race ○ you can use your culture to represent or project yourself ● use vs. function ● spirituality and ethics ○ ritual: something you do all the time ○ spirituality: music can “heal” ■ nature music ■ religious music ○ ethics: according to plato, music is not always good… it depends on what you list to ● modernism/post modernism ○ descriptive vs. interpretive ○ verifiable truths vs. relative truths ● technology: how technology helps pass music down from one generation to the next ● transmission: passing down music from generations ● related arts ○ music iconology ■ dance ● ballroom ● swing ● jazz ■ theater ● in many traditions, it includes opera ○ western culture separates opera and theater ■ opera emphasizes music and singing ■ visual arts ● movie/film ■ painting ● photography ● associates with music indirectly, not directly ● can work as inspiration for songwriting ■ literature ● people compose music to tell a story ○ programmatic music ● pedagogy ○ two ways of transmitting music to other generations: ■ oral tradition ■ written tradition ● most cultures used oral tradition; western uses written tradition ● oral tradition: learning by listening and imitating and memorizing ○ you learn a small melody and play it often to memorize it ○ you become very close to the teacher ○ ritual: there might be a ceremony when the teacher accepts you as a student ● written tradition: not as dependent on the teacher ○ study with textbook ○ musical notation ● notation: refers to musical notes ○ written tradition is based on notation ○ oral tradition has musical notation too, but its not that standard ■ basically use as a reminder ● in oral tradition, you memorize ● notation tells you scale, pitches, dynamics, keys ● oral tradition notation does not tell you as much ● exchange and adaptation ● musical exchange between two cultures until you can no longer tell ● adaptation: when music is taken and changed to make their own ○ ex. banjo is a result of musical adaptation ■ came from Africa ● different musicians might interpret notation in oral tradition differently ● Greek - Roman - Islamic Empires ● Crusades - Ottoman Empire ● musical exchange WORLD MUSIC POWERPOINT 2 ● 4 properties of sound ○ quality (timbre or aural sound) ○ pitch (tone) ○ duration (rhythm) ■ associated with time ■ volume (dynamics) Timbre ● color of a sound ○ ex. the quality of a piano is different from the quality of someone singing ■ a recognizable sound ● medium: the instrument that carries timbre ○ piano ○ someone’s voice ○ different mediums contain different timbres ● each voice has a different timbre ● medium also looked at in terms of solo/ensemble ○ they sound different ○ organology: study of musical instruments ■ Sachs-Hornbostel System ● classifies instruments based on how the sound is produced ● Aerophones: create sound by air ○ flutes ■ instruments that create sound by air hitting the edge of something ● flute, piccolo ○ reeds ■ when air vibrates off a reed ● clarinet ● saxophone ● oboe ● bassoon ○ trumpets ■ player buzzes their lips ● trombone ● french horn ● baritone ● chordophones: create sound by chord/string ○ lutes: usually has body and neck ■ guitar ■ banjo ■ violin ■ cello ■ bowed vs. plucked ■ fretted vs. freless ○ zither: has no neck ■ piano ○ plucked: the sound is short ○ bowed: when you bow an instrument, the sound is long ● idiophones ○ creates sound by itself ○ ex. clapping your hands ○ lamellaphones ■ “lamella” = tongue ■ made of metal or wood ■ plucked ■ no lamellaphones in the western culture ■ ex. music box ○ xylophones ■ strike with mallet ■ “xylo” means wood ○ gong ○ cymbals ○ steel drums ○ bells ○ metallophones ■ xylophones made out of metal ○ rattles ○ clappers ○ melodic vs rhythmic ○ plucked, struck, or shaken ● membranophones ○ creates sound by vibration of a membrane ○ categories based on shape of the drum ■ goblet ■ hourglass ■ barrel ■ cylindrical ■ rounded or kettle ■ framed drum ○ struck with hand, stick, or other device ○ “rubbed” or “singing” membrane Pitch ● tone determined by its frequency (vibration) ○ two kinds ■ definite = dominant ■ indefinite = not dominant ● other pitches that go around the dominant pitches ■ with definite pitches, there are many pitches ● tuning system: all the pitches ○ look at it by octave: how many pitches do you have? ● 12 pitches in a tuning system in the US ○ different cultures have different tuning systems ● scale: group of pitches used to compose music ○ interval = space between two notes ○ range = all the pitches that the instrument or voice can possibly play ■ pianos have 7 or 8 octaves, so that’s the piano’s range ■ guitar = about 2.5 octaves ● melody: group of pitches that form a musical idea ○ melodic contour = shape of the melody ○ text setting ■ syllable = one word per pitch ● ex. Happy Birthday ■ melismatic = one word per many pitches Rhythm ● duration ● beat = regular pulsation ● tempo = the speed of the beats ○ fast or slow ● accent = an emphasized beat ● meter = a group of beats ○ duple = music that has 2 beats in one measure ○ triple = has 3 beats in a measure ■ ex. a waltz ● accent = emphasizing a syllable ● free rhythm = has no regular beat ○ non rhythmic music ○ non metric music ○ cannot feel the regular beat ● rhythmic/metric music = music that has rhythm ● rhythmic density = quantity of notes in one unit ○ low or high (more or less notes) World Music Powerpoint 4 ● music from Hawaii and Papaya New Guinea ● susap = mouth harp ○ courtship ● Hawaii = drum dance chant ● mele = poetry ● hula = dance ● sacred pahu drum ○ mana = spiritual power ● Kiribati = group of islands ○ group song ● islands including… ○ line islands ○ phoenix ○ gilbert ● british protectorates during 1800s ● christian missionaries influential ● aural analysis ○ unison rhythm ○ handclaps ○ “youthful” acapella choir ● music skills are valuable clan property ● maneba = communal meeting houses ● music and dance “battles” ● european colonial influences Chapter 5 ● South Asia ● more than 16% of world’s population ○ 1.6+ billion ● ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity ● strong British colonial influence ● India ○ site 1 = instrument ○ 2 = vocal ○ 3 = devotional song ● north india ○ major cities = mumbai (bombay) ■ economy city ■ New Delhi = capital city ■ Lucknow ○ independent from british in 1947 ○ mahatma gandhi ○ world’s largest democracy ■ caste system - social class you’re born into and can’t change ○ disparity of wealth ○ religious pluralism


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