Lecture Notes MUS-22121-001
Popular in Music As A World Phenomenon
Popular in Music
This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Amy Turk on Friday May 20, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MUS-22121-001 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Priwan Nanongkham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Music As A World Phenomenon in Music at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 05/20/16
WORLD MUSIC POWERPOINT 1 ● What is music? ○ everyone has their own definition ○ music is an individual recognition… differs from one person to another person ○ there’s no difference between noise and sound… it’s a cultural/individual definition ○ noise for one person might be music for another person ● no language in the world is universal ● a universal language would have to be understood by every ethnic group ● music cannot convey language in the way that words can ● music is universal = it’s everywhere in the universe ● folk: refers to common people ○ in the old days, it referred to all farmers ○ today the term folk is not clear ■ no one really knows who the common people are ■ farms today listen to other music too ● classical: refers to the noble people of the old times ○ today we still listen to classical music ○ there’s no noble people today ○ classical music lasts a very long time… we still listen to it today ● when you learn folk music, you learn it informally ● when you learn classical music, you learn it formally ● doesn’t mean all folk music is simple ● popular music ○ more of an audience ○ some pop music is very classical ■ blues ■ jazz ● country music is not considered pure folk ○ country music today is written to sell ○ has about 20-30% of folk element ● most American classical music comes from Europe ○ we still study Beethoven and Mozart ● American popular music ○ rap ○ pop ○ hip hop ○ country ○ anything that is created for the primary purpose to sell ● ethnomusicology ○ preparation ○ fieldwork ○ analysis ○ ethnomusicologists ○ anthropologists study human culture WORLD MUSIC POWERPOINT 3 ● cultural considerations ○ beyond the sounds themselves ● music and culture ○ music is a cultural creation ■ music is part of culture ● insider/outsider perspectives ○ ex. if studying Japanese music, Americans are considered outsiders and Japanese are considered insiders ○ emic: insider ○ ethic: outsider ○ ethnocentrism ● you use all of your previous experiences to encode new music and try to determine meaning ○ you use your own cultural background to interpret it ■ try not to judge the culture based on your own experience ● ethnocentrism = when you judge another culture based on your own culture’s bias ○ you can’t avoid ethnocentrism completely ● value systems and hierarchies ○ opinions: if you like hip hop music, then hip hop has more value for you ○ hierarchies and value systems always exist in a society ○ canon: a belief ■ ex. Beethoven is believed to be the greatest composer ○ hegemony: cultural dominance ■ ex. white people have cultural dominance ● whatever they listen to has higher value ○ diversity: all music around the world is different and equal in value ■ we promote diversity ● identity issues ○ people can have more than one identity ○ has nothing to do with race ○ you can use your culture to represent or project yourself ● use vs. function ● spirituality and ethics ○ ritual: something you do all the time ○ spirituality: music can “heal” ■ nature music ■ religious music ○ ethics: according to plato, music is not always good… it depends on what you list to ● modernism/post modernism ○ descriptive vs. interpretive ○ verifiable truths vs. relative truths ● technology: how technology helps pass music down from one generation to the next ● transmission: passing down music from generations ● related arts ○ music iconology ■ dance ● ballroom ● swing ● jazz ■ theater ● in many traditions, it includes opera ○ western culture separates opera and theater ■ opera emphasizes music and singing ■ visual arts ● movie/film ■ painting ● photography ● associates with music indirectly, not directly ● can work as inspiration for songwriting ■ literature ● people compose music to tell a story ○ programmatic music ● pedagogy ○ two ways of transmitting music to other generations: ■ oral tradition ■ written tradition ● most cultures used oral tradition; western uses written tradition ● oral tradition: learning by listening and imitating and memorizing ○ you learn a small melody and play it often to memorize it ○ you become very close to the teacher ○ ritual: there might be a ceremony when the teacher accepts you as a student ● written tradition: not as dependent on the teacher ○ study with textbook ○ musical notation ● notation: refers to musical notes ○ written tradition is based on notation ○ oral tradition has musical notation too, but its not that standard ■ basically use as a reminder ● in oral tradition, you memorize ● notation tells you scale, pitches, dynamics, keys ● oral tradition notation does not tell you as much ● exchange and adaptation ● musical exchange between two cultures until you can no longer tell ● adaptation: when music is taken and changed to make their own ○ ex. banjo is a result of musical adaptation ■ came from Africa ● different musicians might interpret notation in oral tradition differently ● Greek - Roman - Islamic Empires ● Crusades - Ottoman Empire ● musical exchange WORLD MUSIC POWERPOINT 2 ● 4 properties of sound ○ quality (timbre or aural sound) ○ pitch (tone) ○ duration (rhythm) ■ associated with time ■ volume (dynamics) Timbre ● color of a sound ○ ex. the quality of a piano is different from the quality of someone singing ■ a recognizable sound ● medium: the instrument that carries timbre ○ piano ○ someone’s voice ○ different mediums contain different timbres ● each voice has a different timbre ● medium also looked at in terms of solo/ensemble ○ they sound different ○ organology: study of musical instruments ■ Sachs-Hornbostel System ● classifies instruments based on how the sound is produced ● Aerophones: create sound by air ○ flutes ■ instruments that create sound by air hitting the edge of something ● flute, piccolo ○ reeds ■ when air vibrates off a reed ● clarinet ● saxophone ● oboe ● bassoon ○ trumpets ■ player buzzes their lips ● trombone ● french horn ● baritone ● chordophones: create sound by chord/string ○ lutes: usually has body and neck ■ guitar ■ banjo ■ violin ■ cello ■ bowed vs. plucked ■ fretted vs. freless ○ zither: has no neck ■ piano ○ plucked: the sound is short ○ bowed: when you bow an instrument, the sound is long ● idiophones ○ creates sound by itself ○ ex. clapping your hands ○ lamellaphones ■ “lamella” = tongue ■ made of metal or wood ■ plucked ■ no lamellaphones in the western culture ■ ex. music box ○ xylophones ■ strike with mallet ■ “xylo” means wood ○ gong ○ cymbals ○ steel drums ○ bells ○ metallophones ■ xylophones made out of metal ○ rattles ○ clappers ○ melodic vs rhythmic ○ plucked, struck, or shaken ● membranophones ○ creates sound by vibration of a membrane ○ categories based on shape of the drum ■ goblet ■ hourglass ■ barrel ■ cylindrical ■ rounded or kettle ■ framed drum ○ struck with hand, stick, or other device ○ “rubbed” or “singing” membrane Pitch ● tone determined by its frequency (vibration) ○ two kinds ■ definite = dominant ■ indefinite = not dominant ● other pitches that go around the dominant pitches ■ with definite pitches, there are many pitches ● tuning system: all the pitches ○ look at it by octave: how many pitches do you have? ● 12 pitches in a tuning system in the US ○ different cultures have different tuning systems ● scale: group of pitches used to compose music ○ interval = space between two notes ○ range = all the pitches that the instrument or voice can possibly play ■ pianos have 7 or 8 octaves, so that’s the piano’s range ■ guitar = about 2.5 octaves ● melody: group of pitches that form a musical idea ○ melodic contour = shape of the melody ○ text setting ■ syllable = one word per pitch ● ex. Happy Birthday ■ melismatic = one word per many pitches Rhythm ● duration ● beat = regular pulsation ● tempo = the speed of the beats ○ fast or slow ● accent = an emphasized beat ● meter = a group of beats ○ duple = music that has 2 beats in one measure ○ triple = has 3 beats in a measure ■ ex. a waltz ● accent = emphasizing a syllable ● free rhythm = has no regular beat ○ non rhythmic music ○ non metric music ○ cannot feel the regular beat ● rhythmic/metric music = music that has rhythm ● rhythmic density = quantity of notes in one unit ○ low or high (more or less notes) World Music Powerpoint 4 ● music from Hawaii and Papaya New Guinea ● susap = mouth harp ○ courtship ● Hawaii = drum dance chant ● mele = poetry ● hula = dance ● sacred pahu drum ○ mana = spiritual power ● Kiribati = group of islands ○ group song ● islands including… ○ line islands ○ phoenix ○ gilbert ● british protectorates during 1800s ● christian missionaries influential ● aural analysis ○ unison rhythm ○ handclaps ○ “youthful” acapella choir ● music skills are valuable clan property ● maneba = communal meeting houses ● music and dance “battles” ● european colonial influences Chapter 5 ● South Asia ● more than 16% of world’s population ○ 1.6+ billion ● ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity ● strong British colonial influence ● India ○ site 1 = instrument ○ 2 = vocal ○ 3 = devotional song ● north india ○ major cities = mumbai (bombay) ■ economy city ■ New Delhi = capital city ■ Lucknow ○ independent from british in 1947 ○ mahatma gandhi ○ world’s largest democracy ■ caste system - social class you’re born into and can’t change ○ disparity of wealth ○ religious pluralism
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