New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Japan and China

by: Marianna Tamayo

Japan and China PLSC-1110-01

Marianna Tamayo
GPA 3.2

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

So this is the second set of notes,I has all of Japan and most of China.The last set will contain finals notes of China and Nigeria.Be on the lookout for that.
Intro to Comparative Politics
Jing Sun
75 ?




Popular in Intro to Comparative Politics

Popular in Political Science

This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by Marianna Tamayo on Friday May 20, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PLSC-1110-01 at University of Denver taught by Jing Sun in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Denver.

Similar to PLSC-1110-01 at DU

Popular in Political Science


Reviews for Japan and China


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 05/20/16
Japan (East Asia)  Capital: Tokyo 1. The only mega city that population is still growing and GDP is larger than Canada or Australia  Population: 126.9 million (2015),10 most populous country in the world {this # is decreasing every year,300,000/year, and will accelerate}[After WWII, avg. was 5 children/family, now 1.25]  Size:377,944 sq. Km, slightly bigger than Germany, but smaller than California  Most internationalist city, yet caters to a lot of foreign tastes(they love simplicity, except for search engines)  The silvering of its population: it’s population is getting older[avg. age is 70.7,women=86]  The welfare burden will grow, is provided by family not state  Solution 1. Become a “little” America (racially homogenous country, Japanese nationalism) 2. Encourage women to become mothers  Problem 1. 98.5% are ethnically Japanese a. Friendly towards visitors but not immigrants 2. Japan is very expensive to raise a child, much less 2 a. Japanese women is rebelling against a sexist society b. Extremely hard to continue a professional life after marriage and motherhood c. The women can return on a part-time bases but not full-time  Government is trying to change this, but socially speaking is much harder to change 1. Father’s spend less time with children, as father’s mostly hangout with work colleagues after work, come home drunk, and go to bed to go to work the next day Japanese Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko  Institution’s staying power o The emperor embodies nationalism o The royal family is shielded from public eye o A specific style of Japanese language must be used only for the royal family  Regime: a neutral term, non-expectations, values, identities, norms, etc. Commonly shared among the people Regime Marriag Educational nondemocratic democratic e Must School board homeschooling Free& fair elections have certifica te Institution(must have organization) Yes(stat Yes(administrat Yes(government/par Yes (government) e) ion) ents) *Example: Japanese nationalism(Japaneseness) -an unbroken chain of imperial succession(purity) -Constitutional Monarchy -Myth: ancestor was son of sun goddess, the mother of Japan(actually came from Korea) No Examples: 1) Women and Children First a. Expectation, prioritize life b. Maritime crises, natural disaster c. Cannot institutionalize, man’s life is still human life 2) A Parent should do everything to save their child a. cannot create a law to give one’s own life for another  *It’s difficult to create an institution ,however, it’s even more difficult to dismantle o Japanese politicians/Americans had a choice, keep the system or remove it 1) To make Japan a republic, and redefine what it means to be Japanese 2) Keep the monarchy that have always been working in harmony with the government and are racially pure o Changing the concept of marriage 1) Marriage no longer b/w one man and many wives, changed to 1 man and 1 women 2) Now rather than change the entire concept of marriage, change to include heterosexual and homosexual marriage Crown Princess Masako  Wanted to change the institution, transform the royal family into something more accessible  A Japanese diplomat, graduated from Harvard  Boys are only heir to the throne, but royal family only gave birth to females  Suffered depression and discrimination within the family  2004-2005,The symbol of social harmony, the royal family, was broken when her husband spoke up for his wife  Almost a regime change …… but a boy was born in 2008 in a cousin family Prime Minister Abe Shinzo {Liberal Democratic Party}  30% of Japanese Lawmakers positions are hereditary given  Political families have huge control  6 of 7 prime ministers come from political families Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]  Merge of liberal and democratic party {a party of factions}  This Party has been ruling Japan for 61 years[Institution]  1990’s and 2001,are the only time they have been defeated in elections  Is Japan a democracy? -Yes, One-party system -NO, LDP can be defeated by the voters A. but other parties (alternatives) are even worse at governing Regime 1955 system  Anti-communist  Pro-American[security Alliance-US nuclear umbrella and defend Japan{solid promise}] a. Taiwan Relations Act -US will help Taiwan defend itself -military aid? Everything -moral support? Nothing  Giving Japan a free ride in defense budget, is worth the reliable ally to the East Parliamentary democracy/Constitutional Monarchy  Bicameral: House of Representatives &(far more power than) Senate  Prime minister usually comes from HOR  Diet(Legislature) GDP Ranking  $4.9 trillion(nominal)  GDP per capita:$38.491 rd  3 (slightly smaller than China’s, but really bigger than Germany,2x size of Britain)  But,4 in PPP, decreasing importance[economic stagnation]{Japan Passing}  $1=.0094 円円$260 for a Square watermelon  Why is Japan better? Myth, No difference but to support elderly farmers  Although, Chinese consumers are descending on Japan Ex: Luanda-Angola (3 most expensive city) -Why? Foreign investors attracted to natural resources -Local people are not affected (barter system) Japan Rising/Japan Passing  The dwindling importance of power= 1) President Clinton went to China for 9 days; normally he would stop in Japan to discuss with Japanese politicians of the meeting. This would showing importance of US-Japan relations ,however, this time he didn’t land, and therefore was a slap in a face to Japanese leaders 2) Economic Might a. Japan has been passed by China and India in GDP and PPP b. Very traumatic for Japan, because they created the economic miracle c. Now are only 30% of America’s economy  China wants to become permanent NATO member[second contributor in money but does not receive any benefits  1992,Quait independence from Saddam Hussain -Japan sent money, not troops (due to constitution, they could not) -However, they were not recognized for their efforts  they need to become part of UN security council -Japan claims to be the spokesperson of Non-western part of the world as a rising power -Britain (and France) doesn’t want UN security reform to keep out Germany (rising power) -Second-tier countries are blocked by regional powers (Mexico against Brazil/South Korea against Japan) -Not idealistic issue, only countries maintaining or gaining power Two faces of Post-War Japan 1960-1990  Japanese economic miracle 1990-2016  January 2,Stock market collapse  Japanese Malaise: the economy has been in stagnation for 26 years  Homelessness in Japan: invisible and tolerated -Japanese culture emphasizes endurance -Protesting=Whining to the people -The government’s business is not your business (They don’t deserve it because they screwed up)  Unemployed people[construction workers ,ignored because they don’t protest]\ nd  Suicide rates have increased(2 highest in the world) a. Most are men rather than women {men being the breadwinners} b. Very clear correlation b/w men suicide and unemployment c. Finding a new job takes months to find, some just leave the house and stay out for hours rather than telling the family d. Every 10 days ,someone would commit or attempted the commit suicide e. The Train company would send receipt to their families for the damages (ruled unconstitutional but still happens) f. Very minor correlation to crime, still very safe Aokigahara-“suicide forest” -under the shadow of Mt.Fuji, no animals, strange silence -Since 2003, 150-250 people would attempt suicide, around 60 would succeed Critical Junctures Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1633-1858) o -Great unifier of modern Japan, established Tokogawa Shogunate o -Emperor in Kyoto, held no power o Sakoku policy a. Sealed and isolated Japan from the rest of the world for 200 years b. Why? Christianity/Spain and Portugal missionaries managed to convert Many people, these converts wanted to owe elegance to Pope rather than Gods (Shinto) c. Shintoism: Way of the Gods, everyone is a sinner and the price is death, then you become a god d. Therefore, local governors the converted were seen as cultists and executed o Only 3 countries remained in contact with Japan (but never entered the mainland) a. China, Korea, and Netherlands[Protestants and a-political, not interested in spreading religion] Tokugawa Shogun ate (1603-1867)  Last Classical era of Japan  Japan’s “six-class “System[similar to India’s caste system] 1) Warriors (samurai) 2) Farmers 3) Artisans 4) Merchants[discriminated because they do not produce anything] 5) Filthy horde(people working with death) 6) Non-Humans(prostitutes and homeless people)  Different neighborhoods and very little changes in position from generation to generation  Shogun(Highest general lord) vs. Daimyo(local lords) o If lord is defeated I battle ,then many of his samurai retainers mush commit Seppuku o If they refuse, they become Ronin(masterless, discriminated) o Only 8% of total population (high compared to medieval knights) o Well-defined sense of national identity o There are some rare- female Samurai o Well-educated and cultured, created a crucial role for national identity[loyalty + submission to authority] a. Their influence can still be seen slightly in Modern Japan(driving on the left side)  Emperors placed under house arrest ,Shogun lived in Edo[now Tokyo]  Institutions Staying power(imperial court) & legitimacy (holy emperor) a. The allegiance of Shogun to powerless emperor Black ship (1852-1853)  Forced to open its borders by General Perry(America)  Why open? A. British opened China, India, and South east Asia 1) Was not attractive for small country and no natural resources 2) Whaling and Shipwrecked sailors(fishing communities) 3) Wanted to trade with China and needed a supply station  Matthew Perry: Man who opened Japan -never set foot on Japanese soil, “negotiated” from his ship A. aloof and aggressive B. demanded opening using “Gunboat diplomacy”  Regime of nation-state was imposed on the rest of the world -Japan was the only country that met this challenge (hegemon transfer from China, until 2010) Sino-Japan War (1894)  China lost due to corruption and waned influence Meiji Restoration (1868)  Revolution, restore the Emperor as ruler of Japan[lie, establish legitimacy for new rulers]  Eliminated unequal treaties o Reciprocity rather than extraterritoriality A. Reciprocity: equality and equal sovereignty 1) boost economic power 2) Western learning “Leave Asia, Join Europe” a. Fukuzawa Yukichi i. racist, Japanese superiority B. Extraterritoriality: Ex: American commit crime in Japan, will be tried by Americans not Japanese(not vis-versa)  Restructuring social classes 1) Aristocrats 2) Commoners[1-4] 3) New Commoner[5-6]  Administrative reform o Demi-god like emperor o Tax reform o Modern army(farmers to soldiers)  1889 Constitution (oligarchy)  “Rich country, Strong Army” a. Goal: will plant the seed for disastrous policy b. No people c. Army should be a part of the country, not apart from it (military gains power) Iwakura Mission  To toured around the world and realized how far behind Japan was  Mission: 1) Persuade Western powers to stop unequal treaties[fail] 2) Learn from the West[succeed] “Flying Geese” Theory o -export-led growth o -Japanese leadership, superiority -use profit to upgrade to a higher commodity, and pass previous industry to other developing countries -Japan would be first and always one step ahead of the others, until 1990’s it worked -But, once economic crises occurred in 1990’s and never recovered, and the rise of China, Japan realized it was not the natural leader Japan’s Slip to Militarism  Impact of Great Depression -Japan’s economy was hit harder as there were less consumers for Japanese goods in the West -The people wanted someone in charge that would bring some discipline to the nation (Military) Legitimacy Dilemma  For an authoritarian regime it is their ability to deliver that gives them legitimacy. However, they cannot do it indefinitely  For Democracy, it can have a life of its own, if it’s can’t deliver than citizens have an alternative o However, a democracy can commit political suicide Rape of Nanking (1937)  Massacre in the capital of China  Over several weeks, Japanese soldiers raped ,killed, pillaged and robbed the citizens of Nanking  The Chinese government states that over 300,000 Chinese were killed, although this is debatable [This gives an opportunity to Japanese nationalists to claim this horrific event didn’t occur]  In reality, it may have been b/w 80,000-250,000 killed Drop of Atomic Bomb  Battle of Iwo Jima and Okinawa, High U.S. casualties and Japanese soldiers fighting to their deaths  The Japanese government also required the Okinawa women to commit suicide ,thus the women jumped off cliffs with their babies and children becoming child soldiers  Okinawans are one of the few minorities in Japan, therefore, they felt that their government treated them as disposable  US still have bases I Okinawa, which creates a host of social issues in later years “Taboo Issue” in Democracy  Lack in government effort to educate their citizens on the bad parts of their own governments Ex: -WWII reading optional in Japan -Controversial issues being left off the Final {Inaccurate} “Good Germany vs. Bad Japan” An apologetic Germany A non-repented Japan Willy Brandt[Chancellor of West Prime ministers Koizuni Junichiro and Germany] Abe Shinzo Laying flowers on the memorial of Visiting a shrine where 14 war criminals Poland’s WWII victims and went down were laid to rest on his knees Warmly received by Poland’s citizens For the rest of Asia is furious for such visits(China and South Korea) Reconciliation more successful in Europe than Asia Germany: Public Policy Power Perspective Making rational decision for a group of The American shadow looming over people Germany and Japan Ex: U.S treated Russia not as enemy but as great power(detente) turn Cold War to Cold Peace Germany was promoting “Look East” or West Germany part of European improve relations with Communist Alliance, to have them embraced by countries other western European countries Japan: Public Policy Power Perspective Koizuni Junichiro visited Yasukuni Shrine Was facing China and USSR/America every year wasn’t very keen of having reconciliation with China He was born again in the Shinto faith?* America never protested the shrine visits Visited the shrine right before elections, December 2013, current prime minister the economy still in stagnation Abe Shinzo visited the Shrine, America protested (Why? Japan & China on brink of war) Created an enemy, China and South Result: Abe has never visited the Shrine Korea always protested these visits and since/although presents can be sent causing Japanese people to “rally before elections around the flag”[We-They feeling] *The war criminals has paid the price of their crimes in execution, once dead they become gods as in Shinto tradition A Pacifist Constitution  Article 9,he Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes 1) Post-War Constitution was written by Americans, was a humiliation to the people 2) The American regretted this, China went Red, but some Japanese accepted this article as they wish to never have another war like WWII  “Buried in practice, but not in Spirit” o The power of pacifism, the Japanese military is one of the most advanced military in the world[Navy, Air force, Army,& other military institution exist] o The people remain pacifist, but not the government o China and South Korea believe the Japanese want to invade them and hate them/untrue and inaccurate/but government maintains this perspective to have an enemy o It’s hatred(China& South Korea/”refuse to forget”) vs. indifference(Japan/”refuse to remember”) o Abe made a personal goal to amend or abolish article 9,and turn Japan into a “normal country”/has failed because the citizens do not wish it Genesis of Post-war US-Japan Relations  General MacArthur was essentially president of Japan, until he was fired by Truman, he was supported by the Japanese people because he brought peace to Japan  Emperor Hirohito :redefined as a man who wanted WWII to end, in reality he was very interested in conquering Asia Japan’s Grand Strategy: Yoshida Doctrine  WWII was an unfortunate detour of Japan’s modernization 1) America would pay for Japan’s defense 2) Japan would focus single-handedly on economic development  Contemporary Relevance  Trump bring up Japan to pay for its own defense  Rise of New politicians throughout the world I. Ishida Shintero: governor of Tokyo, won by a landslide in election. But makes very extreme remarks i. “I do not like foreigners” [Chinese/Korean immigrants] ii. “I do not like crows” [Trash in the streets] iii. “I do not like post-menopausal women” [Why? They can no longer give birth] iv. “Stand up, Japan!” [Something about going to the bathroom] a) Reelected because he can get things done b) First pass the post, even worse alternative politicians then him c) Tokyo Women start Sex Boycott to Combat politician Masuzoe II. Todd Akin and “Legitimate Rape” remark i. Shut down his campaign in Ohio III. Rodrigo Duterte “Trump of the East” i. elected as president of Philippines ii. kill five criminals every week, his own death squadron iii. a mayor for almost 30 years iv. hates drug-abusers, would kill his own children if found on narcotics  A Global phenomenon, Why? o Voters tired of weak candidates getting nothing done and look for alternatives, any alternative Japan Passing “Race to the Exit”-instead of reform the system that would take longer, the wealthy decided to leave the weak behind  The multi-international corporations(Toyota) are leaving Japan, and the Sunset corporations(farmers and construction)that should be abandoned, remain  Cannot be abandoned, must keep senior population happy  Result: Duel economy 1) super strong competitive companies part of economy 2) super insufficient protectionist part of economy  Myth of Bureaucratic capability o highly educated officials[Yes in 1960s &70’s,but not in 80s] o 1990’s full of corrupt officials, created several scandals A. The importation by Green cross of infected HIV blood and the attempt to cover it up B. Bo Xilai and his “Sing Red, Combat Black” Campaign i. Governor of providence of almost 1 million people ii. Propagated Communist values iii. Organized illegal death squads to combat illegal activates[Not only homicides and kidnappings, but also economic crimes{refusing to pay workers}] iv. Beijing Consensus-in developing countries, the government must take a heavy handed approach, efficiency is everything(citizens should expect it’s gov. to not go by the book) v. Result: arrested for corruption and is serving a life- sentence  Populism: addressing people’s fear and uneasiness, preaching ideological/racial purity  Nativism: construct a sense of going back to the “peaceful times” 1) Belief that the masses should dominate the elites(anti-elitist) 2) Emotion should prevail over expertise MITI and Japanese Economic Miracle  MITI: Ministry of International trade and Industry[pilot organization staffed by top elites]  Developmentalism: Import- substitution( state-lead capitalism)  Industrialization(ISI) vs. Export-led Growth A. ISI-Domestic manufacturing of previously imported goods i. Permanent[North Korea] or Temporary [Japan] B. Export- growing industries would be protected until they are able to be competitive with the rest of the world  The “Cold War” Factor o US supported ISI, to support capitalism in the region and gain the US- Japan Alliance  Mercantilism(importance of trade surplus Guns) & Neomercantilism (trade surplus x Guns)  Darker side of Japanese economic miracle: overprotection of sunset industries 1) Japan Post as world’s largest Bank and Insurance Company A. the engine for economic corruption: its own ATM machine 2) MITI & FLIP A. Identify Sunrise(baby) industries that have a future and pump money into those I. Where does the money come from? i. Increase tax ii. Ask Japan Post, Fiscal investment and loan program B. Seal domestic market, internal competition C. Sunset industries that should be abandoned(agriculture and construction) as still supported by MITI  Result: the Government has been borrowing heavily[over 200%] from their own people/rather than other countries {Time bomb} Iron Triangle [1950s, 60s, 70s] LDP {reigns} [Want Leaving, being replaced by Sunset [MITI] Big Bureaucr Business ats es {rules} [Toyota] Elections  Parliamentary system  (NTV) Non-transferrable vote i. Transferrable voting: can transfer votes to a person in the same party{this is illegal in Japan} Ex: Candidates % of votes Tanaka[LDP] 60% Suzuki[JCP] 10% X 2%+ Takeshita[L 9% DP] Oida [SDP] 5% Other 17% parties 11% majorit  Intra-Party Fighting A. Tanaka and Takeshita would be competitors even in the same party a. Result: Elections highly personal; pork-barrel politics B. Rural votes are over represented a. Rural voters are LDP’s voters b. 1 rural voter =4 urban voters Abe 2.0  Three Arrows of Abenomics 1) Monetary easing a. Devalue Japanese currency. encourage exports 2) Stimulus a. Pump Japanese government into economy 3) Structural Reform a. Stop duel economy. help sunrise businesses not sunset(failure) China Politics of China People’s Republic of China (PRC): Founded in 1944 East Asia, Capital: Beijing Population: 1.37 billion (2015) Size: 9,640,821 (3,772,342 sq. mi.)Either slightly bigger/smaller than America [territorial disputes with Tibet/Kashmir] GDP (PPP):$19.4 trillion in 2015(1 ); $14,107 per capita US Passing [US economy becoming 2 ] nd  Myth: China is not the only country that is purchasing US government bonds(Taiwan & Malaysia),the money eventually is recycled back to the US,US is a safe investment I. Worst Case: If they stopped buying bonds, then economy would collapse  No reconciliation: Tibet is part of China  Republic of China[Taiwan] A. *Tsai Ing-wen[Pan-Green] a. The leader of Chinese democracy? NO, believes in Taiwanese independence, but won’t push for formal independence b. Just became New president of Taiwan on May 20 th Pan Green[DPP: Democratic Pan Blue[KMT: Chinese nationalist Progressive Party Party{Kuomintang}] Want independence Oldest political party in Asia Goal: full statehood Former president’s party, deeply unpopular/emphasis connection with China But Ing-wen may change that, does not Taiwan has gotten better relations with accept “92 Consensus” China, does not want independence  Why does China Care? 1) Emotion/pride{doesn’t accept Japan defeated them to take Taiwan} 2) Strategic ,ships to enter the Pacific 92 Consensus  A meeting b/w delegates of China and Taiwan ,result: agree to disagree 1) Both Taiwan and China recognize there is only one China 2) Disagree who is that 1 China i. Taiwan(social, cultural China) ii. China(people’s republic of China)  The moment Taiwan changes their map to just Taiwan, China will instigate war  (1979) T.R.A-Taiwan Relation Act: damage control mechanism, US recognizes PRC as China, but will deepen relations with Taiwan, except politically  America will help Taiwan defend itself, if China decides to invade [constructive ambiguity: everything or nothing, keep them guessing]  America’s power is insurmountable ,will we really come to their aid or not [if Taiwan changes status quo, US will not do anything] Chinese President Xi Jinping (2013-present)  Presidents expected to rule China for a decade[ 5-year term]  4,000-5,000 Super elite(people’s representative, party loyalists) elect the president[no competition]  Xi’s more important titles: o General Secretary of Chinese Communist Party (CCP)[single-party system] o Chairman of the Central military Committee of the CCP *US military is loyal to the state, Chinese military is only to the national party (“Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun”.-Chairman Mao)  Peng Liguen-China’s Glamorous First Lady i. First Ladies keep low profile Chinese Premier Li Keqiang (2013-present)  In charge of the Chinese government, [trade, transportation, taxation, etc.]  State Council (official term of the government) A. Two-headed structure: 1 head of political party & 1 head for the administration (2 headed dragon) B. Political Socialization a. Political structure integrated into education, hospitals, and businesses b. Train children from a the beginning,1 to College Hu-Wen Regime: Chinese President Hu Jintao (2003-2013) and Chinese Premier Wen Jindao  Communist in name only, age of technocrats[ Hu-hydro- electric engineer/Wen-biological engineer]  Populism: tried to show themselves as people of the masses[not blue-bloods]  Technocrats{experts: scientists, engineers, professors} vs. ideologue{spread ideology}  Xi-Li Regime? Or Chairman of Everything? I. Unbalanced power b/w Li and Xi, :Xi is president, in charge of national security council, secret police, military II. Xi Dada(Manchu)-Uncle of the Nation China’s Powerful Faces: Standing Committee of Politboro  7-9 members, top decision making group of the Communist Party  18 million members  Authoritarian, ruled by a team, collective leadership[by men]/not totalitarian(1 man, north Korea) China’s “Human Wave” Strategy  Group interest prioritized over personal interest  Order and discipline prioritized over individual creativity  Deference to authority  This strategy that made China an economic success, operations search for efficiency, India needs approval, China can use force The “Asian Values” Debate  Lee Kuan Yew I. “Western culture is destroying oriental culture” II. “Cultural mentality of humbleness and humility III. American democracy is not a democracy but The democracy ,egotistical of America to believe that everyone wants to be like them IV. A huge market in China, Singapore, South Korea, and Japan Problem: 1) Who promotes it [Lee Kuan Yew was an authoritarian ruler, self-serving philosophy]{Chinese government loves it} a. Political engineering: use pieces of culture to legitimized its own sovereignty 2) What are Asian Values? a. Pakistan to Philippines, every country is drastically different b. A bad reputation to cultures of the East, obedient and authoritarian, yet they do have rebellious and pro-democracy elements i. Hua Mulan ii. The Legend of Liang Zhu goes like this: To pursuit her studies in Hangzhou, Zhu Yingtai disguised herself as a man. After studying for three years together with her schoolfellow Liang Shanbo, Zhu Yingtai fell in love with the intellectual. Before the farewell, Zhu Yingtai dropped hints again and again to Liang Shanbo who failed to understand it at that time. Later, after being clear about Zhu Yingtai's intentions, he headed for the Zhu family to propose marriage. Unfortunately, Zhu Yingtai had been betrothed by her father to another man. Liang Shanbo was so grieved that he finally suffered decease and passed away. Zhu Yingtai headed for Liang Shanbo's tomb to offer sacrifice to him on the day when she got married. At the time she held the memorial ceremony, it winded and rained, with thunder flashing in the sky. After a while, the tomb blew out and Zhu Yingtai sprang into it. Later on, the lovers turned into a pair of colored butterflies and flied wing to wing in rainbow sky. National People’s Congress (NPC)  Highest organ of state power,2987 seats, extremely elite,  2/3rds is Communist party,1/3 is occupied by United Front[other parties, unions, corporations]  However, not true parties: because they are not fighting for rule(in their own party line they write that they are there to serve the communist party)  Decide on the choice of premier, deputies, etc. Liang Hui  Two conventions, one for CCP and CPPCC, like the Senate and HOR meeting each other {purely symbolic}  Chinese premier’s press conference :the only time reporters are able to speak to the Chinese premier Free market, Not People  Lifting 350 million people out of poverty  If China, had an economic downturn, the amount of refugees would be astronomical, chaos would ensue.  So, Communism in name only: 1) The bulk of the economy needs to be controlled by the state[False, most of china’s economy is privately owned 2) Chinese Communist Party has struck a deal with the people: 2 door method 1 door 2nd door Politics Non-politics -Arrests -jobs -Suppression -trips to America -Torture -social freedoms o We will give what you want ,but not politics and no voting o B.A., Bureaucratic Authoritarianism, keeping the quality of bureaucracy sound o How much surveillance is too much? a. Constantly watched all the time b. Crime are solved pretty quickly Price for Democracy  Make elites into loyal nationalists I. Sending freshmen of top schools to military academies for a few months, promote nationalism II. Chinese “Yale” and “Harvard” are more like Barkley, political dissidents III. Also, have rural and urban Chinese meet and learn from one another, unity  Consequentialism as a Mentality I. To develop at all costs, only the goal matters II. GDPism: Chinese stealing western technology and letting the environment go to waste(smog) China Under *Deng Xiaoping / “Black cat, White cat”  Extreme Pragmatism[down to earth]-It doesn’t matter the color of the cat, as long as it catches mice, it’s a good cat{it doesn’t matter the ideology, as long as there is economic development, it’s a good government  Deng as the last emperor? Yes and No o Most influence politician ,chosen twice for Time Magazine for “Man of the Year” o China Goes to Market with the white cat (capitalism)  1992,Deng’s Sothern Tour o Went to southern China, close to Hong Kong o Repeatedly claimed China needed to go capitalist, execution would be for those who wanted to return to the old ways of Communism Hot Button Issues 1) One child policy o Mao Era (1949-1976):explosion of population with no increase in economy o 1970s, one child policy was started, at first recommended by the government and then put to law o Incentives and punishments a. Would have an ID ,those with these ID’s were given perks, such as more food from the supermarket or benefits at the Amusement park o Result: 0.9% population growth rate  Problem  Compulsory nature  Sex-selective abortions and loss of gender balance[female infanticide] Natural selection 100 girls/101 boys after 2 years 100/100 China 100 girls/117 boys [harder to maintain peace] Worse in rural China 100girls/150 boys  Why Boys? 1) Carry on the family name 2) Agriculture still relies on labor ,especially males  Bare Branches Day –China’s Cyber Monday (Nov.11) -White collar women and rural men have a harder time getting married -government way of reminding singles, more like a really good day to go shopping  “4-2-1” Syndrome (Will be in next notes)  One Child policy in transition -disclosure of gender is illegal now -In rural areas, if first child is a girl then second child is permitted, but no third if still girl -Ethnic minorities were not under the one-child policy


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.