PSYCH 100 Exam 1 Notes
PSYCH 100 Exam 1 Notes PSYCH 100
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Date Created: 05/22/16
ADOLESCENCE: begins with sexual maturity and ends with social achievement of independent adult status Erik Erikson: Ego is not merely a mediator between id impulses and superego demands, rather it is a powerful, independent agent that seeks to establish one’s personal identity and to meet a need for mastery over the environment Identity crisis: distress and confusion we experience when we lack a strong sense of identity. Occurs whenever we feel uncertain about ourselves, our values, and the direction of our lives Physical development Puberty: time when one is maturing sexually, follows surge of hormones that may intensify moods and triggers 2 years of rapid physical development o Usually age 11 for girls and 13 for boys o Primary sex characteristics: reproductive organs and external genitalia o Secondary sex characteristics: nonreproductive organs like hips, breasts, deepened voice, pubic and underarm hair o Menarche: First menstruation usually about age 12 o First ejaculation around 14, usually nocturnal o Pruning begins o Early developing boys tend to be more popular, self assured, and independent, though more at risk for alcohol use, and premature sexual activity o Early developing girls can be stressful and associate with older adolescents or may suffer teasing or sexual harassment Frontal lobe developing include growth of myelin: the fatty tissue around axons that speed neurotransmission o Lags emotional limbic system o Hormonal surge and limbic development causes impulsiveness, risky behaviors, emotional storms o During teens and 20s comes improved judgment, impulse control, ability to plan for long term o MRI scans show that when choosing immediate rewards the limbic reward system activates, when choosing delayed reward the frontal lobe area activates Cognitive development As teenagers become capable of thinking about their thinking, and others thinking, they imagine what others are thinking of them Reasoning is self focused, adolescents think private experiences are unique Become more capable of abstract logic Lawrence Kohlberg sought to describe the development of moral reasoning o Preconventional morality: before age 9 they obey either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards o Conventional morality: early adolescence, cares for others and upholds laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules o Postconventional morality: affirms peoples agreed upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles o Critics say that postconventional is biased against non Western societies Elevation: tingly, warm, glowing feeling in the chest Mind makes moral judgments quickly and automatically Jonathan Haidt Social Intuitionist said moral feelings could precede moral reasoning. Morality is a gut feeling Joshua Greene used brain imaging when asking moral dilemma questions (kill one save 5 switch/pushing) o Brain’s emotion areas only lit up when questioning pushing Today teaching children empathy for others feelings and self discipline needed to restrain impulses o Children who learn to delay gratification become more socially responsible, academically successful, and productive o Service learning: when teens tutor, clean up their neighborhoods, assist elderly Sense of competence and desire to serve increases School absenteeism and drop out rates diminish o Moral action feeds moral attitudes Social Development Erik Erikson o Some adolescence forged identity early and took on parents values and expectations o Others develop identity in opposition to parents but in conformity to a particular peer group o Developed capacity for Intimacy: ability to form close, loving relationships William Damon contends that a key task of adolescent development is to achieve a purpose; a desire to accomplish something personally meaningful that makes a difference to the world beyond oneself Mid-teen years self esteem falls and for girls depression scores increase Late teens and 20s self image rebounds Identity becomes more personalized… older children identify themselves by thoughts and feelings Positive relations with parents support positive peer relations o Teenage girls with close relationships to mothers often have most intimate friendships with girls o Teens who feel close to parents tend to feel happy and do well in school When rejected adolescents withdraw they are vulnerable to loneliness, low self esteem, and depression By late twenties most feel comfortably independent of parents and better able to empathize with other adults Past times and less western countries the adolescence period is the brief time after sexual maturity before adult responsibilities begin o As compulsory schooling developed, adult independence occurred later o Earlier sexual maturity is related to increased body fat (can support nursing) and weakened parent child bonds including absent fathers Emerging adulthood: time from 18 to mid 20s no longer adolescents but have not taken on adult level responsibilities and independence Cognitive development: the age related changes in the child’s intelligence, memory, and language Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Jean Piaget Argued that infants and children are active participants in their own cognitive development and intelligence grows as they try to make sense of the world Adaptation: growth of intelligence through direct interaction with the environment, using assimilation and accommodation to form schemas Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information o First schemas are simple action patterns like how to shake a rattle o As brain matures, the child internalizes these actions and creates mental concepts, so that a toddler can think about throwing a ball without actually performing the action Assimilation: incorporating new experiences into our existing framework of understanding Accommodation: modifying one’s schemas in response to new experiences Sensorimotor period: first 2 years after birth during which infants know the world mostly in terms of sensory impressions and motor activities o Thinking is limited to here and now, the sensations being experienced and objects being acted upon o Intelligence grows dramatically month by month Infant develops object permanence after 8 months Stranger anxiety By end of first year the infant begins to learn language and gradually becomes able to think with symbols such as words or mental images Preoperational period: from about 2-7 years during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic o Lack Mental operations: logical thought processes that are reversible o Egocentrism: the inability of the preoperational child to take another’s point of view o Lack of conservation o Pretend play o Language development Concrete operations period: 6-11 years children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events o Conservation: the principle that changing the shape or form of an object or group of objects doesn’t change the amount o Reversibility operation: child understands that liquid could be poured back into the original glass and would then be the same as in the other glass o Identity operation: child sees that nothing was added or taken away as the liquid was poured into the new glass o Reciprocity operation: the child sees that the increase in the height of the liquid was accompanied by a corresponding decrease in width o Can only be applied to real objects in the child’s immediate environment Formal operations period: age 12 during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts o Formal thought: allows adolescents to think logically about the future, type of thinking that becomes possible when the individual enters the formal operations period o Serration: arranging objects in order along some dimension, like ranking sticks according to length o Potential for mature moral reasoning o Abstract logic o Spatial reasoning test: tipping water jar and seeing where line would be Twice as many males than females get it right SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Erik Erikson o Said securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust: a sense that the world is predictable and reliable o Attributed basic trust to early parenting o Infants with sensitive, loving caregivers from a lifelong attitude of trust rather than fear Adult styles of romance exhibit either secure trusting attachment, insecure anxious attachment, or avoidance of attachment Development of attachment Indiscriminant attachment: in first few months infants seem programmed to respond to any human face or voice Specific attachment: between 3 and 6 months the infant comes to prefer the caregivers voice and face and directs more focused attention to the caregiver Stranger anxiety: 6-8 months infants show anxiety in presence of an unfamiliar person o Children have schemas for familiar faces, when they cannot assimilate the new face into these remembered schemas, they become distressed Separation distress/anxiety: anxiety when primary caregiver leaves Mary Ainsworth developed Strange Situation to measure the attachment between infant and caregiver. And watched reactions to comings and goings of caregiver and to friendly strangers. o 2/3 infants displayed secure attachment and the other 1/3 displayed insecure attachment o Securely attached children derive comfort and confidence from caregiver. Attempts to be close to caregiver but does not cling fearfully More curious, outgoing, and self directed because they are not worried about being abandoned o Insecurely attached infants may cling nervously to caregiver and may even refuse to let go others show no distress when caregiver leaves o Sensitive responsive mothers had securely attached children and insensitive unresponsive mothers had insecurely attached children Dymphna van den Boom worked with 6 to 9 month olds with difficult temperament o Half the parents received training in sensitive responding and other half did not o At 12 months of age 68% of trained children were securely attached and only 28% of non trained children were securely attached Harry and Margaret Harlow bred monkeys and reared them with both a fake wire mother that had bottle and a fake cloth mother who did not…. monkeys chose cloth mother o Rocking, warmth, and feeding made cloth mother even more appealing Human attachment provides a safe haven when distressed and a secure base from which to explore Attachment based on familiarity is formed during critical period o Imprinting: rigid attachment process Animals will follow a different species or objects if they imprint first to that Rats reared by attentive mothers become more relaxed and attentive to offspring than those that are reared by stress prone inattentive mothers A British study showed that those whose fathers were most involved in parenting tended to achieve more in school Deprivation of attachment Babies reared without the attention of a regular caregiver are often withdrawn, frightened, even speechless If institutionalized more than 8 months they bore lasting emotional scars If Harlow’s monkeys were reared in isolation and later placed with other monkeys of same age they either cowered in fright or lashed out in aggression o At sexual maturity most were incapable of mating o If artificially impregnated females were neglectful, abusive, even murderous towards first born Most abusive parents and condemned murderers report having been neglected or battered as children Most abused children become normal adults o One study followed abused children, if abuse was only in early childhood, delinquency waned by late adolescence o 30% of abused children do abuse their children Young abused children may suffer from nightmares, depression, binge eating, aggression Children of sexual abuse have increased risk for health problems, psychological disorders, substance abuse, and criminality o Twin Women who suffered abuse including intercourse have greater risk of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse than non abused twin Baby rats deprived of care giver for several hours a day form fewer new brain neurons later in life Hamsters that are frequently attacked grow up to be cowards when faced with equal sized hamster and bullies with weaker ones Serotonin calms aggressive impulses o Slow serotonin response found in abused children and animals Disruption of attachment When separated from families humans and monkeys become withdrawn and despairing o If placed in a more positive and stable environment, most infants recover from separation distress Children placed in high quality daycare showed no signs of maternal employment on children’s development o Family poverty leads to poor daycare, more authoritarian parenting, more time in front of TV and less access to books o Study showed that children who had spent most time in daycare showed advanced thinking and language skills, and increased aggressiveness and defiance o Toddler’s stress levels rise at daycare and lower at home o Although working mothers spend less time with infants, they compensate by sacrificing other activities and spend more time when home socializing with children Self-concept: a sense of one’s identity and personal worth. All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to the question “who am I?” Self concept usually develops by age 12 Darwin said self awareness beings when we can recognize ourselves in mirror o Children reach out to touch at about 6 months o Study by placing spot on children’s nose showed that they began to touch nose and recognize by 15-18 months By school age children describe themselves in terms of gender, group memberships, and psychological traits, and compare themselves to other children o See themselves skilled in some ways and not in others o By 8-10 their self images are stable Children who form a positive self concept are more confident, independent, optimistic, assertive, and sociable Child rearing practices Authoritarian: parents impose rules and expect obedience o Children show Less social skill and self esteem Permissive: parents submit to children’s desires, make few demands, and use little punishment o Children are more aggressive and immature Authoritative: parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them but also by explaining the reasons and encouraging open discussion and allowing exceptions when making the rules o Children have highest self esteem, self reliance, and social competence Twin studies show that parental warmth and control can vary from child to child depending on child’s behavior COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Theory of mind: develop ability to infer others mental states Between age 3.5 and 4.5 children come to realize that others may hold false beliefs Preschoolers can understand that sad events cause sad feelings, next they understand that thoughts can cause feelings, between 5 and 8 they learn that self produced thoughts can create feelings By age 7children become capable of thinking in words and using words to work out solutions to problems by no longer thinking out loud o Whether out loud or inaudible talking to themselves helps children control their behavior and emotions and master new skills Autism: deficient communication and social interaction marked by impaired theory of the mind o Altered brain circuitry involving the fibers that connect distant neurons and enable communication among brain regions o Difficulty inferring others thoughts and feelings o Doesn’t pick up on facial cues o Speech difficulty and clumsiness o Theory by Simon Baron Cohen proposes that autism represents “extreme male brain” Women are “empathizers”: better at reading facial expressions and expressions Men are “systemizers” understanding things according to rules or laws If two sytstemizers have a child it will increase risk of autism o Asperger syndrome: marked by normal intelligence, often accompanied by exceptional skill or talent in a specific area, but deficient social and communication skills PYSICAL DEVELOPMENT While in womb nerve cells formed at 250000/min Brain overproduces neurons with number peaking at 28 weeks then subsiding to 23 billion or so at birth Ages 3-6 neural network is sprouting most rapidly in frontal lobes which enable rational planning Association areas of cortex (thinking, memory, language) are last brain areas to develop Fiber pathways supporting language and agility proliferate into puberty and after pruning shuts down excess connections while strengthening others Maturation: orderly sequence of genetically designed biological growth processes o Identical twins begin sitting up and walking on nearly the same day o Earliest memories seldom predate 3 birthday, average 3.5 years Infantile amnesia Infant preverbal memories do not easily translate into their later language 10 year olds shown photos of former classmates they had not seen since preschool recognized only 1 in 5 of classmates Yet physiological responses are greater to their formal classmates whether or not they consciously recognize them Case study: psychologist studies one individual in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all. Case studies suggest hypothesis for further study Individual may be atypical Unrepresentative information can lead to mistaken judgments and false conclusions Individual cases can suggest fruitful ideas. What is true of all of us can be glimpsed in any one of us. But to discern the general truths that cover individual cases, we must answer questions with other methods Survey: technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them Wording has a major effect on peoples opinions (27% of Americans approved of “government censorship” of media sex and violence, though 66% approved of “more restrictions on what is shown on television”) False consensus effect: tendency to overestimate others agreement with us The best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample of cases Random Sampling: every person in the entire group has an equal chance of participating o Large representative are better than small ones o You cannot compensate for an unrepresentative sample by simply adding more people Naturalistic observations: observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Andrew Whiten and Richard Byrne 1988 repeatedly saw one young baboon pretending to have been attacked by another as a tactic to get its mother to drive the other baboon away from its food Descriptive statistics: mathematical methods for summarizing sets of data Distribution: a set of scores arranged in order from lowest to highest Raw scores: scores that have not been averaged, sorted, or processed yet When researchers collect data they organize raw scores into a distribution of scores by ranking all the scores from lowest to highest, then reduce the information into descriptive statistics Central tendency: the center or middle of a distribution of scores, computed as the mean, median, or mode Variability: the degree to which the scores are clustered or scattered around the middle of the distribution; low variability means that the scores are packed tightly around the middle of the distribution Frequency distribution: a method of summarizing a distribution of scores by indicating the number of times that each score occurs in the distribution o Frequency histogram: a graph that illustrates a frequency distribution, with a rectangle for each score in the distribution (bar graph) o Frequency polygon: a graph that illustrates a frequency distribution, which with points representing the frequency of each score and the lines connecting the points (scatterplots) Normal distribution: a symmetrical bell shaped-curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near average, fewer scores lie near extremes Symmetrical distribution: a distribution that is balanced; the pattern of scores below the midpoint of the distribution is the mirror image of the pattern of scores above the midpoint of the distribution o Skewed distribution: a distribution that is not symmetrical; more of the scores are clustered towards one end of the distribution more likely to use median to calculate Standard deviation: measure of score variability. average of differences between the individual scores and the mean o To calculate find the difference between each score and the mean o Square difference scores, add them up, and divide by number of scores, then take the square root Correlation: a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other Correlation coefficient: mathematical expression of the relationship ranging from -1 to +1. o Positive or negative determines direction of relationship o 0 to 1 indicates strength of relationship Scatterplots: a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of the scatter suggest the strength of the correlation (little scatter, high correlation) Correlation does not prove causation Illusory correlation: a perceived nonexistent correlation Because we are sensitive to dramatic or unusual events we are especially likely to notice and remember the occurrence of two such events in sequence (a premonition of a call, followed by the call) o When we see random coincidences we may forget that they are random and instead see them as correlated. And can deceive ourselves by seeing what is not there Wallace Stevens “rage for order” we look for patterns in things that are not patterns 3 goals of psychology to describe, predict, and to explain Correlational research tells us when variables tend to happen together but it tells us nothing about why those variables are related, or what causes them. Experimental research allows us to explore the reasons behind correlations, providing the opportunity for a look at which variable effect each other and how. Experiment: enables researchers to focus on the possible effects of one or more factors by manipulating the factors of interest and holding constant other factors Unlike correlational studies, which uncover naturally occurring relationships, an experiment manipulates a factor to determine its effect Expectancy effects: changes in a participants behavior produced by the participants belief that change should happen o “Fighting spirit” cancer patients who adopt a positive attitude experience an improved quality of life and may lengthen a patients life Statistical reasoning Doubt big, rounded, undocumented numbers Always note which measure of central tendency is reported. IF it is a mean, consider whether a few atypical scores could be distorting it Representative samples are better than biased samples Less variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable More cases are better than fewer When averages from two samples are each reliable measures of their respective populations then their difference is likely to be reliable as well. But when difference is large, we have more confidence that the difference between them reflects a real difference in their populations Statistical significance: a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance o Indicates the likelihood that a result will happen by chance, it does not indicate the importance of the result Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behavior: anything an organism does, any action we can observe or record Mental processes: internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior-sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings Psychology is less a set of findings than a way of asking and answering questions Socrates (469-399) concluded mind is separable from body and continues after the mind dies and that knowledge is innate-born with us. Plato (428-348 bc) was nativist o Nativist: certain ideas, as well as a persons character and intelligence, are innate or inherited from our parents Aristotle (384-322) said the soul is not separable from the body and knowledge is not preexisting but instead grows from the experiences stored in our memories o Empiricist: everything we know has come from our experiences with our environment Rene Descartes (1595-1650) agreed that the mind was distinct from the body and able to survive after its death o He dissected animals and concluded that the fluid in the brain’s cavities contained animal spirits. The spirits flowed from the brain through hollow nerves to the muscles, provoking brain movement. o Memories formed as experiences opened pores in the brain, into which the spirit animals flowed o Dualism: the view that the mind and body are separate entities Francis Bacon (1561-1626) the human understanding easily supposes a greater degree of order and equality in things than it really finds (we look for patterns that aren’t there) o All superstition is much the same (astrology, dreams, omens) in all of which the deluded believers observe events which are fulfilled but neglect and pass over their failure, though it be much more common…. We notice events that confirm our beliefs John Locke: (1632-1704) An Essay Concerning Human Understanding: the mind at birth is a blank slate on which experience writes. o Empiricism: the view that knowledge comes form experience via the senses and science flourishes through observation and experiment Hermann von Helmholtz 19th century: demonstrated that the movement of impulses in the nerves and in the brain was not instantaneous but instead to a small but finite amount of time Charles Darwin: natural selection Wilhelm Wundt: set up first lab in 1879 and wrote first textbook in psychology o Measured time it took for people to press a key after hearing a sound o People took 1/10 of second to press key the second they heard sound. People took 2/10 of a second to press key after consciously perceiving the sound G. Stanley Hall: founded first psychological lab in US at Johns Hopkins in 1883. Founded APA in 1892 Edward Bradford Titchener: introduced structuralism in 1892 o Structuralism: used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind o He would engage people in self-reflection and had them report elements of their experience, as they looked at a rose, listened to a metronome, ect. What were their immediate sensations? How did these relate to one another? o Said there was only one thing in the whole universe that we know more about than we could ever learn from external observation….ourselves o Introspection required smart, verbal people. And was unreliable because results varied from person to person, and peoples recollections are frequently wrong Hermann Ebbinghaus: began a program of research on memory using himself as the main subject William James: assumed thinking, like smelling, developed because it was adaptive and it contributed to our ancestors survival o Consciousness serves a function. It enables us to consider our past, adjust to present circumstances, and plan our future o Functionalist: focused on how mental and behavioral processes function, how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish o Encouraged explorations of down to earth emotions, memories, will power, habits, and moment to moment streams of consciousness o Wrote Principles of Psychology 1890 o 1890 he admitted Mary Calkins into his graduate seminar, then all the other students dropped, so he tutored her alone. She later graduated outscoring all the male students. Harvard denied her the degree She became first APAs female president in 1905 She conducted research on memory, personality, and dreams o Margarette Floy Washburn The animal mind: first female psychology PHD, second APA president Freud emphasized the ways emotional responses to childhood experiences and our unconscious thought process affect our behavior; founded psychoanalysis Edwin Thorndike: studied learning in cats and rats Ivan Pavlov: demonstrated that dogs could be conditioned to salivate at a sound o Classical conditioning John B. Watson: “scientific study of observable behavior” emphasizing similarities between human and animal behavior o Behaviorist: science is rooted in observation. You cannot observe a feeling or thought but you can observe and record peoples behavior as they respond to different situations o B.F. Skinner: popularized the concept of reinforcement and the process of operant conditioning Jean Piaget: studied intellectual growth in children Noam Chomsky: studied language and influenced growth of cognitive psychology Humanistic psychology: emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth o Emphasized the importance on current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance o Abraham Maslow: Humanistic psychologist who developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth o Carl Rogers: American psychotherapist who was a supporter of humanistic psychology Cognitive revolution: supported importance of considering internal thought processes, but expanded upon those ideas to explore scientifically the ways we perceive, process, and remember information o Cognitive neuroscience: the study of the interaction of thought processes and brain function Nature vs. Nurture: the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors Darwin wrote Origin of species 1859 Levels of Analysis: the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social cultural for analyzing any given phenomenon Biopsychosocial approach: an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis o Biological influences Genetic predispositions Genetic mutations Natural selection of adaptive physiology and behaviors Genes responding to the environment o Psychological influences’ Learned fears and other learned expectations Emotional responses Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations o Social-cultural influences: Presence of others Cultural, societal, and family expectations Peer and other group influences Compelling models Current perspectives o Neuroscience: how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences o Evolutionary: How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes o Behavior Genetic: How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences o Psychodynamic: how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts o Behavioral: how we learn observable responses o Cognitive: how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information o Social cultural: how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures Research approaches o Basic research: pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Biological psychologist: explore links between brain and mind Developmental psychologist: studying our changing abilities from womb to tomb Cognitive psychologist: experimenting with how we perceive, think, and solve problems Personality psychologist: investigating our persistent trails Social Psychologist: explore how we view and affect one another o Applied research: scientific study that aims to solve practical problems Industrial/organizational psychologist: they study and advise behavior in the work place. Help organizations and companies select and train employees more effectively, boost morale and productivity, implement systems Counseling psychologist: help people cope with challenges by recognizing strengths and resources Clinical psychologist: assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders Psychiatrists: medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders Environment: every nongenetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us Behavior Genetics: the study of the relative power and limits on genetic and environmental influences on behavior Chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes o Humans have 46…. half from mom half from dad DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes Genes: the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein o Provide the code for creating protein molecules, the building blocks of our physical development o Gene complexes are many genes acting in concert Genome: the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes Twins On both outgoingness and emotional stability, identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins Divorce risk are 50% attributable to genetic factors Twins that have been separated and raised differently still share common traits making them very similar Similar twins get placed in similar homes when adopted Some twins are reunited years before the experiment Fraternal twins have more variation in family life even when raised in same family Concordance rate: the percent of common expression of a trait between twins o If they both have trait they are concordant, if only one has it they are discordant Adoption Adopted children more resemble their biological parents Families that grow up in the same environment does not give them the same personality o Children raised together have similar values, faith, manners Adopted children thrive especially when adopted as infants o Child neglect, abuse, and divorce are rare because adoptive parents are screened o Score higher than biological parents on intelligence tests o 7 in 8 report feeling strongly attached to one or both adoptive parents o Grow up to be more self giving and unselfish o Infant adoptees grew up with fewer problems than those that were initially registered for adoption and then the mother decided to raise the children themselves Temperament: emotional excitability whether reactive, intense, easygoing, quiet o From the first weeks of life babies are more irritable, intense, and unpredictable o Easy babies are cheerful, relaxed, and predictable in feeding and sleeping The most reactive newborns tend to be most reactive 9 month olds 4 month olds who react to changing scenes with arched ndck, pumping legs, and crying are usually fearful and inhibited in 2 year. Those who react with relaxed smiles are usually fearless and sociable in 2ndyear Exceptionally inhibited and fearful 2 year olds are still relatively shy as 8 year olds; and half become introverted adolescents Most intense preschoolers tend to be intense as young adults Anxious inhibited infants have high and variable heart rates and a reactive nervous system and become more physiologically aroused when facing new or strange situations Heritability: the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their differing genes We can never say what percentage of an individual’s personality or intelligence is inherited. It refers to the extent to which differences among people are attributable to genes As environments get more similar heredity as a source of differences necessarily becomes more important Heritable individual differences need not imply heritable group differences Genes are self regulating: rather than acting in the same way no matter the context, genes react to their environment (butterfly changes colors in different seasons) Environments trigger gene activity and our greatly influenced traits evoke a significant response in others As we grow older we select environments well suited to our natures Interaction: the effect one factor has on another Molecular genetics: quest to identify specific genes influencing behavior Most human traits are influenced by teams of genes Makes it easier to determine who may be at risk for certain behaviors and diseases o Prenatal screening poses question of if it is right to label fetuses that may lead to discrimination India and China women are getting selective abortions when they find out they are having a girl New technique for sorting sperm carrying male or female chromosomes can provide expectant parents a reasonable chance of success at choosing a child’s sex before conception Heredity and Alcoholism Adopted individuals with alcoholic parents have an increased risk for alcohol abuse Henri Begleiter in 1980s said Alcoholics respond differently to auditory and visual stimulation than non alcoholics do o Individuals at risk are unable to differentially inhibit things they should not respond to and are only respond to things that are relative to what they are doing in a task. They respond more similarly to irrelevant information and relevant information than control subjects Behavior Genetics Behaviors are not transmitted genetically, we inherit predispositions to engage in certain behaviors Artificial selection studies to study the relative effects of heredity and environment on behavior o Robert Tryon conducted study of rats in 1930s. He let rats race through a maze and separated the better runners from the worst and let them all breed. He noticed that he could selectively mate animals to shape their intelligence over a few generations. The biggest change happened in a few generations and after that the results stabilized Evolutionary Psychologist: focus on what makes us alike as humans Dmitry Belyaev did experiment with foxes over generations that created completely domesticated foxes Mutations: random errors in gene replication The typical genetic differences between two Irish individuals is much greater than the difference between Irish and English groups o No more than 5% of genetic differences arise from population group differences Human sexuality o Males are more likely to initiate sexual activity o Lesbians are twice as likely to have partners o Casual sex is most frequent among males with traditional masculine attitudes Russell Clark and Elaine Hatfield did study on college campus asking various students if they would like to go to bed with them that night. Virtually no women said yes, but half or more of the men agreed to go to bed with a stranger o Men have a lower threshold for perceiving warm responses as a sexual come on Men attribute a woman’s friendliness to sexual interest o While a woman incubates and nurses one infant, a male can spread his genes through other females o Men in 37 different countries judge women as more attractive if they have a youthful appearance Men are most attracted to women whose waists are roughly a third narrower than their hips—a sign of future fertility Women also are attracted to healthy looking men but especially those who seem mature, dominant, bold, and affluent—a sign of support and protection o Men are risk takers, and tend to be more aggressive in trading stocks o Women prefer mates with potential for long term mating and investment in joint offspring o Ideas as to why men and women pair off Increase odds of impregnation and keep women away from male harassment o More man than women seek multiple partners but the things men and women seek in a mate are very similar Reading minds: Humans possess the ability to understand what others are thinking and feeling. Some refer to this as “mind reading” others call it empathy or “theory of mind” The ability to empathize with the experiences of other people is rooted in the activity of specific neuro networks in the brain---and we share a lot of them with primates o A think electrode is inserted into the brain until the tip is located in the target area of the brain. The electrode is moved slowly until it begins to pick up electrical activity of a single neuron. The activity of the neuron is recorded continuously while the monkey performs the various tasks in the experiment o Neuron was most active when monkey watched something goal oriented happen or performed it himself Premotor cortex: region in the frontal lobes, adjacent to the motor cortex, involved in planning movements or actions Motor cortex: the part of the brains frontal lobes that initiates voluntary movements o In monkeys in a particular area of premotor cortex known as area F5, has two way connections with the portions of the motor cortex involving movements of the hand and the mouth These neurons are only active when the monkey performs a goal-directed movement, such as holding an object in its hand or mouth Mirror neurons: neurons in the premotor cortex that fire both while performing a particular action and while observing someone else perform that action Observational learning: learning by imitation; also called modeling o Anytime you watch someone doing something the corresponding mirror neurons fire in your brain, activating your system for planning to perform those movements in the future o Explains the rapid spread of cultural innovations earlier in human history such as tool use, fires, and the wheel Broca’s area: brain region (usually located in the left frontal lobe) involved in the production of language Across 10000 twins, the intelligence scores of identical twins reared together are virtually as similar as the same person taking the test twice Identical Twins have very similar gray matter volume, their brains are virtually the same in areas associated with verbal and spatial intelligence Fraternal twins who are genetically no more alike than other siblings are treated more alike because they are the same age, and tend to score ore alike than other siblings As adopted children age their test scores become less similar to that of their adoptive parents “Tutored human enrichment” training caregivers to play vocal games with the infants Poor people have less access to better education Malnutrition can influence cognitive development The difference between normal and enriched environment matter less o No environment to make super babies o Parents who are very concerned about providing a special education lessons for their babies are wasting time Intelligence and Experience helped launch Project Head Start in 1965 o Government funded preschool program serves more than 900000 children o Quality programs offering individual attention increase a child’s readiness in school Flynn effect: rise in intelligence scores since the 1920s partly due to increased schooling over the last half century and more stimulated home environments Racial groups differ in average scores on intelligence test High scoring people are more likely to attain high levels of education and income White Americans score 100, blacks score 85 and other minorities fall in the middle European new Zealanders outscore native Maori New Zealanders Israeli Jews outscore Israeli Arabs Japanese outscore Japanese minority (Brakeman) Those who can hear outscore deaf People with mixed ancestries defy neat racial categorization Asian students outperform North Americans on math achievement and aptitude test White and black infants have scored equally well on infant intelligence measures Black and white students in college have a much smaller gap than those receiving different education in high schools Girls are better at spelling Girls are more verbally fluent and more capable of remembering words Girls have greater memory for picture associations Girls are more sensitive to touch, taste, and odor Boys outnumber girls in special education classes 3 to 1 Boys talk later and stutter more often Average girls math scores equal or surpass the average boy Boys in different countries have scored higher in problem solving Boys score higher in physics and computer science AP exams Boys special ability better: helps when fitting things into a trunk, playing chess, doing geometry problems Exposure to high levels of male sex hormones during prenatal period enhances special abilities Emotional Intelligence: the ability to perceive, understands, manage, and use emotions Women are better than man at detecting emotion Test is vehicles for discrimination and bias socially but not scientifically Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Intelligence test scores reflect only one aspect of personal competence Scientific meaning of BIAS: whether a test is less valid for some groups than for others Stereotype Threat: a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on negative stereotype Women and minorities do better on test when they believe to be capable vs. when they are told they wont do as well Students may disidentify with school achievement o They may detach self esteem from academics and look for it elsewhere Emotions are a mix of physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience including thoughts and feelings William James and Carl Lange proposed James-Lange theory: Your feelings follow your bodies responses Walter Cannon and Phillip Bard made Cannon-bard theory: Physiological arousal and emotional experience occur simultaneously. The emotion triggering stimulus is routed simultaneously to the brain’s cortex, causing the subjective awareness of emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing the body’s arousal Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer made Two factor Theory: An emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of the arousal Autonomic nervous system: controls our arousal Sympathetic division: directs the adrenal gland atop the kidneys to release the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) o Hormonal surge increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels o Liver pours extra sugar into bloodstream, respiration increases to supply needed oxygen, digestion slows, diverting blood from internal organs to muscles. o Blood sugar increases help you run faster o Pupils dilate to let more light in o Perspiration increases to cool body o If wounded blood would clot more quickly Parasympathetic division: Calm the body, inhibiting further release of stress hormones o Hormones already in the body linger awhile and so arousal diminishes gradually Easy or well learned tasks, peak performance comes with relatively high arousal More difficult tasks, optimal arousal is somewhat lower Finger temperatures and hormone secretions that accompany fear and rage sometimes differ Fear and joy stimulate different facial muscles. During fear brow muscles tense During joy, muscles in the cheek and under the eye pull into a smile Observers watching fearful faces show more amygdala activity than when watching angry faces o If you stimulate a cat’s amygdala it will pull back in terror at the sight of a mouse, if you stimulate another part it will look enraged, hissing and clawing Disgust, depression, people show more activity in right prefrontal cortex than in the left o A man that had lost part of right frontal lobe in surgery became less irritable and more affectionate People with positive personalities show more activity in left frontal lobe o Left frontal lobe is rich in dopamine o A neural pathway that increases dopamine levels runs from the frontal lobes to a nearby cluster of neurons called nucleus accumbens This region lights up when people experience pleasures George Hohmann 1966 interviewed soldiers with severed spines. Those who had lower injuries reported little change in emotions. Those with higher injuries reported emotions were less intense. But emotions expressed in body areas above the neck are felt more intensely by those with a high spinal cord injury. o Virtually all men reported increases in weeping, lumps in throat, and getting choked up when saying goodbye Spillover effect: when our arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event o Schachtner and Jerome aroused college men with injections of epinephrine and put them in room with another person who was either euphoric or irritated. The men had more rapid breathing, heart rates and bodies flushed o They told some people the drug would have side effects and those people felt little emotion o They told other people the drug would have no side effects and those people caught the emotion of the other person they were with Sexually aroused people react with more hostility in anger provoking situations Arousal fuels emotion, cognition channels it Robert Zajonc said that we have many emotional reactions apart from, or even before, our interpretations of a situation o When people repeatedly view stimuli flashed too briefly for them to perceive and recall they come to prefer those stimuli o Thirsty people drank 50% more fruit flavored drink after viewing a subliminally flashed happy rather than neutral face. If they were flashed an angry face they drank much less Some emotions take low road via neural pathways that bypass the cortex, which offers the alternative high road pathway o One low road runs from eye or ear via the thalamus to the amygdala, an emotional control center. By bypassing the cortex it enables an emotional response before our intellect intervenes o Paul Whalen used fMRI scans to observe the amygdala’s response to subliminally presented fearful eyes. The fearful eyes triggered increase amygdala activity o Joseph LeDoux and Jorge Armony said The amygdala sends more neural projections up to the cortex than it receives back making it easier for feelings to rule thoughts than thoughts to rule feelings Richard Lazarus 1991 said that our brains process and react to vast amounts of information without our conscious awareness and said some emotional responses do not require conscious thinking but even instantaneously felt emotions require some sort of cognitive appraisal of the situation otherwise how would we know what we are reacting to o Emotions arise when we appraise an event as beneficial or harmful to our well being, whether we know it is or not o Highly emotional people may personalize events as being directed at them and generalize their experiences by blowing single incidents out of proportion Zajonc and LeDoux emphasize that some emotional responses are immediate, before any conscious appraisal. Lazarus, Schachter, and Singer emphasized that our appraisal and labeling of events also determines our emotional responses LIE DETECTION Polygraph: a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes) o Our physical arousal is much the same from one emotion to another o Test err 1/3 of time when innocent people get anxious when asked questions o 9/10 psychologist agree that savvy criminals and spies can beat the test by augmenting arousal to control questions such as by biting their tongues Guilty knowledge test: assesses a suspects physiological responses to crime scene detains known only to the police and the guilty person New technologies o Some computer software that compares the language of truth tellers and liars (who use fewer first person pronouns and more negative emotion words) o Software that analyses facial microexpressions linked with lying o EEG recordings have revealed a brain wave that indicates familiarity with a crime scene o fMRI scans have shown liars brains lighting up in places that honest people’s brains do not o Portable near infrared light that detects brain blood flow patterns associated with lying NURTURE Parental influence Begins in the womb with differing nutrients and varying levels of exposure to toxic agents 2/3 of identical twins share the same placenta, the other 1/3 have separate placentas o Sometimes one placenta is placed in a better location that can provide better nourishment and a better barrier against viruses o Those who develop in separate placentas have less similar psychological traits such as self control and social competence Mark Rosenzwig and David Krech separated rats into either solitary confinement or a communal playground. When their brains were analyzed they found the ones living in the enriched environment developed a heavier and thicker brain cortex o After rats were housed for 60 days the rats brain weight increased 7-10%and the number of synapsis mushrooms by about 20% o Modified the environments we provide in labs, farms, zoos Stimulation of touch or massage benefits both infant rats and premature babies. Babies who are handled gain weight more rapidly and develop faster neurologically o Neonatal intensive care units now apply this by giving preemies massage therapy Repeated experiences modify a rat’s neural tissue at the spot in the brain that processes the experience o Pruning: When our brain matures and provides us with an abundance of neural connections, experience preserves our activated connections while allowing our unused connections to degenerate o By puberty there is a massive loss of unemployed connections While young children can master languages but if they never had exposure they would not be able to master any language People who get surgery to repair blindness never achieve normal perceptions because the brain cells that usually focus on vision either die or have been diverted to other uses We perform with increasing skill as our brain incorporates the learning Shared environmental influences typically account for less than 10% of children’s differences o Preschoolers who disdain a certain food despite parents urges often will eat the food if put at a table with a group of children who like it o A child who hears a English spoken with an accent at home and another in the neighborhood will adopt the one of the peers o Teens who start smoking probably have friends that model it and offer it to them o Selection effect: kids seek out peers with similar attitudes and interests A group of parents can influence the culture that shapes the peer group o Culture is transmitted across generations by what Judith Rich Harris calls the “Parents group to children’s group effects” o Parental influence occurs when parents help select their children’s neighborhood and peers o If the vapors of a toxic climate are seeping into a child’s life, that climate not just the child needs reforming Howard Garner 1998: parents and peers are complementary o Parents are more important for education, discipline, responsibility, orderliness, charitableness, and ways of interacting with authority figures o Peers are more important for learning cooperation, finding road to popularity, for inventing styles of interaction among people of the same age Cultural Influence: Culture: behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next o Preservation of innovation o Division of labor o Language Norms: rules for accepted and expected behavior o Having norms frees us from self preoccupation by knowing how to say hello or when to clap Personal space: the portable buffer we like to maintain around our bodies o Scandinavians, North Americans, and British prefer more space than Latin Americans, Arabs, and the French Cultures vary in expressiveness. North Europeans believe Mediterranean’s are warm and charming but inefficient, and Mediterranean’s think northerners are efficient but cold and preoccupied with punctuality Cultures vary in pace of life Cultures change very rapidly over time Individualism: giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals, and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications o May move easily in different social groups, feel free to leave one job for another, leave families and go to new place, marriage is as long as both shall love o Report more happiness than those in collectivist cultures o Celebrate innovation and creativity and individual human rights o More loneliness, divorce, homicide, and stress related disease o More self focused narcissism o Demand more romance and personal fulfillment in marriage which subjects the relationship to more pressure Collectivism: giving priority to the goals of one’s group and defining one’s identity accordingly o Group identifications provide sense of belonging, a set of values, a network of caring individuals, an assurance of security o May act shy in new groups and are more easily embarrassed o Japanese and Chinese cultures have greater shyness toward strangers and greater concern
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