PSYCH 100 Exam 2 Notes
PSYCH 100 Exam 2 Notes PSYCH 100
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Date Created: 05/22/16
Social Psychologist: study how we think about, influence, and relate to one another Fritz Heider proposed Attribution theory: people usually attribute other’s behavior either to their internal dispositions or to their external situations Fundamental attribution error: overestimating the influence of personality and underestimating the influence of situations Strongest in western countries. East Asian cultures are more sensitive to the power of the situation Happily married couples attribute a negative response to a temporary situation Unhappily married couples attribute the a negative response to a mean disposition Attitudes: feelings based on our beliefs, that we predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events Foot-in-the-door phenomenon: tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request US prisoners in china were asked to do small things, and later large things, eventually their beliefs adjusted towards consistency with their public acts Succumb to a temptation and you will find the next temptation harder to resist Moral action strengthens moral conviction Role-playing affects attitudes Phillip Zimbardo 1972 Study had simulated prison. People assigned to guards and prisoners and told to enforce rules Most guards became cruel and degrading and most prisoners rebelled or broke down Study called off after 6 days Cognitive dissonance theory: the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. When our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes The less coerced and more responsible we feel, the more motivated we are to find consistency, such as changing our attitudes to help justify the act Evil acts shape the self. But so do acts of good will. Act as though you like someone, and you soon will. Changing our behavior can change how we think about others and how we feel about ourselves Observational learning: we learn by observing and imitating Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Memes: an idea or behavior that spreads through a culture from one person to another Mirror neurons: area in frontal lobe adjacent to the brain’s motor cortex that provides a neural basis for observational learning. When a monkey performs a task such as grasping, holding, or tearing, these neurons fire, but they also fire when a monkey observes another monkey performing the same task o By 9 months infants will imitate novel play behaviors, by 14 months children will imitate acts modeled on television Albert Bandura did the bubo doll experiment with preschoolers o A child is in a room drawing; an adult in another part of the room is working with some Tinkertoys. The adult gets up and for nearly 10 minutes, kicks, and throws a large inflated Bobo doll around the room while yelling things like “sock him in the nose, hit him down, kick him” o After the outburst the child is taken to a different room where there are many toys, the experimenter interrupts the child’s pay and explains that she has decided to save these good toys for the other children o She takes the child to an adjacent room containing few toys and a Bobo doll and leaves him alone o Compared with the children who were not exposed to the adult model, those who observed the outburst were more likely to lash out at the doll, imitating the actions and words they had heard o By looking, we learn to anticipate a behavior’s consequences in situations like those we are observing o We are especially likely to imitate people we perceive as similar to ourselves, as successful, or as admirable By watching TV children learn that physical intimidation is an effective way to control others, free and easy sex brings pleasure without later misery, men are supposed to be tough and women are supposed to be gentle Young monkeys that received high levels of aggression when reared apart from their mothers grew up to be perpetrators of aggression Prosocial models can have prosocial effects o People who observe nonviolent, helpful behavior can prompt similar behavior in others o Socially responsive toddlers who readily imitate their parents tend to become preschoolers with a strong internalized conscience Models are most effective when their actions and words are consistent o Exposed to a hypocrite, they tend to imitate the hypocrisy by doing what the model did and saying the model said In US where 9/10 of teens watch TV daily, someone who lives to be 75 will have spent 9 years watching TV o In late 80s and early 90s only 1/3 of characters were female, 3% were visibly old, 1% were Hispanic, 1 in 10 was married, 3 violent acts per hour, 18 per hour in children’s Saturday programming o Late 90s average child viewed 8000 TV murders, and 100,000 other acts of violence before finishing elementary school o Study of 3000 network and cable programs showed that 6/10 featured violence, 74% of the violence went unpunished, 58% did not show victims pain, nearly half of the incidents involved justified violence, half involve an attractive perpetrator Correlational studies do link violence viewing with violent behavior. Especially when an attractive person commits seemingly justified, realistic violence that goes unpunished and causes no visible pain or harm o The more hours elementary school children spend engaged with media violence, the more often they get in fights when restudied 2-6 months later o The more hours children spend watching violent programs, the more at risk they are for aggression and crime as teens and adults o US and Canada, homicide rates doubled between 1957-1974 coinciding with the introduction and spread of TV, census regions that were late in acquiring TV service had their homicide rate jump correspondingly later o White south Africans were introduced to TV in 75, similar doubling of homicide rate began after 75 o Prolonged exposure to violence desensitizes viewers Muller-Lyer illusion: (two arrows placed on a line facing different directions) a visual illusion in which a horizontal line looks longer if attached at each end to an outward extending V shaped object, and looks shorter if attached at each end to an inward extending v shaped object Depth perception: the ability to see objects in three dimensions in spite of the fact that the visual information on the retina is two dimensional; allows us to judge distance The different lines are similar to what we see in and interior corner. The lines pointing in look closer than the lines pointing out. Since we perceive the lines to be different distances, our brain corrects the lengths of the lines in terms of distance Africans who do not live in constructed rectangular houses are less vulnerable to the illusion Our experience in rectangular context helps construct our perceptions top down Ponzo Illusion: (2 monsters in a hallway) a visual illusion in which two converging lines cause objects between two lines to look larger near the converging ends of the lines and smaller near the diverging ends Most people overestimate length of bar in back for its apparent distance and then over lengthen the bar in front to match the father bars illusory length Linear perspective: a depth cue based on the fact that parallel lines converge at a point on the horizon; objects located where the lines are far apart must be near, while objects where the lines are close together must be more distant Size consistency: perceiving a familiar object as the same size even as the size of the retinal image changes Texture gradient: a depth cue available whenever a large fixed pattern occurs in a scene; objects located where the texture of the pattern is coarse (where the details are visible) must be near, while objects where the texture is fine (details are small and blurred) must be more distant Horizontal-Vertical Illusion: (St. Louis arch) a visual illusion in which a vertical line perpendicular to a horizontal line of the same length appears longer than the horizontal line Relative height: a depth cue based on the position of an object in an open environment; objects that are very low or very high are near, while objects in the middle of the scene are generally more distant Our brain corrects the perceived size of objects to adjust for differences in depth, so more distant lines are perceptually lengthened. Thus a vertical line in the upper half of the visual field will appear longer than an equally long horizontal line that is lower in the visual field The vertical line bisects the other line. When we try to match the lengths we tend to focus on only half of the horizontal line and thus we underestimate the length of the horizontal line Poggendorf Illusion: (line through a square) a visual illusion in which the center portion of a diagonal straight line is hidden by a rectangular object, but the two ends are visible. The two ends appear offset they don’t appear to be part of the same line Related to depth perception. The view tends to underestimate the distance between the segments. This leads the view to place the right segment too close to the left segment Visual capture: the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses We perceive objects as distinct from their surrounding, see the them as having a meaningful and constant form, and discern their distance and motion Gestalt psychology When given a cluster of sensations, we tend to organize them into a gestalt (whole) The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Our brains do more than merely register information about the world. Perception is not just opening a shutter and letting a picture print itself on the brain. We constantly filter sensory information and infer perceptions in ways that make sense to us. Figure ground: the organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground) o Sometimes the same stimulus can trigger more than one perception (arrows and women) To bring order and form our minds must follow certain rules for grouping stimuli together o Proximity: we group nearby figures together. We see not 6 separate lines but 3 sets of 2 lines o Similarity: we group together figures that are similar to each other. We see triangles and circles as vertical columns of similar shapes not horizontal columns of different shapes o Continuity: we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones. We see two continuous lines one straight and one curvy instead of a series of alternating semi-circles o Connectedness: because they are uniform and linked, we perceive two dots and the line between them as a single unit o Closure: we fill in gaps to create a complete whole object. We assume the circles are complete but partially blocked by the illusory triangle Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk developed visual cliff o Visual cliff: a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals o Most infants would not go over edge even when coaxed by their mothers o By crawling age infants had learned to perceive depth o Newborn animals with virtually no visual experience respond similarly Binocular cues: depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes Retinal disparity: a binocular cue for perceiving depth. By comparing images from two eyeballs, the brain computes distance. The greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object o 3D movies are made by shooting the scene with two cameras placed a few inches apart. We see the movie through glasses that allow the left eye to see the image from the left camera and the right eye to see only the image from the right camera Convergence: the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object. The greater the inward strain, the closer the object Monocular cues: available to each eye separately Relative size: if we assume that two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away Interposition: if one object partially blocks our view of another we perceive it as closer Relative clarity: because light from distant objects passes through more atmosphere, we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects. In fog or snow the car in front of you may seem farther away than it is Texture gradient: a gradual change from a coarse distinct texture to a fine indistinct texture signals increasing distance. Objects far away appear smaller and more densely packed Relative height: we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away. Because we perceive the lower part of a figure ground illustration as closer, we perceive it as figure Relative motion (motion parallax): as we move, objects that are stable may appear to move. o If while riding on a bus you fix your gaze on some object like a house, the objects closer than the house appear to move backward. The nearer the object is to you, the faster it seems to move. o Objects beyond the fixation point appear to move with you and the farther away those objects are, the faster they will move. Your brain uses these speed and direction cues to compute the objects relative distances Linear perspective: parallel lines appear to converge with distance. The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance Light and shadow: nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes, given two identical objects, the dimmer one seems farther away o Shading produces a sense of depth consistent with the assumed light source o Assume that light comes from above Motion perception Brain computes motion on its assumption that shrinking objects are retreating and enlarging objects are approaching Large objects appear to move more slowly than small objects at the same speed In baseball by keeping the ball at a constant angle of gaze, a fielder will run through the point of its return as it arrives A movie is filmed by flashing 24 still pictures each second Phi phenomenon: when two adjacent stationary lights blink on and off I quick succession, we perceive a single light moving back and forth between them (neon signs) Perception is not merely projecting the world onto our brain; sensations are disassembled into information bits that the brain then reassembles into its own functional model of the external world. Our brain constructs our perceptions Perceptual constancy: enables us to perceive an object as unchanging despite a changing stimulus, top down process We can identify things regardless of angle, distance, and illumination in which we view them Shape constancy: we perceive the form of familiar objects as constant even while our retinal images of them change Size constancy: we perceive objects as having a constant size even while our distance from them varies Perceiving an objects distance gives us cues to its size. Knowing its general size provides us with cues to its distance Size distance relationship Moon looks up to 50% larger near the horizon than when in the sky o Cues to objects distances at the horizon make the moon behind them seem farther away than the moon high in the night sky o Similar to Ponzo illusion Lightness constancy (brightness constancy): we perceive an object as having constant lightness even while its illumination varies White paper reflects 90% of light falling on it, black paper only 10%. In sunlight a black paper may reflect 100x more light than a white paper indoors, but it still looks black Relative luminance: the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings o If you view a sunlit black paper through a narrow tube so nothing else is visible it may look gray because in sunshine it reflects a fair amount of light. If you view it again without the tube it looks black because it reflects much less light than the objects around it o Perceived lightness changes with context Color constancy: as light changes a red apple in a fruit bowl retains its redness because our brain computes the light reflected by any object relative to its surrounding objects Perceptual organization involves not only organization but also interpretation discerning meaning in what we perceive Daniel Schacter made seven sins of memory Three sins of forgetting o Absentmindedness: inattention to details produces encoding failure o Transience: storage decay over time o Blocking: inaccessibility of stored information (can’t think of a name) Three sins of distortion o Misattribution: confusing the source of information (putting words in someone’s mouth, or remembering a movie scene as an actual happening) o Suggestibility: the lingering effects of misinformation (a leading question) o Bias: belief colored recollections (current feelings may color recalled feelings) One sin of intrusion o Persistence: unwanted memories (being haunted by images of a sexual assault) Encoding failure We cannot remember what we fail to encode Older age slows encoding. Older people tend to recall less than younger adults, but they usually remember just as well when given reminders or a recognition test Average person only remembers 3 of the 8 critical features on a penny Storage decay Hermann Ebbinghaus learned a list of nonsense syllables and measured how much he retained when relearning each list from 20 min to 30 days later and put them in his Forgetting curve o The course of forgetting is initially rapid, then levels off with time Harry Bahrick examined the forgetting curve for Spanish vocabulary learned in school o People who had been out of school for 3 years had forgotten much of what they had learned, however, after 3 years, what people remembered then, they still remembered 25 and more years later even if they had not used Spanish at all Interference Proactive interference: occurs when something you learned earlier disrupts your recall of something you experience later o Benton Underwood found that those who learn different lists of words on successive days have more and more difficulty remembering each new list the next day Retroactive interference: occurs when new information makes it harder to recall something you learned earlier o You can minimize retroactive interference by reducing the number of interfering events by going for a walk or sleeping shortly after learning new information o John Jenkins and Karl Dallenbach found that students remembered more after being asleep than did students who had been awake and active after learning Positive transfer: sometimes old information can facilitate our learning of new information (knowing Latin may help you learn French) Motivated forgetting Michael Ross found that people unknowingly revise their own histories Repression: the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness (Sigmund Freud) Memory construction We infer our past from stored information plus what we now assume Elizabeth Loftus has shown how eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned o When shown a film of a traffic accident, people asked how fast the cars were going when they smashed into each other reported higher speeds than those when asked how fast the cars were when they hit each other o A week later, viewers that were asked “smashed” were twice as likely to report seeing broken glass when their was none Misinformation effect: incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event o As we recount an experience, we fill in memory gaps with plausible guesses and assumptions. After more retellings, we often recall the guessed details, which have now been absorbed into our memories, as if we had actually observed them. Others retelling of an event may also implant false memories Imagination inflation: occurs because visualizing something and actually perceiving it activate similar brain areas o Students who repeatedly imagined simple acts such as breaking a toothpick or picking up a stapler later experienced imagination inflation o The more vividly people imagine things, the more likely they are to inflate their imaginations into memories Source amnesia (source misattribution): attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. Memories we derive from experience have more detail than memories we derive from imagination. Memories of imagined experiences are more restricted to the gist of the supposed event—the meanings and feelings we associate with it o Because gist memories are durable, children’s false memories sometimes outlast their true memories o Most confident and consistent eyewitnesses are the most persuasive; however eyewitnesses whether right or wrong, express roughly similar self-assurance Cognitive interview technique: to activate retrieval cues, the detective first asks witnesses to visualize the scene, and then the witness tells in detail and without interruption every point recalled, no matter how trivial. Only then does the detective ask evocative follow up questions. Increases accurate recall by 50% When suggestive interview techniques are added, most preschoolers and many older children can be induced to report false events. If questioned about their experiences in neutral words they understand, children often accurately recall what happened and who did it o Children are especially accurate when involved adults have not talked with them prior to the interview and when their disclosure is made in a first interview with a neutral person who asks nonleading questions o Asked about things that did not happen, 3 year olds gave wrong answers nearly 30% of the time, 7 year olds erred only about 15% of the time o Stephen Ceci and Maggie Bruck did studies and asked 3 year olds to show on dolls where a pediatrician had touched them. 55% of the children who had not received genital exams pointed to either genital or anal areas Repressed memories and child abuse o Psychologist argue over whether repressed memories are being remembered or false memories are being planted o Injustice happens: some innocent people have been convicted, and some guilty people have evaded responsibility by casting doubt on truth telling accusers o Incest and other sexual abuse happen: and it happens more often than we once supposed. o Forgetting happens: many abused were either very young or may not have understood the meaning of their experience o Recovered memories are commonplace o Memories recovered under hypnosis or the influence of drugs are especially unreliable o Memories of things happening before age 3 are also unreliable o Memories real or false, can be emotionally upsetting SQ3R: Survey, question, read, rehearse, review Study repeatedly to boost long term recall Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material Make the material personally meaningful To remember a list of unfamiliar items, use mnemonic devices Refresh your memory by activating retrieval cues Recall events while they are fresh before you encounter possible misinformation Minimize interference Test your own knowledge both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know Memory: any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information Flashbulb memories: a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system We process some external stimuli consciously in our sensory memory while other external events are processed beneath the radar of our conscious efforts The events we notice and attend to are encoded in our working memory Further processing and rehearsing encodes important parts of the event into our long term memory Automatically process information about o Space: when struggling to recall information you may remember its place on a page o Time: you recreate the sequence of what you did to find something you forgot o Frequency: you keep track of how many times things happen Effortful processing: information learned with effort and attention, often produces durable and accessible memories o Rehearsal: conscious repetition o Ebbinghaus did experiment and learned the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning, additional rehearsal increases retention o The next in line effect: when people go in a circle remembering names, the poorest memories are for what was said by the person just before them. When we are next in line, we focus on our own performance and often fail to process the last person’s words o Information presented seconds before sleep is seldom remembered, information presented an hour before sleep is well remembered o Taped information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not remembered, without opportunity for rehearsal, sleep-learning doesn’t occur. o Spacing effect: we retain information better when our rehearsal is distributed over time Harry Bahrick did experiment with his family that showed the longer space between practice sessions, the better their retention up to 5 years later o Serial position effect: they remember the last and first items better than they do those in the middle Visual encoding: The encoding of picture images o Imagery: mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding We remember concrete words that lend themselves to visual mental images better than we remember abstract, low-imagery words Memory for concrete nouns is aided by encoding them both semantically and visually Acoustic encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words Semantic encoding: the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving flashed a word at people and then asked a question that required people to process the word (visually, acoustically, semantically). Semantic encoding yielded much better memory than the shallow processing Self-reference effect: asked how well certain adjectives describe someone else, we often forget them; asked how well the adjectives describe ourselves, we remember the words well Rosy retrospection: recalling high points and forgetting mundane moments. People tend to recall events such as a camping holiday more positively than they evaluated them at the time. o It is the experience we remember, not the experience we had that predicts our future choices. Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices o Developed by ancient Greek scholars and orators as aids to remembering lengthy passages and speeches o Method of loci: imagining moving through a familiar series of locations, associating each place with a visual representation of the to-be-remembered topic. o Peg-word system: requires that you memorize a jingle “one is a bun, two is a shoe…” and then visually associate the peg words with to be remembered items. “Carrot in a bun, milk in a shoe…” Chunking: organizing items into familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically o We all remember information best when we can organize it into personally meaningful arrangements o Acronyms: organizing something into a more familiar form by encoding the first letters of the to-be-remembered words as sentences or as words o Wen people develop an expertise in an area, they process information not only in chunks but also in hierarchies composed of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts Gordon Bower presented words randomly or grouped into categories, when the words were organized into groups, recall was two to 3 times better Taking notes in outline format, paying attention to headings proves helpful when test taking Storage: the retention of encoded information over time Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin created Three stage processing model of memory o Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system o Short term memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten o Long term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences Sometime information skips the first stages and is processed into long term automatically Working memory: a newer understanding of short term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information and of information retrieved from long-term memory o Managed by a central executive processor allowing us to process images and words simultaneously o Frontal lobes are active when the central executive focuses on complex thinking, and that the parietal and temporal lobe areas that help us process auditory and visual information also are active when such information is in our working memory George Sperling believed that all 9 letters were stored in the viewers memory for a short time, but that memory faded so rapidly that only a handful of the letters could be moved into short term memory and name before the information disappeared o Free recall: memory task in which the items can be reported in any order If a random group of 9 letters is flashed briefly on a screen, only about 4 or 5 of the letters can be recalled o Iconic memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second o Echoic memory: sensory memory for auditory stimuli, an auditory echo lingers for 3 or 4 seconds o Called the individual memory trace icons o Delayed partial report: a memory task in which the information to be remembered is removed before the appearance of a visual or auditory cue indicating the specific set of items that are to be reported o Partial recall: memory task in which only a specific set of items are to be reported o Cued recall: memory task in which a visual or auditory cue indicates the specific set of items that are to be reported Sparling played the tone after the subjects had seen the letters to prove that the letters were in the memory Most people recall a higher percentage of letters in the cued recall task than the free recall task Viewers store more visual information for a brief time than they are able to report a few seconds later Information must go through the short-term memory in order to be consolidated into long- term memory. Any disruption in short term memory rehearsal prevents the consolidation of information into long term memory storage o Retrograde amnesia: You cannot remember specific events before an accident because you experienced memory o Primacy effect: items at the beginning of a list are remembered better than later items Words early in the list were rehearsed and consolidated into long term memory before the memory was overwhelmed o Recency effect: the tendency to remember items at the end of a list better than items in the middle These words are still in short term memory and we are actively rehearsing them when asked to recall the list of words Long term memory can be auditory memory, visual memory, procedural memories for things like walking, memory for odors, tactile memories like used for braille o Auditory memory can be verbal, nonverbal (music), recognition of voices, long term memory for environmental sounds o Long term memory for common sounds Which items are easy will depend on each person’s individual background, a person’s experience or training will influence their ability to recall certain sounds Intentionally learning or memory: type of memorization where subject memorizes the information on purpose o Usually better than incidental memory because it usually involves the deliberate encoding strategies that lead to a deeper or more elaborate encoding of the material Incidental memory: information that is learned without our intentionally memorizing it is referred to as incidental memory o Visual stimuli are often complex and contain many different details or features. o The context in which we encounter certain stimuli and the fact that we do not expect the stimuli to vary or change may allow recognition to occur with only a small number of recorded details. Incidental memory for some details may not exist if the details were not important to the person when they first viewed the visual stimulus Explicit memory: all the information you can consciously recall and use to answer questions. o Declarative memory: it is a collection of facts and knowledge that can be verbally expressed Implicit memory: information in long term memory that influences behavior but that can’t be explicitly recalled. o Nondeclaritive: cannot be verbally expressed o Priming: occurs when prior exposure to a stimulus affects how it is perceived or processed on a subsequent exposure. It occurs automatically and without awareness. Experiment: The first phase (study phase) participants are exposed to a set of stimuli, usually word or pictures. The participants are asked to perform some task with these stimuli such as naming the stimuli or describing some characteristic of each stimulus. Second phase, (test phase), participants complete another task, such as a lexical decision. Lexical decision task: participants are presented with a string of letters and have to decide if the string is a word or not Priming occurs when the time to make the lexical decision is affected by a previous encounter with the letter string during the study phase Words that were encountered before are usually identified as words more quickly than words that were not encountered in the previous task The difference in lexical decision time occurs even though participants don’t even remember having seen the words on the previous encounter Priming occurs even when people have amnesia, they don’t remember having completed the task, yet their performance is affected by previous encounters with stimuli Believed that priming occurs because the first presentation of the word activates a perceptual trace of the word. The memory is then more easily activated the second time Lloyd Peterson and Margaret Peterson discovered that Without rehearsal the effective duration of short term memory appears to be less than 30 seconds George Miller discovered that the number of items a typical adult can hold in short term memory ranges from 5-9, and for most people and tasks, things become unpredictable after about 7 unrelated items, when items tend to get lost or drop out Short term recall is better for random digits than for random letters which sometimes have similar sounds and better for what we hear than what we see o Children and adults have short term recall for roughly as many words as they can speak 2 seconds o Average person retains only about 4 chunks in short term memory Average adult has about a billion bits of information in memory and a storage capacity that will accommodate probably a thousand to a million times that amount o Karl Lashley trained rats to solve a maze, and then cut out pieces of their cortexes and retested their memory. No matter what small cortical section he removed, the rats retained at least a partial memory of how to solve the maze o Forgetting happens as new experiences interfere with our retrieval and as the physical memory trace decays Ralph Gerard trained hamsters to turn right or left to get food, he then lowered their body temperature until the brains electrical activity ceased, when the hamsters were revived and their brains were active again, they remembered which way to turn Synapses: the sites where nerve cells communicate with one another through their neurotransmitter messengers o Experience modifies the brains neural networks, given increased activity in a pathway, neural interconnections form or strengthen o Eric Kandel and James Schwartz observed changes in the sending neurons of a California sea snail, Aplysia The snail can be classically conditioned with electric shock to reflexively withdraw its gills when squirted with water When learning occurs the snail releases more of the neurotransmitter serotonin at certain synapses, these synapses then become more efficient at transmitting signals Increased synaptic efficiency makes for more efficient neural circuits Rapidly stimulating certain memory circuit connections has increased their sensitivity for hours or weeks to come. The sending neuron now needs less prompting to release its neurotransmitter and the receiving neuron’s receptor sites may increase Long term potentiation LTP: an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory. Term coined by Gary Lynch Drugs that block LTP interfere with learning Rats given a drug that enhances LTP will learn a maze with half the usual number of mistakes Drugs the boost the production of the protein CREB can switch genes off or on. Genes code the production of protein molecules. With repeated neural firing, a nerve cell’s genes produce synapse strengthening proteins enabling long term memories to form o Boosting CREB production might lead to increased production of proteins that help reshape synapses and consolidate a short term memory into a long term memory Drugs that boost glutamate, a brain neurotransmitter that enhances synaptic communication LTP After LTP has occurred, passing an electric current through the brain won’t disrupt old memories, but the current will wipe out very recent memories Stress hormones that humans produce when excited or stressed make more glucose energy available to fuel brain activity, signaling the brain that something important has happened o Amygdala: two emotion processing clusters in the limbic system, boost activity in the brain’s memory forming areas o Stronger emotional experiences make for stronger more reliable memories o When stress is prolonged it can act as an acid, corroding neural connections and shrinking a brain area that is vital for lying down memories o When sudden stress hormones are flowing, older memories may be blocked People with a type of amnesia in which they are unable to form new memories can be classically conditioned to learn things, even with no awareness of having learned them o They can learn how to do something: Implicit memory (procedural memory) o They may not know and declare that they know: Explicit memory (declarative memory) Hippocampus: a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage o When brain scans capture the brain forming a new memory, they reveal activity in the hippocampus as well as in certain areas of the frontal lobes. The hippocampus lights up on a PET scan when people recall words o Damage to the hippocampus disrupts some types of memory o Hippocampus is lateralized (two of them, one just above each ear), damage to the left or right produces different results Damage to the left hippocampus have trouble remembering verbal information, but they have no problem recalling visual designs and locations, for those with right hippocampus damage, the problem is reversed One part is active as people learn to associate names with faces, another part is active as memory whizzes engage in spatial mnemonics, the rear area processes spatial memory o Monkeys and people who lose their hippocampus to surgery or disease also lose most of their recall for things learned during the preceding month, though their older memories remain intact The longer the hippocampus and its pathways to the cortex are left intact after training, the smaller the memory deficit o Hippocampus acts as loading dock where brain registers and temporarily stores the elements of a remembered episode-its smell, feel, sound, and location, then memories migrate for storage elsewhere o Active during slow wave sleep, as memories are processed and filed for later retrieval o Once stored, our mental encores of past experience activate various parts of the frontal and temporal lobes You could lose your hippocampus and still lay down memories for skills and conditioned associations. Implicit memories require fewer connections among cortical storage areas so people with hippocampus damage may retain those memories o Cerebellum: brain region extending out from the rear of the brainstem, plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning o Humans with a damaged cerebellum are incapable of developing certain conditioned reflexes By disrupting the function of different pathways in the cortex and cerebellum of rabbits, they will fail to learn a conditioned eye blink response o Infantile amnesia, the fact that we remember nothing of our first 3 years, is explained by our conscious minds are blank, because we index so much of our explicit memory by words that nonspeaking children have not learned, and because the hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to mature Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher Respondent behavior: behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimuli; Skinner’s term for behavior learned through classical conditioning Operant behavior: behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences Acquisition: associating response with a consequence Extinction: responding decreases when reinforcement stops Cognitive process: organisms develop expectation that response will be reinforced or punished; they also exhibit latent learning, without reinforcement Biological predispositions: organisms best learn behaviors similar to their natural behaviors; unnatural behaviors instinctively drift back toward natural ones Law of effect: Edward Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely Operant chamber (skinner box): a chamber containing a bar or key than an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water reinforce, with attached devices to record the animal’s rate of bar pressing. Shaping: reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations (successive approximations) of the desired behavior Discriminative stimulus: if you reinforce a pigeon after he sees a human face but not another image he will learn to recognize human faces Reinforcement: any event that strengthens or increases the frequency of a preceding response o Primary reinforcers: an innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need o Conditioned reinforce: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce, also known as secondary reinforce o Positive reinforcement: a situation in which the subject receives a reinforce after performing a particular operant behavior and does not receive a reinforce if that operant behavior is not performed o Negative reinforcements: a situation in which the subject’s response terminates or prevents the delivery of an unpleasant stimulus. Thus the removal of the unpleasant stimulus increases the likelihood that the response will occur again o Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs. Learning occurs rapidly but extinction also occurs rapidly o Partial reinforcement: reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement Fixed ratio schedule: a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after a specified number of responses Tends to produce a high and constant rate of responding Fixed interval schedule: a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Produces a clustering of responses around the reward time, and a lower overall rate of responding than either of the ratio schedules Variable interval schedule: a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals Produce a low but fairly constant rate of responding and would take a long time to extinguish this conditioned association. In real life people tend to be rewarded for their efforts on variable interval schedules Variable ratio schedule: a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a Produce a high and constant rate of responding. The rate is not quite as high as with a fixed ratio schedule, but a rat conditioned with a variable ratio schedule would be more resistant to extinction o A big step toward maturity and toward gaining the most satisfying life is learning to delay gratification to control one’s impulses in order to achieve more valued rewards Punisher: any consequence that decreases the frequency of a preceding behavior, usually by administering an undesirable consequence or withdrawing a desirable one o Positive punishment: administers an aversive stimulus o Negative punishment: withdraw a desirable stimulus o Robert Larzelere Spanked children are at higher risk of aggression, depression, and low self esteem He and Diana Baumrind said that if the spank is combined with a generous dose of reasoning and reinforcing parenting, and if it is used as only a backup to enhance the effectiveness of milder disciplinary tactics such as reasoning and time out o Punished behavior is not forgotten, it is suppressed, the temporary suppression may negatively reinforce the parents punishing behavior If the child swears, the parent swats, and the parent hears no more swearing, they believe it was successful in stopping the behavior Children can learn discrimination: it is not ok to swear in the house but it is ok to swear elsewhere o Physical punishment may increase aggressiveness by demonstrating that aggression is a way to cope with problems o The person receiving the punishment may associate fear not only with the undesirable behavior but also with the person who administers it or with the situation in which it occurs When punishments are unpredictable and inescapable, both animals and people may develop the sense that events are beyond their control, as a result they become depressed and helpless o Punishment suppresses unwanted behavior but does not guide toward a more desirable behavior. Punishment tells you what not to do, reinforcement tells you what to do. Punishment combined with reinforcement is more effective than punishment alone o Skinner said that what punishment teaches is how to avoid it Edward Tolman conducted study in 40s about cognitive maps. He had rats try to find their way through a maze. Place learning: used to describe how individuals learn to move from one place to another o Behavior perspective: place learning is a set of conditioned associations between stimuli and responses at different locations. You might have learned a series of left and right turns to complete the maze. o Cognitive perspective: place learning requires the individual to for a cognitive map of the place. You might have used a visual representation of the maze and where you were in it to complete the maze Cognitive map: a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake Extrinsic motivation: a desire to perform behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment A person’s interest often survives when a reward is used neither to bribe nor control but to signal a job well done, as in a most improved player award Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive Keller Breland and Marian Breland trained animals for TV shows and circuses. They trained pigs to pick up large wooden dollars and deposit them in a piggy bank. After learning this behavior, the animals would drift back to their natural ways. They would drop the coin, push it with their snout, and pick it up again. o Instinctive drift: misbehaviors occur as the animals reverted to their biologically predisposed patterns Skinner advocated the use of teaching machines and textbooks that would shape learning in small steps and provide immediate reinforcement for correct responses. Such machines and texts would revolutionize education and free teachers to concentrate on their students’ special needs Thomas Simek and Richard O’Brien applied principles to teaching golf and basketball by starting with easily reinforced responses. As the hitters confidence builds with their success and they achieve mastery at each level, the pitcher gradually moves back and eventually introduces a standard baseball o Compared with children taught by conventional methods, those trained by this behavioral method show in both testing and game situations faster improvement in their skill Reinforcement for a job well done is especially effective in boosting productivity when the desired performance is well-defined and achievable o When workers productivity boosts rewards for everyone, their motivation, morale, and cooperative spirit often increase o Criticism triggers the least resentment and the greatest performance boost when specific and considerate o It is wise to make reinforcement immediate o Rewards need not be material, nor should they be so substantial that they become political and a source of discouragement to those who don’t receive them Michelle Wierson and Rex Forehand came up with ways to stop the destructive cycle of parent child behavior o Give children attention and other reinforcers when they are behaving well. Target a specific behavior, reward it, and watch it increase o Ignore whining. If whining has triggered attention in the past, it may temporarily increase when ignored, over time if not reinforced, it will diminish o When children misbehave or are defiant, do not yell at them or hit them, simply explain the misbehavior and give them a time-out for a specific time remove them from any reinforcing surroundings To take charge of your own behavior o State your goal in measurable terms and make your intention public o Monitor how often you engage in the behavior you wish to promote o Reinforce the desired behavior o Reduce the incentives gradually as your behaviors become more habitual give you self a mental pat on the back Anne Treisman proposed the feature identification theory of visual information processing to help explain the link between visual stimuli and producing meaningful perceptions Feature identification: an automatic process in which your visual system breaks down a visual stimulus, decomposing it into primitive features, including color, line length, curvature, orientation, location, and motion. o This stage of visual information processing does not require your focused attention, it happens automatically o Because feature identification is preattentive, the number of items in an array should not affect it much Feature integration: requires that you focus your attention on specific parts of the visual field. As you attend to a part of a visual stimulus, your visual system combines the specific features of the stimulus, such as a particular line and a particular orientation, and compares them with similar items in your long-term memory. This process leads to your recognition of the object or scene o Because feature integration requires focused attention on parts of the visual array, the more items there are to examine and integrate, the longer it takes to complete a visual search for integrated features o Illusory conjunction: the tendency to incorrectly integrate primitive features Because feature integration requires attention and time, integration errors are common. When presented only briefly with a visual array, we tend to make mistakes reporting what we think we see Immanuel Kant 1724-1804: maintained that knowledge comes from our inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences John Locke 1632-1704: argued that through our experiences we also learn to perceive the world o William Molyneux asked Locke if a man born blind taught by his touch to distinguish between a cube and a sphere if made to see could visually distinguish between the two. Locke said no because the man would have never learned to see the difference o Adults with cataracts that got surgery could distinguish figure from ground and sense colors but could not recognize by sight objects that were familiar by touch Sensory deprivation and restored vision o We perceive and recognize individual faces as a whole o If we are shown the same top half of a face paired with two different bottom halves, the top half will look different o People deprived of visual experience are able to recognize that the top halves are the same because they didn’t learn to process faces as a whole o Experiments with monkeys and kittens where they were fitted with goggles until after infancy. They could distinguish color and brightness, but not the form of a circle from that of a square o Eyes had not degenerated, their retinas still relayed signals to their visual cortex but lacking stimulation the cortical cells had not developed normal connections. The animals remained functionally blind to shape. o Cover the eye of an adult animal for several months and its vision will be unaffected after its eye patch is removed. Suggests that a critical period exist shortly afterbirth for normal sensory and perceptual development o Human babies born with cataracts will have surgery within a few months and then the brain network responsible for the corrected eye then rapidly develops, enabling improved visual acuity with as little as one hour’s visual experience o Congenitally deaf kittens and infants given cochlear implants exhibit an awakening of the pertinent brain area Perceptual adaptation: o When wearing new glasses we get distorted and then we adjust and things become normal o Chicks fitted with lenses continue to peck where food grains seem to be o George Stratton 1896 developed glasses that flipped left to right and up to down making him the first person to experience a right side up retinal image while standing upright o By the 8 day he could walk in the right direction without bumping into things o Later experiments replicated this and people could learn to ride a motorcycle, ski, and fly an airplane o Things still seemed on the wrong side of them but they adapted to the context and learned to coordinate their movements Perceptual set: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another o People are more likely to think an adult and a child look similar after being told that is his parent o Once we have formed a wrong idea about reality, we have more difficulty seeing the truth o Photos of lock ness monster o Through experience we form schemas that organize and interpret unfamiliar information through top down processing o A preschooler can draw circles and angled lines but cannot combine them to create an elaborate human figure Children have simplified schemas for essential human characteristics. To 3 and 4 year olds, a face is a more important human feature than a body. From 3-8 children’s schemas for bodies become more elaborate and so do their drawings o Kieran Lee, Graham Byatt, and Gillian Rhodes demonstrated how we recognize people by facial features that cartoonists can caricature They showed students 3 pictures of Arnold Schwarzenegger for but a fraction of a second; the actual photo, a computer generated caricature of the photo, and the anticaricture of the photo Caricature accentuates the differences between his face and the average face, anticaricture mutes the distinctive features The caricature face was more easily recognized than the actual face o Peter Thompson 1980 said that face recognition is especially attuned to the expressive eyes and mouth 2/3 of portraits from last 5 centuries have an eye at or within 5% of the paintings exact center line o A given stimulus may trigger radically different perceptions partly because of our differing schemas, but also because of the immediate context o Richard Warren said that the brain can work backward in time to allow a later stimulus to determine how we perceive an earlier one The context creates an expectation that top down influences our perception as we match our bottom up signal against it If you hear “eel is on the wagon” you would perceive the first word as wheel. If you hear “eel is on the orange” you would perceive the word as peel o Soviet film director Lew Kulechov believed that skilled directors evoke emotion in an audience by defining a context in which viewers interpret an actor’s expression o He produced 3 short films each depicting one of 3 context, followed by identical clips of an actor with a neutral expression o Shown a film of a dead woman the viewers thought the man was sad, shown a dish of soup the viewers thought the man looked thoughtful, shown a praying child, viewers judged the actor as happy o Hearing sad rather than happy music can predispose people to perceive a sad meaning in spoken homophonic words (mourning/morning, die/dye
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