PSYCH 100 Exam 3 Notes
PSYCH 100 Exam 3 Notes PSYCH 100
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Anxiety disorders: marked by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Anxiety is both a feeling and a cognition Generalized anxiety disorder: a person is unexplainably and continually tense and uneasy o 2/3 are women o Continually tense and jittery o Worried about various bad things that may happen o Plagued by muscular tension, agitation, and sleeplessness o Furrowed brows, twitching eyelids, trembling, perspiration, fidgeting o Concentration is difficult o Person cannot identify its cause so they cannot deal with it or avoid it o Freud said anxiety is “free floating” o Often accompanied by depression o Disabling and leads to physical problems such as ulcers and high blood pressure Panic disorder: a person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread o 1/75 people have this o Panic attack: a minutes long episode of intense fear that something horrible is about to happen Heart palpitations, shortness of breath, chocking sensations, trembling, dizziness Smokers have a 2-4x risk of a first time panic attack o Agoraphobia: fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes People may avoid being outside the home, in a crowd, on a bus, or on an elevator o Charles Darwin began suffering panic disorder at age 28, he moved to the country, avoided social gatherings, and only traveled in his wife’s company Phobia: a person feels irrationally and intensely afraid of a specific object or situation o Specific phobia: intense fear and avoidance of some specific stimulus. Animal type (particular animal or insect) Natural environment type (heights, storms) Blood injection injury type (medical procedures) Situational type (driving, enclosed spaces) o Social phobia: intense fear and avoidance of a particular social situation, such as going to a party or making a public presentation Sweating, trembling, diarrhea o 4-5% of the US population has a clinically significant phobia in a specific year Social phobias are more common than specific phobias Most common social phobia is public speaking Phobias more common among women Less common among college graduates Obsessive compulsive disorder: a person is troubled by repetitive thoughts or actions o Become so persistent that they interfere with everyday living and cause the person distress o 2-3% of people have OCD o Older people are less likely than teens and young adults o Obsessions and compulsions can sometime gradually lessen Post traumatic stress disorder PTSD: lingering symptoms including haunting memories and nightmares, a numbed social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and insomnia o Caused by a traumatic stress, experiencing or witnessing severely threatening, uncontrollable events with a sense of fear, helplessness, or horror o The more frequent and severe the assault experiences are, the more adverse the long term outcomes tend to be o A sensitive limbic system that floods the body with stress hormones also increases vulnerability o Combat veterans, accident and disaster survivors, sexual assault victims, and 2/3 of o Basic trust erodes; many experience fearful wariness, troubled sleep, nightmares, and a sense of hopelessness about their future o Learned hopelessness on the part of children who have repeatedly suffered abuse appears to make them more vulnerable to PTSD if assaulted as adults o Stress dose response relationship: the greater one’s emotional distress during a trauma the higher the risk for post traumatic symptoms o Sometimes reliving the trauma exacerbates one’s emotions o Survivor resiliency: about half of adults experience at least one traumatic event in their lifetime, but only 1/10 women and 1/20 men develop PTSD o Post traumatic growth: struggle with challenging crises often leads people later to report an increased personal strength, changed priorities, and a richer spiritual life Psychoanalytic theory: beginning in childhood, people repress intolerable impulses, ideas, and feeling and that this is submerged mental energy sometimes produces mystifying symptoms such as anxiety Learning perspective For victims of PTSD, anxiety swells with any reminder of the trauma Phobias may be acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning o 58% of those with a social phobia experienced their disorder after a traumatic event o Stimulus generalization occurs and then once phobias and compulsions arise, reinforcement helps maintain them Observational learning o Many people have indirectly experienced the fearful stimulus through vicarious learning. A child may develop unnatural fears from observing fear in a parent o Wild monkeys transmit fear of snakes to their offspring Evolutionary perspective Phobias may be a remnant of early adaptive behavior Early humans who learned to avoid dangerous situations, survived to produce offspring In WWII during air blitzes people became indifferent to planes outside their immediate neighborhood, evolution has not prepared us to fear bombs dropping from the sky Compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that contributed to our species survival (grooming becomes hair pulling, washing becomes ritual hand washing) Cultural perspective: phobias are specific to a single culture Biological perspective: explains why we learn some fears more readily and why some individuals are more vulnerable Individual monkeys react more strongly to stress if their close biological relatives are anxiously reactive Vulnerability to anxiety disorder rises when the afflicted relative is an identical twin Identical twins often develop similar phobias, even when raised separately Generalized anxiety, panic attacks, and obsessions are biologically measurable as an over arousal of brain areas involved in impulse control and habitual behaviors Brain scans of people with OCD reveal elevated activity in specific brain areas associated with behaviors such as compulsive washing, checking, ordering, hording Anterior cingulate cortex: brain region that monitors our actions and checks for errors o Seems likely to be hyperactive in those with OCD o When the brain detects that something is amiss, it generates a mental hiccup of repeating thoughts or actions Fear learning experiences can traumatize the brain by creating fear circuits within the amygdala o Some antidepressant drugs dampen this fear circuit activity and its associated OCD behavior Anton Mesmer thought he had discovered “animal magnetism” He passed magnets over bodies of ailing people and some would lapse into a trancelike state, then awaken much improved Ben Franklin said the cures were imagination Hypnosis power resides not in the hypnotist but in the subject’s openness to suggestion When people standing upright with their eyes closed are told repeatedly that they are swaying back and forth, most will sway a little o Postural sway is one of the items on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale that assesses a person’s hypnotizability o The people that will respond without hypnosis, are the people who will respond with hypnosis 20% of people who can carry out a suggestion not to smell a bottle of ammonia under their nose frequently become absorbed in imaginative activities o They have rich fantasy lives and easily become absorbed in the imaginary events of a novel or movie Hypnotic ability: the ability to focus attention totally on a task, to become imaginatively absorbed in it, to entertain fanciful possibilities o Virtually anyone will experience hypnotic responsiveness if led to expect it Age regression: the ability to relive childhood experiences o Age regressed people act as they believe children would but they typically miss the mark by outperforming real children of the specified age o They may feel childlike and print like they know a 6 year old would, but they do so with perfect spelling and typically without any change in their adult brain waves, reflexes, and perception o Hypnotically refreshed memories combine fact with fiction, leading questions can plant ideas in the subjects pseudomemory o American, Australian, and British courts ban testimony from witnesses who have been hypnotized Martin Orne and Frederick Evans demonstrated that hypnotized people could be induced to perform an apparently dangerous act o Participants followed instructions to dip one hand into acid and then through the acid in the research assistant’s face o A day later, they had no memory of their acts and denied that they would have done such a thing o They set up a control group that pretended to be hypnotized and those people followed all the same instructions Posthypnotic suggestions: have helped alleviate headaches, asthma, and stress related skin disorders o A woman suffered for more than 20 years with open sores all over her, she was hypnotized to imagine herself swimming in liquids that would cleanse her skin, 3 months later her sores disappeared o Average client whose therapy was supplemented with hypnosis showed greater improvement than 70% of other therapy patients o Hypnosis is effective for obesity o Hypnosis is not effective for alcohol, drug, or smoking addictions o In controlled studies, hypnosis speeds the disappearance of warts but so do the same positive suggestions without hypnosis Light hypnosis can reduce fear, and thus hypersensitivity to pain o 10% of us can be so deeply hypnotized that major surgery can be performed without anesthesia o In surgical experiments, hypnotized patients require less medication, recovered sooner, and left the hospital earlier than unhypnotized controls o Dissociation: split between different levels of consciousness Hypnosis dissociates the sensation of the pain stimulus from the emotional suffering that defines our experience of pain o Hypnotic pain relief could result from selective attention Following a suggestion that they are deaf, hypnotized people will deny being able to hear their own voices, but when they hear their own voice over a headset with a half second delay, the supposedly unheard delayed feedback disrupts their ability to speak fluently PET scans reveal that hypnosis reduces brain activity in a region that processes painful stimuli, but not in the sensory cortex that receives the raw sensory input o Hypnosis does not block sensory input, but it may block our attention to those stimuli The more people like the hypnotist, the more likely they are to allow that person to direct their attention and fantasies o The hypnotist ideas become the subjects thoughts, and the subjects thoughts produce hypnotic experiences and behaviors o If told to scratch their ear when they hear the word psychology, subjects will likely do so only if they think the experiment is still under way. If an experimenter eliminates the motivation for their acting hypnotized, by stating that hypnosis reveals their gullibility, subjects become unresponsive Social influence theory: says that hypnotic phenomena is not unique to hypnosis, like the behaviors associated with other supposedly altered states, such as dissociative identify disorder, are an extension of everyday social behavior o Hypnotic subject may be imaginative actors caught up in playing the role of the hypnotic subject Some subjects will act out suggested behaviors on cue even when they believe no one is watching In one experiment, when deeply hypnotized people were asked to imagine a color, areas of their brain lit up as if they were really seeing the color o What would only be imagination had become a hallucination Earnest Hilgard believed that hypnosis involved not only a social influence, but a special state of dissociated consciousness. Divided consciousness theory Biological influences Distinct brain activity Nonconscious processing Psychological influences: Focused attention Expectations Heightened suggestibility Dissociation between normal sensations and conscious awareness Social cultural influences Presence of an authoritative person in legitimate context Role playing good subject Dissociative disorders: a person appears to experience a sudden loss of memory or change in identity When a situation becomes overwhelmingly stressful, people are said to dissociate themselves from it. Their conscious awareness becomes separated from painful memories, thoughts, and feelings Dissociative identity disorder DID: massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness o Two or more distinct identities that alternately control the person’s behavior, with memory impairment across the different personality states o There are cases in which a person dissociated into a “good” and “bad” personality o Nicholas Spanos asked college students to pretend they were accused murderers being examined by a psychiatrist. When given hypnotic treatment, most spontaneously expressed a second personality Suggest that DID are like actors that lose themselves in their roles DID people are highly hypnotizable o Handedness sometimes switches with personalities o Ophthalmologists detected shifting visual acuity and eye muscle balance as patients switched personalities that did not occur among people trying to simulate DID o Prevalent in North America but not so much in other cultures 2 cases in the 30s-60s and then more than 20,000 in the 80s 3 personalities increased to up to 12 personalities Multiple personality studies began among practitioners of hypnosis and symptoms are most dramatic after beginning therapy Many therapists ask leading questions that bring out symptoms of DID Psychoanalyst view DID as defenses against the anxiety caused by the eruption of unacceptable impulses; a wanton second personality enables the discharge of forbidden impulses Learning theorists see DID as behaviors reinforced by anxiety reduction Others view dissociative disorders as PTSD o Study of 12 murderers with DID found that 11 of them experience severe child abuse Personality disorders: psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning Avoidant personality disorder: expresses anxiety, such as a fearful sensitivity to rejection that predisposes withdrawal Schizoid personality disorder: eccentric behaviors, such as emotionless disengagement Histrionic personality disorder: shallow attention getting emotions and goes to great lengths to gain others praise and reassurance Narcissistic personality disorder: exaggerate their own importance, aided by success fantasies. They find criticism hard to accept, often reacting with rage or shame Borderline personality disorder: unstable identity, unstable relationships, unstable and impulsive emotions Antisocial personality disorder: (sociopath, psychopath) o Typically a male o Lack of conscience becomes plain before age 15, as he begins to lie, steal, fight, or display unrestrained sexual behavior o Half of such children become antisocial adults—unable to keep a job, irresponsible as a spouse or parent, assaultive or otherwise criminal o Feel and fear little o Relatives of those with antisocial and unemotional tendencies are at risk for antisocial behavior o They await aversive events like electric shock and show little autonomic nervous system arousal o As youngsters, before committing any crime, they react with lower levels of stress hormones than do others their age o Boys who later became aggressive or antisocial adolescents tended as young children to have been impulsive, uninhibited, unconcerned with social rewards, and low in anxiety o Adrian Raine compared PET scans of 41 murderers brains with people of similar age and sex Reduced activity in murderers frontal lobes, an area that controls impulses Especially apparent in people who murdered impulsively Violent repeat offenders had 11% less frontal lobe tissue than normal People with antisocial personality disorder have marked defects in frontal lobe cognitive functions such as planning, organization, and inhibition o Relative to 1960, the average American in 1995 was 2x likely to be murdered, 4x likely to be raped, 4x likely to be robbed, 5x likely to report being assaulted o Adrian Raine checked criminal record on nearly 400 men ages 20-22, knowing that all had experienced biological risk factors or had come from family backgrounds marked by poverty and family instability The biosocial group had double the risk of committing crime o Majority of psychopaths go undetected and are in society o Psychopaths seem to process linguistic, semantic, and emotional material in a very superficial way lacking affect o No structural differences in brain MRI o SPECT technology show that Normal individuals show substantial differences in brain activity when reading emotional words compared to neutral words Antisocial individuals show little difference in brain activity Normal individuals show high levels of activity in frontal areas of the brain and a lower level of activity in the rear portion Antisocial individuals show high levels of activity in rear portion of brain and little activity in frontal areas indicating that they are mainly processing the visual aspects of the words and not paying much attention to emotional and social connotations of the words Humanistic psychologists: focused on the ways healthy people strive for self-determination and self-realization. They studied people through their own self reported experiences and feelings Third force perspective: emphasized human potential and seeing the world through the person’s eyes Abraham Maslow o Proposed we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs If our needs are not met, we become concerned with personal safety, If we achieve a sense of security, we seek to love, to be loved, and to love ourselves; With our love needs satisfied, we seek self-esteem. Having achieved self esteem, we ultimately seek self actualization Self actualization: the process of fulfilling our potential o Developed his ideas by studying healthy creative people rather than troubled clinical cases. Such as Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, Eleanor Roosevelt Said these people were self aware, self accepting, open, spontaneous, loving, caring, not paralyzed by others opinions, secure in their sense of who they were Interest were problem centered rather than self centered Focused their energies on a particular task, one regarded as their mission in life Enjoyed a few deep relationships rather than many superficial ones Moved by spiritual or personal peak experiences that surpassed ordinary consciousness o Said these mature adult qualities were found in those who had learned enough about life to be compassionate, have outgrown mixed feelings about parents, found their calling, acquired enough courage to be unpopular, to be unashamed about being openly virtuous Carl Rogers o Believed that people were basically good and are endowed with self actualizing tendencies, unless thwarted by an environment that inhibits growth, each of us is like an acorn, primed for growth and fulfillment o People nurture growth by being: Genuine: being open with their own feelings, dropping their facades, and being transparent and self disclosing Accepting Unconditional positive regard: attitude of grace, an attitude that values us even knowing our failings In a close relationship, we are free to be spontaneous without fearing the loss of others esteem Empathetic: sharing and mirroring our feelings and reflecting our meanings o As people are accepted and prized, they tend to develop a more caring attitude toward themselves o Self-concept: all the thoughts and feelings we have in response to the question “Who am I?” If our self concept is positive, we tend to act and perceive the world positively If it is negative, if in our own minds we fall short of our ideal self, we feel dissatisfied and unhappy Humanistic psychologist sometimes assess personality by asking people to fill out questionnaires that would evaluate self concept o Rogers had people describe themselves as they would ideally like to be and how they actually are, when the ideal and actual are nearly alike, the self concept is positive Critics o Concepts are vague and subjective o The individualism encouraged by humanistic psychology can lead to self indulgence, selfishness, and an erosion of moral restraints o It is those who focus beyond themselves who are most likely to experience social support, to enjoy life, and to cope effectively with stress Humanistic psychologist counter that a secure, nondefensive, self acceptance is the first step toward loving others o Fails to appreciate human capacity for evil. Action requires enough realism for concern and enough optimism for hope Rogers said that evil stems from toxic cultural influences, including the constructing, destructive influence of our educational system, the injustice of our distribution of wealth, and our cultivated prejudices against individuals who are different o Rollo May said that culture is evil because we, the humans who constitute it are evil as well as good Mood disorders: psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes Major depressive disorder: the person experiences prolonged hopelessness and lethargy until usually rebounding to normality o “Common cold” of psychological disorders because it is the most frequent reason for seeking metal health care o In US slightly higher among some groups such as native Americans an Americans of southeast Asian ancestry o World wide, clinical depression is twice as high in women as in men Hormonal factors Differences in gender role expectations Susan Nolen-Hoeksema has argued that another factor may be a sex difference in personality or cognitive style that leads women to ruminate about their negative experiences, thus amplifying their depressed mood, while men tend to suppress these thoughts and thus insulate themselves from depressed moods Women more often than men have been abused or made to feel helpless, and they respond more strongly to stress Men spend more of their time in “light anxiety” activities such as sports, TV, and partying, avoiding things that make them overwhelmed Women have vivid recall for wonderful and horrid experiences; men more vaguely recall such experiences o Zung depression scale: 20 questions covering aspects of your present mood o Major depressive episode: person experiences a deeply depressed mood for two weeks or more, and also a loss of energy and motivation, a loss of interest in formerly pleasurable activities, sleep disturbances, and appetite disturbances’ o Depression is a response to past and current loss o Psychic hibernations: it slows us down, defuses aggression, and restrains risk taking o Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression Inactive an unmotivated, expect negative outcomes More often recall negative information Half the time exhibit symptoms of another disorder such as anxiety or substance abuse o Stressful events related to work, marriage, and close relationships often precede depression o Within each new generation, the rate of depression is increasing, and the disorder is striking earlier (now often in late teens) Dysthymic disorder: a person who experiences mild, persistent depression o Less disabled than people with major depressive o Experience chronic low energy and self esteem, have difficulty concentrating or making decisions, and sleep and eat too much or too little Bipolar disorder: person alternates between depression and mania, an overexcited, hyperactive state o Manic episode: person experiences a strikingly elevated mood for several days or more, usually accompanied by a powerful urge to talk fast and loud, a whirlwind of restless and reckless behavior, thoughts that jump from one idea to the next, and a decreased need for sleep o Grandiose optimism and self esteem o Creative professionals who rely on precision and logic less often suffer bipolar disorder than those who rely on emotional expression and vivid imagery o Affects men and women equally Cyclothymic disorder: a person who experiences relatively mild manic episodes (hypomania) alternating with relatively mild periods of depression Women are most vulnerable to disorders involving internalized states such as depression, anxiety, and inhibited sexual desire o When women get sad they get sadder than men do Men’s disorders are more externalized, alcohol abuse, antisocial conduct, lack of impulse control o When men get mad they get madder than women do Psychoanalytic theory suggested that depression occurs when significant losses evoke feelings associated with losses experienced in childhood o Unresolved anger toward one’s parents might be turned inward against the self Biological perspective is that depression involves genetic predispositions, biochemical imbalances, negative thoughts, and melancholy mood o Linkage analysis: find families that have the disorder across several generations, draw blood from both unaffected and affected family members and examine their DNA, looking for differences o Association studies: search for correlations between more specific DNA variation and a population trait o Many gene have small effects that can combine with one another and with nongentic factors to put some people at greater risk o Norepinephrine: neurotransmitter that increases arousal and boosts mood Scarce during depression and overabundant during mania Drugs that alleviate mania reduce norepinephrine Smoking can temporarily increase norepinephrine and boost mood o Serotonin is scarce during depression Drugs that relieve depression tend to increase norepinephrine or serotonin supplies by blocking either their reuptake or their chemical breakdown Repetitive physical exercise reduces depression as it increases serotonin Study of New Zealand adults who had experienced major stresses. The individuals were more likely to suffer depression if they carried a variation of a gene that codes for a protein that controls serotonin activity o People with depression have lower levels of omega 3 fatty acids, believed to enhance brain function o Brain is more active during mania and slowed during depression The left frontal lobe that is actie during positive emotions, is likely to be inactive during depressed states Frontal lobes are 7% smaller than normal during severe depression o Hippocampus is vulnerable to stress related damage By boosting serotonin, which stimulates hippocampus neuron growth, antidepressant drugs may promote recovery from depression Social cognitive perspective o Depressed people have intensely negative assumptions about themselves, their situation, and their future that leads them to magnify bad experiences and minimize good ones o Self defeating beliefs and a negative explanatory style feed depression’s vicious cycle o Explanatory style: the choice of what or whom to blame for our failures Depressed people tend to explain bad events as stable, global, and internal leading to learned hopelessness o Students who exhibit optimism as they begin college develop more social support, which contributes to a lowered risk of depression o Martin Seligman argues that depression is common among young westerners because of the epidemic hopelessness stemming from the rise of individualism and the decline of commitment to religion and family When facing failure or rejection, the self focused individual takes on personal responsibility for problems and has nothing to fall back on for hope In non western cultures where close knit relationships and cooperation are the norm, major depression is less common and less tied to self blame over personal failure In Japan depressed people tend to report feeling shame over letting others down o State-dependent memory: a depressed mood triggers negative thoughts o Joseph Forgas videotaped people talking to each other, the next day he put them in a good or bad mood via hypnosis and showed them the video The happy participants detected more positive than negative behaviors The unhappy participants saw themselves behaving negatively Depressed people induce hostility, depression, and anxiety in others and got rejected High risk for divorce, job loss People genetically disposed to depression more often experience depressing events Negative stressful events interpreted through a ruminating, pessimistic explanatory style create a hopeless, depressed state that hampers the way the person thinks and acts. This in turn fuels negative experiences such as rejection SUICIDE Suicide rates of England, Italy, and Spain are little more than half those of Canada, Australia, and US; Austria and Finish suicide rates are about double Within Europe, the most suicide prone people (Lithuanians) have been 15x more likely to kill themselves than the least (Portuguese) White Americans are 2x likely to kill themselves than Black Americans Women are much more likely to attempt suicide Men are 2-4x more likely to succeed (in china women account for most suicides) Men are more likely to use lethal methods like a bullet The more lethal a suicide attempt, the more depressed the frontal lobe’s serotonin based activity often is Rates surge among older men Across western world, suicide rates have doubled since 1960 among older teens, especially males Suicide rates are higher among the rich, nonreligious, and those who are single, widowed, or divorced Gay and lesbian youth suffer more than heterosexual peers People seldom commit suicide while depressed when energy and initiative are lacking, when they begin to rebound and become capable of following through the risk increases Those addicted to alcohol are 100x more likely to commit suicide, 3% do Suicides increase after highly publicized suicides 1/3 of those who kill themselves have tried previously Phrenology: popular theory by Franz Gall that bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and our character traits Biological psychology: a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior Neuron: nerve cells Structure o Cell body: the cell’s life support center o Dendrites: receive messages from other cells and conduct it toward the cell body Short o Axon: passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands Long, can project several feet throughout the body o Terminal branches of axon: form junctions with other cells o Neural impulse: electrical signal traveling down the axon Speed range from 2-200 mph o Myelin sheath: a layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses In multiple sclerosis, the myelin sheath degenerates and slows all communication to muscles and then eventual loss of muscle control Motor neurons: control muscles Action potential: brief electrical charge that travels down the axon o Neuron fires an action potential when it receives signals from sense receptors stimulated by pressure, heat, light, or when it is stimulated by chemical messages from neighboring neurons Ions: electrically charged atoms Resting potential: the fluid interior of a resting axon has an excess of negatively charged ions, while the fluid outside the axon membrane has more positively charged ions Selectively permeable: the axon’s surface is very selective about what it allows in o Resting axon has gates that block positive sodium ions Neural impulses travel toward axon terminals o Neuron stimulation causes a brief change in electrical charge. If strong enough, this produces depolarization and an action potential o This depolarization produces another action potential a little farther along the axon. Gates in this neighboring area now open, and charged sodium atoms rush in. o Refractory period: Meanwhile, a pump in the cell membrane (the sodium/potassium pump) transports the sodium back out of the cell o As the action potential continues speedily down the axon, the first section has now completely recharged o Repeats from 100-1000x per second Excitatory: signals that “push the neurons accelerator” Inhibitory: signals that “push the neuron’s break” Threshold: if excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity the combined signals trigger an action potential o All or none response: increasing the stimulus above the threshold will not increase the action potential’s intensity o A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potential’s strength or speed Santiago Ramon y Cajal 1852-1934 described gaps between individual nerve cells and concluded that the individual neurons must function as independent agents within the nervous system o Called near unions of neurons “protoplasmic kisses” Sir Charles Sherrington 1857-1952 noticed that neural impulses were taking an unexpectedly long time to travel a neural pathway, he inferred that there must be a brief interruption in the transmission o Synapse: the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap of the junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse o Action potentials travel down a neuron’s axon until reaching a tiny junction known as a synapse o When an action potential reaches an axon terminal, it stimulates the release of neurotransmitter molecules. These molecules cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron. This allows electrically charged atoms to enter the receiving neuron and excite or inhibit a new action potential o Reuptake: The sending neuron normally reabsorbed excess neurotransmitter molecules o A particular pathway in the brain may use only one or two neurotransmitters, and that particular neurotransmitters may have particular effects on behavior and emotions Acetylcholine ACh Plays role in learning and memory Messenger at every junction between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle o When ACh is released to our muscle cells, the muscle contracts, if ACh transmission is blocked, the muscles cannot contract With Alzheimer’s disease, ACh producing neurons deteriorate Dopamine Influences movement, learning, attention, and motion Excess dopamine receptor activity is linked to Schizophrenia Starved of dopamine, the brain produces the tremors and decreased mobility of Parkinson’s disease Serotonin Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal Undersupply linked to depression Prozac and some other antidepressants raise serotonin levels Norepinephrine Helps control alertness and arousal Undersupply can depress mood Gamma aminobutyric acid GABA A major inhibitory neurotransmitter Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia Glutamate A major excitatory neurotransmitter Involved in memory Oversupply can overestimate the brain, producing migraines or seizures (which is why some people avoid MSG monosodium glutamate in food) o Candice Pert and Solomon Snyder attached a radioactive tracer to morphine, showing them where it was take up in the brain. The drug, which elevates mood and eases pain, bound to receptors in areas linked with mood and pain sensations o Endorphins: natural opiates are released in response to pain and vigorous exercise When using drugs like heroin or morphine, the brain stops producing its own endorphins o Various drugs affect communication at the synapse Agonists: excite neurons firing An agonist molecule may be similar enough to the neurotransmitter to mimic its effects or it may block the neurotransmitter’s reuptake Some opiate drugs produce a high by amplifying normal sensations of arousal or pleasure Antagonist: Inhibits A drug molecule that inhibits neurotransmitter release o Botulin, a poison that can form in improperly canned food, causes paralysis by blocking ACh release from the sending neuron o Injections of botulin (Botox) smooth wrinkles by paralyzing the underlying facial muscles May be enough like the natural neurotransmitter to occupy its receptor site and block its effect, but not similar enough to stimulate the receptor Blood brain barrier: enables the brain to fence out unwanted chemicals circulating in the blood Nervous system: body’s electrochemical information network Central nervous system CNS: brain and spinal chord o Ascending neural fibers send up sensory information o Descending fibers send back motor control information Peripheral nervous system PNS: links the CNS with the body’s sense receptors, muscles, and glands o Somatic nervous system: enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles o Autonomic nervous system: controls the glands and the muscles of our internal organs May be consciously overridden but usually operates on its own to influence your internal functioning including heartbeat, digestion, and glandular activity Sympathetic nervous system: arouses If something alarms, enrages, or challenges you, the sympathetic nervous system will accelerate your heartbeat, raise your blood pressure, slow your digestion, raise you blood sugar, and cool you with perspiration, making you alert and ready for action Parasympathetic nervous system: calms When stress subsides, it conserves energy as it calms you by decreasing your heartbeat, lowering your blood pressure, and so forth Nerves: bundles of electrical cables carrying axons with PNS information Sensory neurons: send information from the body’s tissues and sensory organs inward to the central nervous system’s brain and spinal chord, which processes the information o There are a few million Motor neurons: the CNS sends instructions out to the body’s tissue via motor neurons o There are a few million Interneurons: information processed by CNS’s internal communication o There are billions and billions Reflexes: automatic responses to stimuli o A simple spinal reflex pathway is composed of a single sensory neuron and a single motor neuron and they communicate through an interneuron o When your finger touches a flame, neural activity excited by the heat travels via sensory neurons to interneurons in your spinal chord. These interneurons respond by activating motor neurons to the muscles in your arm Because this reflex involves only the spinal chord, the hand jerks away from the candle flame even before information about the event has reached the brain, causing the experience of pain o If the top of your spinal chord were severed, you would not feel pain or pleasure. You would lose all sensation and voluntary movement in body regions whose sensory and motor neurons connect with the spinal chord below its point of injury You would exhibit the knee jerk without feeling the tap o With the severing of the brain center that keeps the brakes on erections, men paralyzed below the waist are often capable of an erection if their genitals are stimulated, females respond with vaginal lubrication. But depending on where and how completely the spinal chord is severed, they may be genitally unresponsive to erotic images and have no genital feeling The brain receives information, interprets it, and decides responses Neural networks: Interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning Endocrine system: body’s slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream Hormones: chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another o When they act on the brain, they influence our interest in sex, food, and aggression o Several seconds may elapse before the bloodstream carries a hormone from an endocrine gland to its target tissue (much slower than a neural message) o Effects usually outlast the effects of a neural message Sometime after our conscious mind is distracted from some distressing news, we may have a lingering feeling that something isn’t quite right. Under the influence of feelings and nonverbal brain areas, the feeling outlasts the thought o Endocrine hormones influence growth, reproduction, metabolism, mood Adrenal glands: a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine which help to arouse the body in times of stress o Increase heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, providing a surge of energy o When the emergency passes, the hormone and the feelings of excitement linger a while Pituitary gland: the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands o Triggers your sex glands to release sex hormones Psychoanalytic theory: first comprehensive theory of personality, which included ideas about an unconscious region of the mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms for holding anxiety at bay Free association: a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing o Believed that a line of mental dominoes had fallen from his patients distant past to their troubled present, free association allowed him to retrace that line, following a chain of thought leading into the patient’s unconscious, where painful unconscious memories, often from childhood, could be retrieved and released Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed that the patients free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapists interpretation of them---released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self insight Unconscious: according the Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware Preconscious: thoughts stored temporarily from which we can retrieve them into a conscious awareness Repress: forcibly block from our consciousness because they would be too unsettling to acknowledge o Although we are not aware of them, these troublesome feelings and ideas powerfully influence us, sometimes gaining expression in disguised forms—the work we choose, the beliefs we hold, our daily habits, our troubling symptoms o Believed he could glimpse the unconscious seeping into slips of the tongue and pen “Freudian slips” o Believed jokes as expressions of repressed sexual and aggressive tendencies, and dreams as the “royal road to the unconscious” Manifest content: the remembered content of dreams, censored expression Latent content: dreamer’s unconscious wishes Believed personality is the result of our efforts to express these impulses in ways that bring satisfaction without also bringing guilt or punishment o Id: reservoir of unconscious psychic energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce, and aggress Pleasure principle: If not constrained by reality, it seeks immediate gratification o Ego: young child learns to cope with the real world, contains our partly conscious perceptions, thoughts, judgments, and memories Reality principle: seeks to gratify the id’s impulses in realistic ways that will bring long term pleasure rather than pain or destruction o Superego: Beginning at around 4 or 5, the voice of conscience that forces the ego to consider not only the real but the ideal, and that focuses solely on how one ought to behave. Strives for perfection, judging actions and producing positive feelings of pride or negative feelings of guilt Someone with a strong superego could be virtuous yet guilt ridden Someone with a weak superego could be self indulgent and remorseless o Because the superego’s demands often oppose the id’s, the ego struggles to reconcile the two Psychosexual stages: Believed that children pass through a series of stages during which the id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure sensitive areas of the body called erogenous zones o Oral: 0-18 months, pleasure centers on the mouth—sucking, biting, chewing o Anal: 18-36 months, pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control o Phallic: 3-6 years, pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings Oedipus complex: boys seek genital stimulation and they develop both unconscious sexual desires for their mother and jealousy and hatred for their father, whom they consider a rival Given these feelings, boys supposedly also feel guilt and a lurking fear of punishment, perhaps by castration, from their father Some psychoanalysts in Freud’s era thought that girls experienced a parallel Electra complex but Freud’s own thinking varied on the issue o Latency: 6-puberty, dormant sexual feelings Identification process: children eventually cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and identifying with the rival parent. Superegos gain strength as they incorporate many of their parents values He believed that identification with the same sex parent provides what we now call gender identity o Genital: puberty-on, maturation of sexual interests Conflicts unresolved during earlier psychosexual stages could surface as maladaptive behavior in the adult years. At any point in the stages, a strong conflict could fixate the person’s pleasure seeking energies in that stage “Anxiety is the price we pay for civilization” o As members of social groups, we must control our sexual and aggressive impulses but sometimes the ego fears losing control of this inner war between the demands of the id and the superego, and the result is a dark cloud of unfocused anxiety which leaves us feeling unsettled but unsure why Defense mechanisms: the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality o Repression: banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness Underlies all the other defense mechanisms Believed that repression is often incomplete and urges seep out in dream symbols and slips of the tongue o Regression: an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixed o Reaction formation: ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety arousing unconscious feelings o Projection: people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others o Rationalization: offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions o Displacement: shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet Neo-Freudian: psychoanalysts that accepted Freud’s basic ideas, the personality structures id, ego, and superego, the importance of the unconscious, shaping of personality in childhood, and the dynamics of anxiety and the defense mechanisms o Placed more emphasis on the conscious mind’s role in interpreting experience and in coping with the environment o They doubted that sex and aggression were all consuming motivations, they emphasized loftier motives and social interactions o Alfred Adler had proposed the Inferiority complex and he had struggled to overcome childhood illness and accidents, and he believed much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority, feelings that trigger our strivings for superiority and power o Karen Horney said that childhood anxiety, caused by the dependent child’s sense of helplessness, triggers our desire for love and security She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer “penis envy” o Collective unconscious: Carl Jung’s concept of a shared inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history Said this explained why spiritual concerns are deeply routed and why people in different cultures share certain myths and images, such as mother as a symbol of nurturance Projective test: a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics o Thematic Apperception Test TAT: a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interest through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes One use of storytelling has been to assess achievement motivation. Shown a daydreaming boy, those who imagine he is fantasizing about an achievement are presumed to be projecting their own goals o Rorschach inkblot test: the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots If you see weapons or predatory animals you may have aggressive tendencies A person who sees lots of reflections in the blots is said to indicate self centeredness Critics point out that no universally accepted system existed for scoring and interpreting the test The test was not successful at predicting behavior or at discriminating between groups (who is suicidal and who is not) There is now a computer aided coding and interpretation tool that aims to improve agreement among raters and enhance the test’s validity Some argue that only a few of the scores, such as ones for hostility and anxiety have demonstrated validity Critics to Freud o Development is lifelong, not fixed in childhood o Freud overestimated parental influence and underestimated peer influence o We gain our gender identify earlier and become strongly masculine or feminine without a same sex parent o Freud’s ideas about childhood sexuality arose from his rejection of stories of sexual abuse told by female patients o Freud’s questioning may have created false memories o Slips of the tongue can be explained by competition between similar verbal choices in our memory network o From Freud’s time to ours, sexual inhibition has diminished, psychological disorders have not o Repression is a rare mental response to terrible trauma “False amnesia” tactic for escaping intolerable situations Researchers believe that extreme, prolonged stress, might disrupt memory by damaging the hippocampus o Powerfully negative emotional events are remembered well Pawel Lewicki discovered that people’s nonconscious learning can anticipate patterns too complex and too confusing to be consciously noticed o A numeral 6 jumped around a computer screen in a complex pattern that could not be detected by the subjects, those who had seen earlier presentations were quicker to find the next 6 when it was hidden among a screen full of numbers, when the movement truly became random, their performance declined o Confirm implicit learning Many psychologist now think of the unconscious not as the seething passions and repressive censoring but as cooler information processing that occurs without our awareness o The schemas that automatically control our perceptions and interpretations o The priming stimuli to which we have not consciously attended o The right hemisphere activity that enables the split brain patients left hand to carry out an instruction the patient cannot verbalize o The parallel processing of different aspects of vision and thinking o The implicit memories that operate without conscious recall, even among those with amnesia o The emotions that activate instantly before conscious analysis o The self concept and stereotypes that automatically and unconsciously influence how we process information about ourselves and others o Freud’s theory rests on few objective observations and parts of it offer few hypothesis to verify or reject o Offers after the fact explanations of characteristics but fails to predict behaviors and traits Terror management theory: proposes that faith in one’s worldview and the pursuit of self- esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death. Proposed by Jeff Greenburg, Sheldon Solomon, and Tom Pyszczynski o By writing a story on dying and its associated emotions, provokes enough anxiety to intensify prejudices, death anxiety motivates contempt for others and esteem for oneself o Faced with a threatening world, people act not only to enhance their self esteem but also to adhere more strongly to world views that answer questions about life’s meaning, moreover they cleave to close relationships False consensus effect: the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors Psychological disorders: persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. When behavior is deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional, psychiatrists and psychologists label it disordered Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD: a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age of 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity o Inattention: distractibility, forgetfulness, disorganization o Hyperactivity: fidgeting, restlessness, and not staying seated at school, excessive talking o Impulsivity: difficulty taking turns, interrupting, blurting out answers while questions are being asked o Diagnosed 2-3x more often in boys than girls o Often coexists with a learning disorder or with defiant and temperprone behavior o Treatable with Ritalin and Adderall which are stimulants but calm the hyperactivity and increase a person’s ability to sit and focus on a task o Psychological therapies such as those focused on shaping behaviors in the classroom and at home, have also helped address the distress of ADHD People appear to tolerate long term stimulant use with no increased risk of substance abuse Rats were given Ritalin early in life and when the drug was withdrawn later, the rats were more prone to depressive symptoms and to giving up quickly when facing challenging tasks In the past mad people were caged or given therapies appropriate to a demon such as beatings burnings or castration Philippe Pinel in France insisted that madness was not demon possession but a sickness of the mind caused by severe stresses and inhumane conditions o “Moral treatment”: boosting patients morale by unchaining them and talking to them, replacing brutality with gentleness, isolation with activity, and filth with clean air and sunshine When physicians discovered the syphilis infects the brain and distorts the mind, health reformers and medical workers refocused on physical causes for mental disorders and treatments that would cure them Medical model: psychological disorders are sicknesses led to reform as hospitals replaced asylums Mental health movement: a mental illness needs to be diagnosed on the basis of its symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital Different cultures have different sources of stress and they produce different ways of coping Anorexia and bulimia are eating disorders that occur mostly in Western cultures Susto, marked by severe anxiety, restlessness, and a fear of black magic, is found in Latin America Taijin-kyofusho: combines social anxiety about one’s appearance with a readiness to blush and fear of eye contact, appears in japan World wide schizophrenia symptoms appear as irrationality and
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