PSYCH 100 Lesson Notes
PSYCH 100 Lesson Notes PSYCH 100
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This 17 page Bundle was uploaded by Julie Notetaker on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 05/22/16
Input: things that are detectable by our senses—colors, shapes, sounds, odors, objects, or textures Physical environment: settings Mental environment: knowledge, skills, abilities, personalities, goals, motivations, and beliefs Input=>-physical environment => result Input=> physical environment => mental environment => result (behavior) Psychobiology and Neuropsychology (Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience): involve the study of biological and neurological processes. Study brain circuits, and chemicals responsible for triggering emotional responses for learning, or that serve as the foundation for abnormal behavior Cognitive Psychology: the study of thinking, learning, decision-making, and remembering. Study how people learn to solve problems, acquire language skills, and make decisions, aspects of memory and forgetting Developmental Psychology: study of how people change across the life span. Study the physical, social, emotional changes that occur as we learn to walk and talk, reach puppetry, experience adulthood, and arrive at old age. Industrial organizational psychology: study of behavior at work, or application of psychological principles to improve organizations. Study or design methods for selecting most qualified job applicants, methods for evaluating employee work performance, methods for motivating employees, interventions that increase peoples satisfaction with and commitment to an organization Social Psychology: study of how people influence other people. Clinical and counseling psychology: study of stressful situations, abnormal behavior, abnormal mental process, methods for helping people to cope, adjust, and lead happy and fulfilling lives. Clinical psychologist is more likely to treat people afflicted with biologically driven disorders. Psychiatrist differ from psychologist in that they receive medical and pharmaceutical training that enables them to prescribe medication A for active learning D distribute studying O overlearn the information Nature vs. Nurture 70% of children form secure attachments with their primary caregiver o Securely attached children develop a basic trust in the world and come to believe they can gain some control over their environment, the world is more predictable and reliable Explore world more actively, address more curiosities, and develop better problem solving skills, develop social competence More likely to become cooperative and obedient, less likely to engage in deviant behavior More likely to form other secure and trusting attachments later in life o Insecurely attached children do not develop a basic trust in the world Inhibits curiosity and motivation to explore the world Problem solving skills develop more slowly More likely to show fearful and clingy attachments later in life More likely to develop behavioral problems and spend time in jail o Physical contact is an important determinant of human attachment Parents who cuddle their children form more secure attachments o Parents who regularly respond to children’s needs are more likely to form attachment It is harder for parents to appropriately responsive and sensitive to a highly reactive or difficult child than an easier one Nature can effect nurture and nurture can affect nature Jean Piaget believed humans were goal oriented. Believed children’s cognitive abilities grew as they interacted and made sense of the environment Believed both the quantity of knowledge and quality of thought changed with development Children defined concepts in terms of activity schemas or the combinations of activities that can and cannot be performed on o One can throw the object o One can carry the object o One cannot eat the object Humans are born with instinctive responses to certain situations o If something brushes against babies cheek they will open their mouth looking for a nipple o If something brushes against their palm they will grasp While we are developing motor skills we notice our actions have consequences and then we try to recreate the event. Like hitting a mobile with our arm and it swings Believed children were active thinkers who continually tried to advance their understanding of the world He believed moral reasoning depended on cognitive development Children need to develop cognitive abilities to reason about abstract concepts before they can consider abstract thoughts needed to determine morality Laurence Kohlberg used stories to test people’s moral reasoning Preconventional level involves putting yourself before others in society Conventional level involves putting your duty to society and society’s laws before your own personal gain Postconventional level involves recognizing that not all laws are moral and that not all moral actions are legal. It involves you going beyond society with a focus on more universal and abstract concepts of morality Erik Erikson developed theory of psychosocial development We go through 8 stages in life, beginning with birth and ending with late adulthood At each stage we are introduced to a new social issue or conflict that we must resolve to continue to develop and grow properly Healthy looking people with symmetrical faces Faces more prototypical are considered more attractive One study made face blends and blends from 2-8 faces were more attractive Socio cultural popularity often determines the latest fashion Friends and couples do better with more similarities Proximity plays a large role in relationships Mere exposure effect: the more we are exposed to something, the more familiar it becomes, the more we learn abut it, and the more we tend to like it o Sometimes repetitiveness can lead to more negative effects We evolved genetic predispositions to like what is available and ample Normative social influence (norms): Standards of behavior maintained by a group to insure that group members behave simalerly Informational social influence: a group influences our perceptions of reality Most likely to conform if: We feel insecure/low self esteem The pressuring group has 3 or more members All group members share the same point of view We have not made a prior public commitment o Conforming to the groups expectations after announcing a different point of view can lead to social embarrassment o Once we have expressed an opinion we are likely to think of reasons that support our decision and less likely to support information that counters our view When we think our group members are observing When social rewards and punishments matter Stanley Milgram Shock Studies: 2 students decided who would be teacher and who would be learner Learner was taken to a room and strapped to a chair with an electrode on his arm Teacher was taken to neighboring room with shock generator Teacher instructed to read word pairs that the learner was supposed to remember. If he answered correctly they would move on. If he answered wrong the teacher was to give him 15 volt shock Teacher was to increase volts each time he got one wrong until 450 volts maximum The learner was an actor who was not receiving any shocks but pretended to be in pain Eventually learner stopped responding and teacher would express concern to Milgram Milgram would say “the experiment requires you to continue” The teacher knew that he would be paid regardless and he could quit anytime without penalty 65% of teachers administered the 450 volt shock We are most likely to comply if: The request is made by a legitimate authority figure The victim is farther away or out of view o Milgram studies dropped to 40% when in the same room When the victim is depersonalized like labeling “learner” Anther person is responsible for bad outcomes o “I was just following orders” o Obedience declined when the teacher had to strap the learner to chair There is an escalation of compliance There is no dissenter o Obedience dropped when another teacher refused to continue Kinesthesis: helps us to detect where our body parts are with respect to the rest of our body Color is a product of the way our brains interpret sensory information Light receptors called cones are responsible for color vision. Red cones, green cones, and blue cones When we see green cones we see green When we see all cones we see white Opponent Process theory of color vision: opponent cells are responsible for telling us whether we see opponent colors, blue or yellow, red or green Cells are fatigued with prolonged use leading to color effects Sensation involves the detection of energy Perception involves the organization and interpretation of the energies The figure that you focus on and extract from the visual scene is called the figure, the less attended feature of the scene makes up the ground Images that fall on retina are 2 dimensional. They can provide information about the size of an object or information about the characteristics but cannot provide information about depth Brain constructs depth information from two types of cues Bioncular depth cues and monocular depth cues Maturation vs. Learning: our identity is a product of both genetically planned and programmed biological maturation and what we learn We learn in generalities: instead of learning procedures for each specific instance, we tend to learn associations and regularities We learn contingencies and expectancies, if..then rules, relationships between items Behaviorism: psychologist should only study observable behaviors. Argued that we learned simple associations across events When we encounter a particular situation in the environment, we respond reflexively Classical conditioning and operant conditioning Classical conditioning started by Ivan Pavlov when he made dogs salivate before he provided them with food Unconditioned stimulus US: a stimulus that evokes a body response reflexively or automatically Unconditioned response UR: natural or automatic body response Conditioned Stimulus CS: does not initially evoke a body response automatically o With enough conditioning in which the neutral stimulus is presented immediately before the US, the neutral stimulus comes to serve as a temporal cue o Behaviorist would not use the term anticipate rather they believed that the conditioned stimulus gained the power to evoke the response o Classical conditioning focuses on the connection between the sound and the biological response. Cognitive psychologist would believe that thought and expectations mediate this process Conditioned Response CR: the reflexive response becomes the conditioned response when it is evoked by the conditioned stimulus Operant conditioning involves learning associations between stimuli and response Reinforcers: rewards o Positively reinforce by giving something that is liked or wanted o Negatively reinforce by taking away something that is disliked Punishments o Positive punishment Having something they dislike get added o Negative punishment: removes something wanted Behavior modification: to reward productive behaviors and punish unwanted behaviors It is hard to identify what will make a good reinforcement or reward To be most effective, the person in charge must control all of the rewards Rewards must be maintained Rewards tend to lose their effectiveness over time Sometimes people are naturally motivated to do the right thing and then the motivation switches to the reward Sometimes people who trade rewards are seen as manipulative Punishment is most effective when it follows the unwanted action immediately and consistently The more intense the punishment, the best results. We have better memories of emotional events Punishment only tells people they did something wrong, without further explanation it does not tell what was done incorrectly or what the correct behavior is Punishment tells people to avoid certain behaviors in certain contexts Punishment teaches people how to punish o As the punisher, you set an example and teach the person being punished how to act when he or she is the punisher Harsh authoritarian punishment teaches the learner to fear the punisher Always couple any punishment with corrective feedback and positive reinforcement when the unwanted behavior is corrected Modeling is the related process of observing and imitating-monkey see monkey do A study with gorillas put bananas on top of the cage and you needed to step on a stool to get them The stool would give the entire floor a shock The gorillas would be replaced one by one and they would all stop and scold a new gorilla from stepping on the stool By the end there were no original gorillas in the cage that knew what the stool did, but they still would stop another from trying to step on the stool Encoding: process of getting information from the world into our memory system We encode the gist of our experiences, neglecting many details Encoding is goal oriented Storage: process of maintaining information after it has been removed from the environment What we think of when we use the term remembering Sensory storage: allows us to hold onto information in raw sensory form while we decide what information we’re going to attend to o Brief in duration Short term storage: people can usually maintain 5-9 chunks of information for brief periods of time (seconds) in short term storage o Phone number grouped into 3 sections instead of 9 numbers Long term (permanent) memory: some people say that we maintain all information but loose the ability to retrieve some, others say we get rid of old information to make room for new information We encode only the gist of an experience, reconstructing our memories by filling in the forgotten details, so that our memories seem complete We use what we currently know about the world to fill in the gaps and reconstruct our experiences Humans are good at noticing patterns and categorizing things We notice contingencies and irregularities Consistencies and categories When we need to make an inference or assumption we draw on patterns to help us We have better memories about things that we find highly emotional Our bodies gear up for emotional situations by releasing hormones and brain chemicals that prime our bodies for fight or flight The same hormones and chemicals help our bodies gear up for stressful and emotional events Retrieval: process of bringing information you know into mind so that you can use it in some way Memory is connected through meaning We retrieve information that is cued Freud believed that we repress traumatic memories and we encode and store traumatic experiences but we intentionally try not to retrieve them because remembering produces anxiety When we are left undisturbed (in an artificial environment) our bodies prefer to function on a 25 hour day Researchers believe that many years ago Earth cycled on 25 hour days and our bodies have not fully adapted Our body temperature tends to rise right before we awake, peak during the day, decline as we near bedtime, and bottoms out when we’re sleeping Electroencephalogram EEG: creates an amplified recording of electrical impulses that sweep across the brain’s surface A student brought a broken EEG home to fix it and put it on his sleeping child to test it, there was brain activity that cycled through stages, this began the study of sleep stages Sleepwalking and sleep talking are genetically linked 20% of children ages 3-12 sleepwalk 1/200 adults sleepwalk Males are more likely to sleepwalk than females Sleepwalkers have a mixture of rapid brainwaves indicative of wakeful activity, and slower and larger brainwaves indicative of sleep Sleepwalkers process some information, they can navigate around household objects and will wake up when they hear their name Sleepwalkers do not form new memories of their experiences Sleeptalking is most likely during Stage 4 sleep Sleep speech is often unclear, disjointed, and unemotional During REM sleep, sleep speech is both clear and emotional Sometimes sleep talker will laugh or cry Sleep talkers can answer someone’s questions or carry on a conversation Most sleep talk reflects what the person did that day, the rest is made up on the spot We cannot tap into people’s secrets while they are sleeping Sleep walking and talking are increased by stress, alcohol, and fatigue You may not remember your dream but everyone dreams Most dreaming occurs during REM sleep (paradoxical sleep) As you dream, both your motor cortex (responsible for body movements) and visual cortex (responsible for imagery) are both active Your brain stem blocks messages from these areas of the brain from reaching the body, temporarily paralyzing the body We dream more when we are young Freud believed dreams served as a safety valve for our erotic desires He said personality is born out of conflict between our innate urges for sexual activity, violence, social norms, rules, and laws. Dreams are a socially acceptable means of expressing our innate urges Dreams are the key to understanding our personality and our inner conflicts Dreams have a latent content composed of our unconscious erotic desires and a manifest content composed of the more socially acceptable, self-censored, symbolic version of latent content This promoted dream symbolism o Dreams about bullets, fire, snakes, sticks, guns, hoses, knives, or cigars represented erotic feelings about male genetalia o Dreams about ovens, boxes, tunnels, closets, caves, bottles, round fruits represented erotic feelings about female genetalia o Dreams about climbing stairs, crossing a bridge, riding in an elevator, flying in an airplane, walking down a hallway, entering a room, train moving through a tunnel represented erotic feelings about sex Such dream symbolism was one of Freud’s greatest failures Dreams help organize memories. They consolidate, integrate, and clean up memory traces On more stressful days or heavy learning days, you are more likely to dream Dreams provide the brain with stimulation which can help develop and maintain neural processing pathways Personality: one’s characteristic patterns of beliefs, attitudes, and actions and serves to distinguish us from one another based on our mental environments Freud thought personality was like an iceberg; our sense of consciousness is mostly hidden Our unconscious thoughts serve to influence our daily lives, actions, thoughts, and decisions Tried to access our unconscious mind by using hypnosis, trances, and projective tests Provided the first comprehensive theory of personality Believed that personality arises from conflict We have inborn tendencies to propagate the human race and fight for our own well being and survival. These tendencies promote aggressive and sexual desires Social rules put us in a state of conflict, we have biological tendencies that push us to behave aggressively, selfishly, and sexually which conflict with laws, social norms, and societies interest Phrenologists try to describe people’s personalities by feeling bumps on their heads William Sheldon tried to link body types and personalities suggesting that people that are short and round like Santa Claus are jolly The Trait Approach: To learn about associations between personality traits and behaviors To study what social cues people use when they make judgments about another’s personality traits and how correct these judgments are People are judged to be more successful and less socially caring when they use state of the art technologies and more unsuccessful and socially inept when using outdated technologies Humanistic approach believes that identity should not be divided into parts or traits and then studied, personality is a holistic self Self is our sense of self worth and organizer of thoughts, feelings, and memories, point of view Human nature is basically good and people are predisposed to work towards self improvement and happiness Social cognitive approach Your personality is determined by learned beliefs about interacting within contexts and environments Principles of learning influence us and since learning is context specific, so is our identify Mind The action of directing attention and memory (mind your own business, mind your manners, mind the shop) Stop directing attention (take your mind off something, put your mind to rest, never mind, absent minded, mind block) Treated as a physical part of the body that takes up space, is a space, or can be numbered like fingers on a cold day (mind numbing, on my mind, have something in my mind) Connection between identify or shared attitudes (like minded, of one mind) What makes us unique (mind of your own, make up your mind) Valuable (a mind is a terrible thing to waste) Give a piece of our mind to people we don’t’ like Plato believed that madness was fueled by conflict between the body’s biological drives and soul Some religions consider body-less identities (souls, ghosts, angels) Some early religions thought abnormal behavior was caused by demonic possession Modern creatures run by a single collective intelligence (drones) Modern psychology considers the possibility that more than one mind can occupy a single body (multiple personality disorder) Normal is defined by the majority rule Rosenham did experiment where he had 8 people get admitted to a psychiatric ward after saying they heard voices. After they were admitted they stopped pretending and acted normally. Hospital staff was convinced their normal activities were evidence of the disorder They left the hospital 7-52 days later with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in remission Rosenham told staff he would admit more fake patients in the next few months o 21% of patients were assumed fake by at least one staff member o 12% of the patients were suspected by a psychologist o In reality Rosenham admitted NO fake patients 3D’s rule when determining the presence or seriousness of a potential mental disorder Distress of the patient Level of dysfunction Deviance from social norms Can also rely on the DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-4 edition Most people think that the central characterization of psychology involved therapeutic work with abnormal populations In Stone Ages, abnormal behavior was thought to have been caused by demonic possession Trephination: removing a piece of the skull so that evil spirits could escape In middle ages, many were burned and tortured throughout Europe In Renaissance, views of mental illness shifted toward physical causes Bloodletting with leaches Starvation Eramus Darwin believed that mental illness reflected disordered motion Anxious people couldn’t slow down Depressed people had lost motion Mental illness treated with: Hydrotherapy (soaking in water) Restraints: to slow motion Tumbling: strapping patients to spinning chairs to increase motion Modern day therapies reflect biomedical treatments that affect neurons and neurotransmitters (chemicals that transmit signals across neurons) Other theories based on theories of personality and corresponding implications for healthy development Five ways psychologist are typically portrayed in movies Mr. Dippy: who is crazier than his patients Dr. Evil: who is corrupt mind-controller/ homicidal maniac Dr. Wonderful: who is caring and competent, has endless time for patients, and cures them by uncovering a single traumatic event from their past Dr. Rigid: who is a strict killjoy Dr. Line Crosser: who violates codes of ethics and has inappropriate relationships with patients or their family members Must follow codes of conduct and ethics Respect for human and civil rights Serious concern for the well being of the client Responsibilities to society An emphasis on honesty and truth Equal opportunities for care Maintaining clear interpersonal boundaries Developing and maintaining competence Accurately representing credentials and expertise
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