PSYCH 100 PsykTrek Notes
PSYCH 100 PsykTrek Notes PSYCH 100
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This 45 page Bundle was uploaded by Julie Notetaker on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 05/22/16
Emotion: a subjective conscious experience (the cognitive component) accompanied by bodily arousal (the physiological component) and by characteristic overt expressions (the behavioral component) Cognitive: involves the conscious experience of intense feelings that can be difficult to control. This subjective experience includes an evaluative aspect, as people tend to characterize their emotions as pleasant or unpleasant Physiological: involves bodily arousal o Autonomic nervous system: the system of nerves that connects to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands. Controls voluntary, visceral functions Sympathetic division: the branch of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the bodies resources for emergencies Parasympathetic division: the branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally conserves bodily resources Hypothalamus: a structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs Limbic system: a loosely connected network of structures roughly located along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas The hypothalamus, amygdala, and adjacent structures in the limbic system are views as the seat of emotions Cerebral cortex: the convoluted outer layer of the brain Emotions appear to be instigated by activity in a constellation of interacting brain centers Polygraph: a device that records fluctuations in autonomic functions (such as blood pressure, respiration rate, and galvanic skin response) while a subject is questioned in an effort to determine whether the subject is telling the truth o Galvanic skin response: an increase in the electrical conductivity of the skin that occurs when sweat glands increase their activity Behavioral: characteristic overt expressions such as smiles, frowns, furrowed brows, clenched fist, slumped shoulders. “Body language” or nonverbal signs o Elkman and Friesen found that subjects could identify six basic emotions based on facial cues. o The facial structures that go with different emotions appear to transcend culture, suggesting that emotional expressions are innate o Feedback from one’s own facial expressions may contribute to one’s conscious experience of emotions o Inputs to subcortical centers evoke facial expressions associated with certain emotions and that facial muscles then feed signals to the cortex that help it to recognize the emotion that one is experiencing 1880s William James and Carl Lange concluded that the conscious experience of emotion results from one’s perception of autonomic arousal Common sense suggest stimulus causes conscious feeling which causes autonomic arousal James-Lange suggest that stimulus causes autonomic arousal causing conscious feeling o Different patterns of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions. Hence people distinguish emotions such as fear, joy, and anger on the basis of exact configuration of physical reactions they experience Walter Cannon argued that autonomic changes are too slow to precede the conscious experience of emotion 1927 Cannon proposed explanation that Phillip Bard build in 1934 Emotion occurs when subcortical brain structures send signals simultaneously to the cortex, creating the conscious experience of emotion, and to the autonomic nervous system creating visceral arousal People experiencing different emotions exhibit almost identical patterns of autonomic arousal Cortex: the outer layer of gray matter of the cerebellum and cerebrum 1960s Stanley Schechter argued that people look at situational cues to differentiate between alternative emotions. Two factor theory: the experience of emotion depends on two factors: autonomic arousal and one’s cognitive appraisal of that arousal When you experience visceral arousal, you search your environment for an explanation. Darwin believed emotions developed because of their adaptive value. Fear would help an organism avoid danger and would aid survival. Emotions were a product of evolution Was foundation for S.S. Tomkins, Carroll Izard, Robert Plutchick Consider emotions to be innate reactions that originate in subcortical brain structures Emotions should be immediately recognizable under most conditions without much thought Evolution has equipped humans with a small number of innate emotions with proven adaptive value Fundamental emotions: o S.S. Tomkins: fear, anger, enjoyment, disgust, interest, surprise, contempt, shame, distress o Carol Izard: fear, anger, joy, disgust, interest, surprise, contempt, shame, sadness, guilt o Robert plutchik: fear, anger, joy, disgust, anticipation, surprise, sadness, acceptance Many emotions are produced by blends of primary emotions Different emotions might involve one primary emotion experienced at different levels of intensity 1970s Ellen Berscheid and Elaine Hatfield began pioneering research studying love involving the development of taxonomies that describe the different types of love Passionate love: a complete absorption in another that includes sexual feeling and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion o Developed a scale for measuring Compassionate love: warm, trusting, tolerant affection for one another whose life is deeply intertwined with ones own Robert Sternberg subdivides companionate love into intimacy and commitment Intimacy: warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship Commitment: an intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise Said passion reaches maximum in early phases of love and then erodes Intimacy and commitment increases with time although at different rates Triangular theory of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment are represented as 3 points of a triangle o 8 different types of relationships can result from presence or absence of these components o Nonlove: absence of all three components o Liking: experience of only intimacy. We feel close to other people but we don’t experience passionate feelings for them or make long-term commitments to them o Companionate love: combination of intimacy and commitment. Seen in marriages in which passion has faded but intimacy and commitment still remain strong o Empty love: a relationship where only commitment is present. This type of love is found in the in the last stages of some long term relationships o Fatuous love: a combination of passion and commitment. Occurs in whirlwind courtships. Likely to break up when passion fades, because there is little intimacy to sustain them o Infatuation: made up of passion alone. One-sided and partner is loved only as an idealized object o Romantic love: combo of intimacy and passion. Two people feel strongly drawn to each other but there is no long term commitment to maintain the relationship o Consummate love: all three components present. John Alan Lee argued that people are characterized by different styles of loving. Love is like color mixing, with many varieties emerging out of mixtures of basic emotions just as many hues emerge out of mixtures of primary colors. Color circle identifies 6 basic styles of loving o Ludus: game-playing love. People who exhibit this style enjoy the search for many sexual conquests with little long term involvement o Mania: possessive love. People who exhibit this style are obsessive, passionate lovers, who are prone to jealousy and need lots of attention o Pragma: pragmatic love. People are practical and rational about love, looking for compatibility in interest, values, and attitudes o Eros: love of beauty. People equate love with strong physical attraction and select partners based on their looks rather than on their intelligence or personality o Agape: altruistic love. People are unselfish, undemanding, and very giving in intimate relationships o Storge: slow burning love. People fall in love very gradually and prefer stable, calm relationships Cindy Hazan and Phillip Shaver looked at similarities between love and attachment relationships in infancy Attachment: a close emotional bond between infants and their caregivers Early attachments vary in quality and infants tend to fall into three groups, which depend in part on parent’s caregiving styles Secure attachment: child tends to be playful, less inhibited, exploration oriented, sociable o Parents are warm and responsive Avoidant attachment: child tend to maintain proximity while avoiding close contact o Parents are cold and rejecting o Children never bond well with their caretakers Anxious ambivalent attachment: child tends to engage in visual checking; signaling to reestablish contact, calling, pleading; moving to reestablish contact, clinging o Parents are ambivalent and inconsistent o Children are anxious when separated from caregiver but are indifferent to the caretakers return Romantic love is an attachment process and peoples intimate relationships in adulthood follow the same form as their attachments in infancy o Secure adults were 56% of subjects. They find it easy to get close to others and describe their relations as trusting, rarely worry about being abandoned, and report the fewest divorces o Avoidant adults were 24% of subjects. Find it difficult to get close to others and describe their relations as lacking intimacy and trust o Anxious adults were 20% subjects. Report a preoccupation with love accompanied by expectations of rejection and describe their relations as volatile and marked with jealousy ERIK ERIKSON Stage theory: any theory that describes development in terms of periods during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established o Assume that individuals move through specified stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the previous stage and that progress through these stages is strongly related to age Stage: a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established Psychosocial crisis: a potential turning point involving a transition in important social relationships that can yield different outcomes 1. 1 year—trust vs. mistrust…”Is my world predictable and supportive” a. If an infant is cared for in warm, reliable, manner, a feeling of trust should develop. b. If the babies needs are taken care of poorly, a more mistrusting, pessimistic personality may result 2. 2-3 years – autonomy vs. shame and doubt…”Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others” a. If toilet training and other behaviors go well the child should acquire a sense of autonomy. b. If parents are not satisfied with child’s efforts, the child my develop a sense of shame and self-doubt 3. 4-6 years – initiative vs. guilt…”Am I good or bad” a. Parents who support their children’s emerging independence while maintaining appropriate controls can foster initiative in their child b. Over controlling parents begin to instill feelings of guilt 4. 6-puberty—industry (competence) vs. inferiority…”Am I successful or worthless” a. Children who learn to function effectively at school should develop industry b. Children who feel inadequate may develop a sense of inferiority 5. Adolescence---identity vs. role confusion…”who am I, and where am I going” a. Identity crisis: a normal adolescent challenge of developing a sense of who one is, to work out a stable self-concept and embrace a system of values i. Rapid physical changes stimulate thought about self image ii. Advances in cognitive process promote introspection iii. Decisions about vocational direction require some contemplation b. James Marcia asserted that presence or absence of crisis and commitment can combine to produce four different types of identity status i. When both present: identity achievement 1. Arriving at a sense of self and direction after some consideration of alternative possibilities. Commitments have the strength of some conviction, although they’re not absolutely irrevocable ii. When crisis is absent but commitment is present: Identity foreclosure 1. Prematurely commit to the visions, values, and roles, prescribed by their parents. This path allows a person to circumvent much of the struggle necessary for identity achievement iii. When crisis is present but commitment is absent: Identity moratorium 1. Delaying a commitment for a while to experiment with alternative ideologies and careers. Experimentation can be valuable, but people remain indefinitely in what should be a temporary phase iv. When both absent: Identity diffusion 1. Some people refuse to confront the challenge of charting a life course and committing to an ideology 6. Early adulthood—intimacy vs. isolation…”shall I share my life with another” a. Most young adults develop the capacity to share intimacy with others b. But some remain aloof and isolated 7. Middle adulthood—generatively vs. self absorption (stagnation)…”will I produce something of real value” a. Most people Develop a genuine concern for the welfare of future generations that results in the provision of unselfish guidance to younger people b. Others become self absorbed and self indulgent 8. Late adult hood—integrity vs. despair…”have I lived a full life or have I failed” a. Some people find meaning and satisfaction in life b. Others dwell on mistakes of the past and on their imminent death JEAN PIAGET Studied children’s thinking from 1920s to 1980 Assimilation: interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them. For example a child who is given an apple and calls it a ball Accommodation: in visual processing, changes the shape of the lens so that both near and far objects can be focused on the retina. In cognitive development, changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences. For example when the child learns the difference between an apple and ball Believed the way youngsters think about moral issues is determined by their level of cognitive development Stage theory 1. Birth-2 years --Sensorimotor period a. Coordination of sensory input and motor responses b. Little or no capacity for symbolic representation c. Development of object permanence which sets the stage for symbolic thought i. Object permanence: when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible ii. Children begin to show signs of object permanence as early as 7-8 months but don’t master it until 18 months 2. 2-7 years—preoperational period a. Development of symbolic thought b. Lack of conservation i. No awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in shape or appearance (pouring water into a different glass) c. Centration: the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, while neglecting other important aspects d. Irreversibility: the inability to envision reversing an operation. Children cannot mentally undo something e. Egocentrism: a limited ability to share another’s viewpoint 3. 7-11 years—concrete operational period a. Mental operations applied to concrete objects and events b. Decentration: the ability to juggle two levels of classification c. Reversibility: the ability to mentally undo an operation d. Mastery of conservation e. Hierarchical classification two levels of concentration (how many cows vs. how many animals) 4. 11-adulthood—formal operational period a. Mental operations applied to abstractions b. Development of logical and systematic thinking Problems with theory: o Piaget underestimated young children’s cognitive development o Young children often simultaneously display patterns of thinking that are characteristic of several stages…brings into question the value of organizing development in terms of stages LAWRENCE KOHLBERG Interested in the reasons behind people moral decisions Stage theory 1. Preconventional level declines as children get older a. Punishment orientation: compliance with rules to avoid punishment i. Children by little attention to people’s intentions in judging morality, the need to avoid punishment is the main reason for behaving morally. Right and wrong is determined by what is punished b. Naïve Reward orientation: sharing and compliance with rules to get rewards i. Right and wrong is determined by what is rewarded 2. Conventional level increases through age 13 and then begins to decline a. Good boy/girl orientation i. Comply with rules to promote harmony in their personal relationships ii. Main reason to behave morally is to win the approval of friends and relatives for being a “virtuous person” iii. Right and wrong determined by close others approval or disapproval b. Authority orientation i. Comply with rules to promote order in society. ii. Right and wrong are determined by society’s rules and laws iii. Rules are inflexible guidelines that should be obeyed rigidly 3. Postconventional begins around age 10 and increases during adolescence a. Social contract orientation i. Motivated to behave morally because they understand that laws are necessary for social order, but laws are viewed as fallible expressions of the will and majority rather than absolute rules that must be followed rigidly ii. Begin to make a distinction between what is legal and what is moral b. Individual principles and conscience orientation i. Conform to internal principles to avoid self-condemnation. ii. Define right and wrong in terms of abstract ethical principles that emphasize equity, justice, and the dignity of human beings iii. Clearly distinguish between what is right and what is moral 1879: Wilhelm Wunt sets up first formal laboratory for research in psychology at the university of Leipzeg in Germany and campaigns to establish psychology as an independent discipline Structuralism: a school of psychology based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into basic elements and to examine how these elements relate 1890: William James publishes Principles of Psychology. James argues that consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thoughts “stream of consciousness”. Functionalism: psychology should investigate the functions of consciousness rather than its structure 1892: G. Stanley Hall establishes American Psychological Association and is elected president 1904: Ivan Pavlov shows that dogs can be trained to salivate in response to the stimulus of a tone. This demonstration shows how stimulus response bonds can be formed and launches the study of classical conditioning Classical conditioning; a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus Behaviorism: scientific psychology should only study observable behavior 1905: French psychologist Alfred Binet develops first successful intelligence test. Demonstrates the practical potential of mental testing and helps foster the eventual emergence of applied psychology Applied Psychology: concerned with every day practical problems 1908: Margaret Floy Washburn, first woman to receive PHD in psychology, publishes The Animal Mind, which serves as an impetus to the subsequent emergence of behaviorism and the rise of animal research in psychology 1909: Sigmund Freud’s thesis is that personality is largely shaped by unconscious thoughts and desires and by how people cope with their sexual urges. 1933 he publishes New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic Theory: attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior 1913: John B. Watson wrote classic manifesto, asserts that mental processes are not a suitable subject for scientific study because they cannot be observed. Believes psychology should redefine itself as the study of behavior. His work launches behaviorism 1914-1916: WWI creates demand for mental testing of military recruits. The war and the 1916 publication of Lewis Terman’s Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale combine to make psychological testing a routine activity for psychologist 1920’s: Max Wertheimer founded Gestalt psychology Gestalt psychology: based on the whole is greater than the sum of its parts 1940s: WWII and its aftermath create a massive need for clinical services, stimulating rapid growth in clinical psychology Clinical Psychology: branch of psychology concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Early 1950’s: Fueled by the theories of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, humanism emerges as an alternative to behaviorism and psychoanalysis. The humanistic school of thought emphasizes the unique qualities of humans and their potential for personal growth Humanism: emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for human growth 1953: B. F. Skinner Science and Human Behavior describing work on operant conditioning. Operant conditioning: a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences 1956: Cognitive revolution in psychology launched at a watershed conference. Noam Chomsky, George Miller, Herbert Simon report on language, memory, and problem solving respectively 1963: Stanley Milgram publishes his landmark work on obedience to authority. Social psychology emerges 1971: B.F. Skinner Beyond Freedom and Dignity argues that behavior is fully determined by lawful principles, making free will an illusion 1978: Herbert Simon won Nobel Prize for work on cognition 1981: Roger Sperry, David Hubel, and Torsten Wiesel share Nobel Prize for work in neuroscience Late 80s early 90s: David Buss, Leda Cosmides, and John Tooby create evolutionary psychology asserting that the patterns of behavior seen in a species are products of natural selection in the same way that anatomical characteristics are Evolutionary Psychology: examines behavioral processes in terms of adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations Late 90s: positive psychology movement launched by Martin Seligman, argues for increased research on resilience, well being, human strengths, and positive emotions, as opposed to previous emphasis on pathology and suffering Positive Psychology: uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence Family studies: scientific studies in which researchers asses hereditary influences by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble each other on a specific trait Can indicate whether a trait runs in families, but cannot provide conclusive evidence that the trait is influenced by heredity o No independent variable in family studies o Family members share not one genes, but similar environments o Random assignment is impossible in family study Twin studies: a research design in which hereditary influence is assessed by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to a trait Identical twins: twins that emerge from one zygote that splits for unknown reasons. Monozygotic twins 100% genetic overlap same sex Fraternal twins: twins that result when two eggs are fertilized simultaneously by different sperm cells, forming two separate zygotes. Dizygotic twins 50% genetic overlap. Same or opposite sex Studies show that intelligence is inherited trait Adoption studies: assess hereditary influence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents. Usually subjects are those who were adopted early in life and raised without contact to biological parents Children’s IQs are more related to biological parents Children raised by biological parents have more similar IQs if they were raised together Siblings raised together have more similar IQs Adoptive siblings raised together have similar IQs Heritability ratio: estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance High estimate would suggest that that about 80% of variation in intelligence is attributable to heredity, with 20% shaped by environmental factors Low estimate would suggest 40% heredity and 60% environment Consensus estimate is 50% Reaction Range: genetically determined limits on traits (Sandra Scarr) Like a persons IQ can only be so high or so little based on heredity and the rest is determined by environment High quality environment puts children at top of range, vs. low environment puts them at lower Attributions: inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others behavior, and their own behavior Internal attributions: locate the causes of events within people. They ascribe events to peoples personal dispositions, trait, abilities, and feelings External attribution: locate the causes of events outside of people. They ascribe events to situational demands and environmental factors Harold H. Kelly created Covariation model Distinctiveness: whether a person’s behavior is unique to the specific entity that is the target of the person’s actions…”Is he like this with just me, or with everyone” Consensus: whether other people in the same situation tend to respond like the actor…”Is everyone else like him” Consistency: whether an actor’s behavior in a situation is consistent over time…”Has he always been like this” o Low consistency favors external attribution o High consistency is compatible with either internal or external attribution When distinctiveness and consensus are low, consistent behavior is likely to lead to internal attribution When distinctiveness and consensus are high, consistent behavior is likely to lead to external Bernard Weiner said that people often focus on the stability of the causes underlying behavior Unstable cause (temporary)/ Internal cause o Effort, mood, fatigue Stable cause (permanent)/ Internal cause o Ability, intelligence Unstable/ External o Luck, chance, opportunity Stable/ External o Task difficulty Theories of depression focus on internal-external stability dimensions on whether peoples attributions have global or specific implications about their personal qualities o Internal, stable, and global attributions for personal setbacks foster feelings of depression Attributional bias shows that actors view of his or her behavior can be different from the view of an observer Fundamental attribution error: observers bias in favor of internal attributions o Observers have a tendency to overestimate the likelihood that a person’s behavior reflects personal qualities Actors tend to favor external attributions for their behavior Self serving bias: the tendency to attribute one’s successes to personal factors, and one’s failures to situational factors Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus First described in 1903 by Ivan Pavlov who did Nobel Prize winning research on digestion o Psychic reflexes: dogs would salivate in response to the click of the device used to present the meat powder Neutral stimulus: did not originally produce a response Learned associations were formed by events in the organisms environment Unconditioned stimulus UCS: a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning Unconditioned response UCR: an unlearned response to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning Conditioned stimulus CS: a previously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response Conditioned response CR: learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning o Elicited: bring out or draw forth o Characterized as reflexes because most of them are automatic or involuntary o Trial: consist of any presentation of a stimulus or a pair of stimuli Classical conditioning can influence physiological process. For example classical conditioning procedures can lead to immunosuppression (a decrease in the production of antibodies) Acquisition: initial stage of learning something. Formation of a new conditioned response tendency In classical conditioning acquisition involves pairing the unconditioned stimulus with the neutral stimulus NS that will become the conditioned stimulus CS Extinction: the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency o The consistent presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone, without the unconditioned stimulus, leads to extinction Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus o Pavlov fully extinguished a dog’s conditioned response to a tone and then returned the dog to its home cage for a “rest interval”. During the rest period the dog was not exposed to the conditioned stimulus o On a subsequent day, the dog was brought back to the experimental chamber for retesting, the tone was sounded and the salivation response reappeared. Although the rejuvenated response was weaker in comparison to its peak strength o If Pavlov consistently presented the conditioned stimulus by itself again, the response reextinguished quickly Stimulus generalization: when an organism that has learned the response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus o Generalization gradient: The likelihood of stimulus generalization depends on the similarity between the new stimulus and the original conditioned stimulus John B. Watson, founder of behaviorism Watson and Rosalie Rayner examined the generalization of conditioned fear in an 11 month old by “Little Albert” o Albert was unafraid of a live white rat, Watson and Rayner paired the rat with a loud noise that scared Albert. After 7 pairings of the rat and the loud noise, the rat was established as a conditioned stimulus eliciting a fear response o 5 days later Watson exposed Albert to stimuli that resembled the rat, and Albert’s fear generalized to a variety of stimuli including a rabbit, dog, fur coat, Santa Claus mask, Watson’s hair Stimulus discrimination: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimulus that are similar to the original stimulus o As an organism learns to discriminate between the original conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli the generalization gradient becomes smaller Higher-order conditioning: a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus Operant conditioning: a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences B. F. Skinner described this in late 30s Reinforcement: an event followed by a response that strengthens the tendency to make that response o Skinner box: a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled In boxes designed for rats the main response made available is pressing a small lever mounted on one sidewall. The experimenter manipulates whether positive consequences occur when the animal makes the designated response. Main positive consequence is usually the delivery of a small bit of food into a cup mounted in the chamber A speaker and signal lights permit manipulations of visual and auditory stimuli. An electric grid allows the experimenter to deliver aversive consequences in the form of an electric shock Cumulative recorder: graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time Works by a roll of paper that moves at a steady rate underneath a moveable pen. When the subject is not responding, the pen stays still and draws a straight horizontal line, reflecting the passage of time. Whenever the designated response occurs, the pen moves upward a notch creating a step in the line A series of rapid responses creates a series of short steps, the pen also makes slash marks to record the delivery of each reinforce o An increasing response rate produces a progressively steeper slope o A decreasing response rate produces a progressively flatter slope o Because the response record is cumulative the line never goes down, it either goes up or flattens Shaping: reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response o Necessary when an organism does not on its own emit the desired response. If a rat does not press the lever at all, the experimenter begins shaping lever pressing behavior by reinforcing the rat whenever it moves toward the lever o As the rats movement toward the lever becomes more frequent, the experiment starts requiring a closer approximation of the desired response, possibly reinforcing the rat only when it actually touches the lever o As reinforcement increases the rat’s tendency to touch the lever, the rat will spontaneously press the lever on occasion, finally providing the opportunity for the experimenter to reinforce the designated response o Keller and Marian Breland shaped animals for advertising and entertainment purposes like Priscilla the fastidious pig Extinction o When the process begins there is often a brief surge in the rat’s responding followed by a gradual decline in response rate until it approaches zero o Resistance to extinction: phenomenon that occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforce for it has been terminated The greater the resistance, the longer the responding will continue after the termination of reinforcement Gestalt psychology: a theoretical orientation based on the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Emerged out of Germany under the leadership of Max Wertheimer during first th half of 20 century. Interested in form perception. Gestalt is German for form Phi phenomenon: the illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession Figure and ground: the fundamental way people organize visual perceptions in which the figure is the thing being looked at and the ground is the background on which it stands Proximity principle: things that are near one another seem to belong together Similarity principle: elements in your visual field that are similar tend to be grouped together Continuity principle: viewers tend to see elements in ways that produce smooth continuation Closure principle: viewers tend to supply missing elements to enclose the gaps in a familiar figure Law of good form: viewers tend to organize forms in the simplest way possible Depth perception: interpretations of visual cues that indicate how near or far away objects are Monocular depth cues: clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone o Pictorial cues: cues about distance than can be given in a flat picture Interposition: an object coming between you and other must be closer to you Relative size: reflects the fact that larger objects appear closer Linear perspective: parallel lines converge in the distance Texture gradients: texture is coarser for near areas and finer for far ones Light and shadow: shadows can create an impression of 3D forms Height in plane: near objects are closer in the visual field and far objects are higher o Cues based on the active use of the eye in viewing the world Accommodation: changing the shape of the lens so that both near and far objects can be focused on the retina Motion parallax: nearby objects appear to move more fast than objects that are far away Binocular depth cues: clues about distance based on the differing views of the two eyes o Because the eyes are set apart, each eye has a slightly different view of the world o Retinal disparity: an object within 25 feet projects images to slightly different locations on your left and right retinas so that the left eye and right eye see slightly different views of the object The closer the object is to the eyes, the greater the disparity between the images seen by each eye. The perception of this change provides depth o Convergence: sensing the eyes converging toward each other as they focus on closer objects. The more your eyes have to converge to focus on an object, the closer the object must be Color solid: 3 dimensional model that shows how color varies along three perceptual dimensions; brightness, hue, and saturation Brightness: the perceptual dimension of color correlated with light intensity. Depends on amplitude of light waves Hue: the perceptual dimension of color correlated with light wavelength. Typically referred to as color Saturation: the perceptual dimension of color correlated with chromatic purity Types of color mixing Subtractive color mixing: removing some wavelengths of light leaving less than was originally present o Paints yield subtractive mixing because pigments absorb most wavelengths, selectively reflecting specific wavelengths that give rise to particular colors o Stacking color filters block out certain wavelengths Additive color mixing: works by superimposing lights, putting more light in the mixture than exist in any one light by itself o If you mix beams from red, green, and blue spotlights, you’ll get an additive mixture o Human color perception parallels additive color mixing much more closely than it parallels subtractive mixing o Projector Theories of color mixing 19 thcentury Trichromatic theory of color vision: the theory that the human eye has 3 types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different wavelengths. Red, green, and blue o People can see diverse colors because the eye does its own color mixing by varying the ratio of neural activity among these three types of receptors o Light of any color can be matched by the additive mixture of three primary colors o Complementary colors are pairs of colors that produce gray tones when mixed together o Color circle: a circular arrangement of colors in which complementary colors are placed opposite one another o If you tell people to describe color in just 3 terms of red blue and green they will have trouble. If you let them have one more name they usually choose yellow and they can describe any color quite well 1878 Opponent process theory of color vision: color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors. Blue/yellow, Green/red, Black/white o Retina has 3 types of cones, with each type most sensitive to a different band of wavelengths. Referred to as short, medium, and long wavelengths o Cells in the retina, the thalamus, and the visual cortex respond in opposite ways to red verses green and blue vs. yellow Ganglion cells in the retina that increase firing in response to red and decrease their firing in response to green, other cells are excited by yellow and inhibited by blue Theorists now believe that the perception of color involves sequential stages of information processing. The cones that carry out the first stage of processing seem to follow the principles outlined in the trichromatic theory. In later stages some cells follow the principles of the opponent process theory Light: light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave, moving, naturally enough, at the speed of light Light waves vary in amplitude (height) and wavelength (distance between the peaks) Light can vary in purity which depends on how varied the mixture of wavelength is Characteristics of light influence our perceptions of hue, brightness, and saturation Hue= what color it is Saturation= how much of the color is present Wavelength is the principal determinant of hue o Shorter wavelengths are perceived as violet to blue o Moderate wavelengths are perceived as green to yellow o Longest wavelengths are orange to red Amplitude is main factor in determining brightness o Greater the amplitude, the greater the brightness Saturation is a function of the purity of the light waves o Greater the purity, the greater the saturation When light passes through a prism it is separated into its component wavelengths o Visible light spectrum: wavelengths that humans can see Insects can see shorter wavelengths in the ultraviolet spectrum Fish and reptiles can see longer wavelengths than humans in infrared spectrum For people to see, incoming visual input must be converted into neural impulses that are sent to the brain Retina: the neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye, it absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information back to the brain Paper thin sheet of neural tissue Contains complex network of specialized cells arranged in layers Axons: the long thin fiber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons, or to muscle glands o Axons that run from retina to brain converge at a single spot where they exit the eye. At that point, all the fibers dive through a hold in the retina called the optic disk o Optic disk: a whole in the retina where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye You cannot see the part of an image that falls on it Blind spot is where optic disk is located Innermost layer of retina contains millions of receptor cells that are sensitive to light. Light must pass through several layers of cells before it gets to the receptors that actually detect it o Rods: specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision Roughly 100-125 million rods in each eye Slender and elongated More sensitive to dim light Density of rods is greatest just outside the fovea and gradually decreases toward the periphery of the retina Handle most of the peripheral vision because they outnumber cones in the periphery of the retina o Cones: specialized visual receptors that play a key role in day vision and color vision 5-6.4 million cones in each eye Stubbier Do not respond well to dim light but in bright light provide more sharpness and detail than rods Concentrated most heavily in center of the retina and quickly fall off in density toward its periphery Fovea: tiny spot in center of retina that contains only cones, visual acuity is greatest at this spot Dark Adaptation: the process in which the eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination o Vision improves markedly during the first 5-10 minutes as cones adapt rapidly. The cones adaptation soon reaches its limit o Rods adapt more slowly but can handle lower levels of light Light striking the rods an cones triggers neural signals that move from receptors to bipolar cells to ganglion cells which in turn send impulses along the optic nerve o Optic nerve: a collection of axons that connect the eye with the brain. Carries visual information to the brain Depart from the eye through the optic disk, carry visual information, encoded as a stream of neural impulses, to the brain Receptive field: the retinal area that when stimulated affects the firing of that cell o Collection of rod and cone receptors that funnels signals across synapses to a particular visual cell in the retina makes up that cells receptive field o Come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and functional arrangements o Synapses: a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to the next o Common are circular fields with a center surround arrangement. In these fields, light falling in the center has the opposite effect of light falling in the surrounding area Light in the center produces excitatory effects at the synapse and increased firing in the visual cell Light in the surround produces inhibitory effects and decreased firing No light and light in both center and surround produce similar baseline rates of firing so this receptive field is more sensitive to contrast than to absolute levels of light We see increased or decreased neural activity only when there is a contrast between the light falling on the center and the light falling on the surround o When receptive fields are stimulated, retinal cells send signals both toward the brain and laterally toward nearby visual cells These lateral signals, carried by the horizontal and amacrine cells allow visual cells in the retina to have interactive effects on each other Lateral antagonism: neural activity in a cell opposes activity in surrounding cells. Plays a key role in the Hermann Grid Illusion o Ganglion cells in the retinas firing is affected by light falling in center-surround receptive fields o Identical light falls in the center of the fields but more light is falling in the surround of the receptive field in the intersections o The cell for the intersections receptive field responds at a lower level than its neighbor because of the greater inhibition by the surround o The reduced responding translates into the dark spots that you see o When you stare directly at an intersection the image falls on the fovea where the receptive fields are much smaller, the receptive field does not produce a reduced response because an equal amount of light is falling in the center and the surround Cornea: the transparent window at the front of the eye that light passes through before reaching the lens Lens: the transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina Light passes through the cornea and the crystalline lens located behind it, forming an upside down image of objects on the retina. Accommodation: in visual processing, changing the shape of the lens so that both near and far objects can be focused on the retina. o When you focus on a distant object, the lens flattens to give you a better image of it o When you focus on a close object, the lens gets fatter and rounder to give you a better image of it o Nearsightedness: a visual deficiency in which close objects are seen clearly but distant objects appear blurry Focus of light from distant objects falls a little short of the retina Occurs when cornea or lens bends light too much, or when the eyeball is too long o Farsightedness: a visual deficiency in which far objects are seen clearly but close objects appear blurry Focus of light from close objects falls behind the retina Occurs when eyeball is too short Pupil: opening in the center of they that helps regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber of the eye Size of pupil is determined by the Iris: colored ring of muscle that surrounds the pupil When pupil constricts it lets light into the eye but sharpens the image falling on the retina In bright light the pupils constrict to take advantage of the sharpened image In dim light the pupils dilate, the image sharpness is sacrificed to allow more light to fall on the retina so that more remains visible Encoding: involves forming a memory code. It is analogous to using a keyboard to enter data into a computer Requires attention Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart said not all encoding is created equal. Some methods of encoding create more durable memory codes than others o Incoming verbal information can be processed at different levels Structural encoding: a relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of a stimulus word, such as whether it is printed in capital letters or how many letters it contains Phonemic encoding: an intermediate level of processing that emphasizes what a word sounds like Semantic encoding: considered a deep form of processing. It emphasizes the meaning of verbal input Level of processing theory: deeper levels of mental processing result in longer lasting memory codes Allan Paivio demonstrated effect of visual imagery on memory o Best recall when two high imagery words were paired o Worst recall when two low imagery words were paired o Imagery facilitates memory because it provides a second kind of memory code, and two codes are better than one Mnemonic devices: strategies for enhancing memory o Link method: forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together o Method of loci: taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time. It is roughly analogous to saving data on a computer’s hard drive, although our memories are not exact copies like computer files Sensory memory: the preservation of information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second o George Sperling flashed rows of letters on a screen for 1/20 of a second, a tone was sounded that determined which row of letters the subject should report. Independent variable was the length of the delay before the tone was sounded. The recall steadily declined as the delay increased to one second Short term memory: limited capacity that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 20 seconds. o Rehearsal: process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information o Mistakes occur because we depend on phonemic encoding in short term memory o Without rehearsal information in short term memory quickly decays Peterson and Peterson did study where after a light appeared, they were given 3 consonants and 3 numbers to remember. To prevent recall, the subjects started counting backward by 3s from the number until they saw a light that signaled the recall test. Independent variable was the length of delay. Dependent variable was subjects retention of the three consonants Without rehearsal the maximum duration of short term memory is usually only about 20-30 seconds o Short-term memory can only hold about 7+ or 2- items. When at capacity, new information often displaces information already in short term memory o Chunk: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit o Working memory: developed by Alan Bawdily Phonological rehearsal group: acoustic recitation system that represented all of short term memory in the original model Executive control system: handles the limited amount of information that people can juggle at one time as they engage in reasoning and decision making. Pros and cons Visuospatial sketchpad: permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images. At work when you mentally rearrange furniture in your bedroom Episodic buffer: allows various components of working memory to integrate information and serves as the interface between working memory and long term memory Long term memory: unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time. Can store information indefinitely o Conceptual hierarchy: a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items. o Semantic network: nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts Shorter pathways imply stronger associations between concepts o Schema: an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event We are more likely to remember things that are consistent with our schemas than things that are not . Hermann Ebbinghaus 1800s did first scientific studies of forgetting Nonsense syllables: consonant vowel consonant arrangements that do not correspond to words Forgetting curve: graphs retention and forgetting over time Sharp drop in retention during first hours, other later research shows that other types of material prove that rapid forgetting is not inevitable Retention: proportion of material remembered Recall: requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any cues Recognition: requires subjects to select previously learned information from an array of options Relearning: measure of retention requires a subject to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before Subjects savings scores provide an estimate of their retention In general Recognition test are easier than recall, but the difficulty of a recognition test can vary Pseudoforgetting: when information in question was never inserted into memory in the first place o Reflects ineffective encoding due to lack of attention Decay theory: proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time. Assumption is that decay occurs in the physiological mechanisms responsible for memories o Principle cause is passage of time 1924 experiment with Jenkins and Dallenbach o Subjects memorized a list of nonsense syllables and were tested to recall after 1, 2, 4, 8 hours. Half the subjects slept during retention interval, the other half went about normal activities o Subjects who remained awake forgot more than those who slept. Greater forgetting blamed on interference from competing information that they had to process while awake. Forgetting depends not on the amount of time that has passed since learning but on the amount, complexity, and type of information that subjects have had to assimilate during the retention interval o Interference theory: proposes that people forget information because of competition from other material Interference is greatest when intervening material is most similar to the test material. Decreasing the similarity should reduce interference and cause less forgetting McGeoch and McDonald 1931 had subjects memorize a list of adjectives in the order of decreasing similarity to the test material, they were synonyms of the test words, antonyms, unrelated adjectives, nonsense syllables, and numbers Retroactive interference: occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information. Occurs between the original learning and the retest on that learning during the retention interval Proactive interference: occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information. Rooted in learning that comes before exposure to the test material Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores. It is analogous to finding and opening a file and displaying its data on a monitor. More likely when there is a poor fit between the processing done during encoding and the processing used during retrieval Encoding specificity principle: value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code formed during encoding Repression: keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious (Freud) Narcotics (opiates): drugs derived from the opium plant that are capable of relieving pain Strongest drugs are heroin and morphine Less potent opiates are codeine and Demerol Most significant problem in modern Western society is heroin, most users inject it intravenously with a hypodermic needle o Risk contraction of infectious diseases like AIDS o 1/3 of AIDS cases have occurred among intravenous drug users Desired effects o Euphoria “who cares” o Relaxation o Anxiety reduction o Pain relief Psychological dependence: the condition that exist when a person must continue to take a drug in order to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving for the drug Physical dependence: the condition that exist when a person must continue to take a drug in order avoid withdrawal illness Heroin and morphine are cited as factor in 41% of drug related deaths, and other narcotics are present in 22% of drug related deaths Once heroin dependence is entrenched, people tend to develop a drug centered lifestyle that revolves around the need to procure more heroin through undependable black market channels
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