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FRNSC 100 Notes

by: Julie Notetaker

FRNSC 100 Notes FRNSC 100

Julie Notetaker
Penn State
GPA 4.0

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All notes from "Introduction to Forensic Psychology" Penn State Fall 2015
Introduction to Forensic Science
Forensic, Science, ForensicScience, FRNSC100
75 ?




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This 95 page Bundle was uploaded by Julie Notetaker on Sunday May 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to FRNSC 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Forensic Science in Forensic Science at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 05/22/16
Crime Scene Process The Crime Scene  “The place where the participants of the crime meet in time and space or where the instrument of the crime is prepared and delivered regardless of the route it takes” Shaler, 2012  “Physical evidence cannot be wrong, it cannot perjure itself, and it cannot be wholly absent. Only human failure to find it, study and understand it, can diminish its value.” – Paul Kirk  Locard’s Exchange Principle: an exchange of anything among all  Scene investigation o Foundation of the investigation  Only place where assailant and victim meet  Origination of most casework physical evidence  Best place to find evidence from assailant  Logical place to derive reconstruction hypothesis o Garbage in garbage out  Reliability of analyses are based on reliability of scene investigation  Impact of missed evidence  Good lab work nullified by poor scene work  Processing o Documentation o Evidence collection o Scene security  Reconstruction o Evaluation of facts o Additional evidence collection o Develop/test hypothesis o Derive opinion o “Physical evidence is concerned with the identification of traces of evidence, reconstruction of events from the physical evidence record, and establishing a common origin of samples of evidence” o “Can assist in deciding what actually took place in a case and in limiting the different possibilities” o “May provide the only independent witness to the events and thus allow different eyewitness accounts to be evaluated for accuracy  Justice system concerns o Solving the crime o Solve it quickly o Prosecute perpetrators  Police concerns o Scene processing o Clearing the case o Maintaining jurisdictional guidelines  Crime lab director’s concerns o Accreditation o Budgetary considerations o Court testimony o Reliability of testing o Accountability/ Productivity  Statistical accountability  Turnaround time  Number of cases examined  Number of items examined o Wants lab analyzing only probative evidence o Receiving extra evidence unnecessarily  Outcome if the investigation is not based on scientific method o Reports lean toward the investigative bias  Investigation not always based on the scientific method  Some officers intuitively employ the scientific method o Interpretation of physical evidence may not be founded on sound scientific principles o Inappropriate evidence collected o Conclusions can be one sided o Exculpatory and/or inculpatory evidence not detected  Proper scene investigation o Scene security o Evidence collection o Scene documentation o Contemporaneous scientific investigation  Scene investigated using scientific method  Proper interpretation of physical evidence  Development of testable and development of reasonable reconstruction hypothesis  Rational collection of probative evidence  Reduction of unnecessary evidence  Productive interaction of scientists, scene technicians, and investigators  Opportunity to exchange theories and ideas from more than one viewpoint  Well designed ad hoc experimentation  Evidence sent to proper location for analysis o Ascertain medial facts: cause, circumstance, manner  Scientific method o Scene evaluated using sound scientific principles o Provides a rational approach to evidence collection  Most probative evidence collected o Scientists prepare reports  Forces distillation of theories and hypothesis  Restricts second guessing and speculation by outside experts  Provides reviewable written record  Probative: having the effect of proof, tending to prove, or actually proving o They are matters of evidence that make the existence of something more probable or less probable than it would be without them  Approach to case investigation o What is the case about o Make scientific assessments o Define important issues o Design a testing protocol  Basic skills for reconstruction o Critical thinking o Asking proper questions  What are the issues of the case  What do witnesses say happened  Did suspect provide an explanation  What is and what is not in dispute  What are the competing hypothesis or theories  What do you believe happened  What does the autopsy reveal  What evidence has been collected  What evidence has been submitted to the crime lab  General Philosophy: what is the forensic scientist or reconstructionist trying to prove  Evidence: something legally submitted to a competent tribunal as a means of ascertaining the truth of any alleged matter of fact under investigation o Testimonial: given in the form of statements made under oath usually in response to questioning (In Britain called “giving evidence”) o Physical: something that is real and can take any form  Prove crime has been committed  Establish key elements of the crime  Place suspect in contact with victim or with the crime scene  Establish identify of persons associated with the crime  Can exonerate the innocent  Corroborate victim/witness testimony-statement/deposition  May coerce suspect to make admissions or confess  More reliable than eyewitness testimony  Court decisions have made it more valuable  TV series educated juries  Absence also provides investigative information  Most PE is associative: belongs to a class or a group  Individualization: item is from a unique source  Physical matches  Uniting broken pieces  Fingerprints  Biological (DNA testing)  Tool marks  Fired bullets  Identification  Applies to most items of physical evidence  Share a common group  Items classified into groups with other items sharing same properties  May not always determine guilt or innocence  Casey Anthony: accident vs. manslaughter vs. murder  William Kennedy Smith: Rape or consensual sex, DNA evidence is the same  Trayvon Martin: vigilantism vs. self defense  Amanda Knox: Rudy Guede-rapist, murderer, both?  Physical evidence may only place an individual at the scene or in contact with the victim  Considered associative evidence  May not always be probative o Individual lives/works/belongs at the scene o Individual admits to having contact with victim  Caveats  Most PE cannot definitely connect suspect to a crime o ID’d PE can corroborate testimony o Place subject at scene o Useful as interrogation tool  Collection and preservation  Legal issues o Search warrant/court order  Failure could invalidate evidence collected o Evidence must be secure  Secure area before transportation  Limited access by authorized persons  Key logs in labs  Programmable keyless entry o Chain of custody (chain of evidence)  Proof that evidence collected during investigation and evidence submitted to the court are the same  Proves integrity of the PE  Identifying information on packaging  Name/initials of individual collecting the evidence and each person subsequently having custody of it  Dates item collected or transferred  Agency, case number, type of crime  Victim and or suspects names  Brief description of the item  Scientific issues o Known or control samples  Used to ensure that testing results reflect the item and not the environment  Auto paint smear on clothes requires known from car o Blank samples  Arson investigation, heat may cause artifacts in the analysis o Handling  May destroy evidence  Obliterate fingerprints  Dislodge trace evidence  Break brittle evidence  Contaminate evidence  Proper packaging o Biological  Paper bags for bloodstain evidence  Plastic accelerates deterioration  Assortment of small envelopes  Double wrap items  Place in folded sheet of paper then put that into an envelope o Volatile  Airtight containers for volatiles such as gasoline, etc.  Clean glass jars with lined screw caps  Clean metal paint cans with wide mouth openings  Never put volatile evidence in plastic bags because volatiles go through the plastic o Trace  Evidence collection vacuums  Collects everything including debris with no relationship to the crime  Shaking or sweeping an item onto a clean sheet  Cellophane sticky tape  4” length pressed onto suspected areas then placed onto microscope slide  Collection o Prioritize items being collected o Move from least intrusive to most intrusive processing/ collection o Label samples with unique identifier o Photograph prior to collection o Obtain reference samples from scene o Package samples individually o Package items to minimize contamination and destruction  Seal with tape and write initials and date over the seal  Also include case number and other relevant details  DO NOT package biological samples in plastic o Evidence collection log  Sample identifier  Sample type  Location of sample  Collection method  Time/date of collection  Personnel who collected sample o Chain of custody: record of personnel who had physical possession of the evidence  Presented in court during case hearing  Name/signature of individual receiving evidence  Date/time transfer  Any alterations, loss, or change in condition  Record of analyses performed  Teamwork o Scientist o Scene investigator o Detective o Medical examiner o Medico legal investigator  Initially the local jurisdiction will take control of the scene o “First responders”  Police who are normally patrol officers will be called to the scene of a crime  Emergency response personnel may also be present to assist any victims’ who may be injured o First officer responsibilities  Recording the time  Arrival time  Time crime committed  Time first officer called  Time at the scene (maintained) o Initial scene response  Approach scene with caution as crime may be ongoing  Be aware of vehicles or people at or vacating the scene  Ensure the safety of scene responders  Be attentive to any odors, sounds, or visuals  Determine if specialized response is necessary (HazMat)  Assess scene for dangerous persons or anyone that requires medical attention  Guide medical personnel to injured persons, record their actions, and instruct them not to move items to maintain the integrity of the scene  Establish boundaries extending outward from the focal point to include  Location of incident  Potential paths of entry or exit  Locations where victims or evidence may have been moved  Set up physical boundaries to  Control the flow of personnel entering and leaving the scene  Protect evidence that may be compromised or destroyed  Ensure a search warrant was obtained, if necessary  Obtaining a search warrant o Probable cause to believe a criminal activity is occurring at the place to be searched or that evidence of a crime may be found there o Police provide judge with an affidavit which reports cause to conduct a search, he/she will issue a warrant o Policy can ONLY search the place described in a warrant and can ONLY seize the property the warrant describes o Searches may be performed without a warrant when  Consent is given  Contraband or evidence is in plain sight  In connection to an arrest  In an emergency situation  Entering the scene o Ascertain “What happened here” assessment  Becomes basis of subsequent actions o Proceed with caution  Award of evidence  Doors, floors, doorknobs, light switches, toilets, sinks o Observe details (especially fleeting ones)  Make written notations  Doors: open/closed, locked, which side was the key  Windows: open/closed, locked  Shades/shutters/blinds: open/closed  Odors: cigarette smoke, gas, gun powder, perfume, BO  Signs of activity: meal preps, dishes in sink, house clean, dirty disarray  Date time indicators: mail, newspapers, dates on milk, stopped clocks, spoiled food, items that should be hot/cold but at room temp o Move nothing unless necessary…touch nothing  Remain as close to virgin as possible  Do Not: use toilets, turn on water, drink, eat, smoke, or use towels  Stop clean up in progress o Be able to account for every movement  Explain seemingly out of place objects  Scene assessment o Converse with first responder and potential witness regarding observations and activities  Obtain valid ID o Establish path of entry and exit to scene  Conduct a walkthrough to avoid contamination and identify fragile or perishable evidence  Maintain communication with personnel at different scenes o Determine number and size of scenes  Prioritize o Asses the need for forensic specialists or additional personnel o Minimize contamination  Wear personal protective equipment PPE  Establish a secure area near the scene for equipment and evidence storage  Clean or dispose of equipment and PPE between evidence collection and scenes  Change gloves between samples  Documentation during investigation o Scene entry log  Monitor date and time of all personnel entering and exiting the scene o Meticulous documentation of ALL observations and actions  Transient evidence (odors, sounds)  Location, position, size of possible physical evidence o Coordinate photographs, sketches, measurements, and notes o Must remain meaningful after significant time lapse  To be used in court  Proper spelling and grammar necessary  Abbreviations not preferred o Every page must contain  Case number  Date  Criminalists initials o DO NOT make assumptions  Apparent blood, yellow metal bracelet o Date and time  Military format (DD-MM-YYYY hhmm)  Identity and assignment of each personnel  Location of people and items  Scene conditions  Lights on/off  Windows and doors open/closed  Weather  Statements from witnesses and victims  Details of actions since incident  Assistance provided  Resources required o Sketch the immediate area of the scene  Indicate  Polar north  Not drawn to scale  Rooms, furniture, people, other objects  Relative location of evidence prior to its movement  Measurement methods  Triangulation: select two fixed points, measure the distance between them, measure the distance from each point to evidence o Better for indoor, more accurate  Baseline: select two fixed points, construct a straight line between points and measure distance, measure perpendicular distance of evidence to baseline, measure distance of intersection of evidence line with baseline o Faster, less accurate, outdoors better  Keep units uniform (metric or English) and use significant figures  Types  Plan: horizontal plane viewed from above  Elevation: vertical plane viewed from side o Photography  Establishing: large areas to establish or introduce viewer to scene  Midrange: segue between establishing and close up  Close up: produce image of small items in larger than life size  Physical evidence with and without measurement scales and unique identifiers  Keep units uniform  Scales should be in same plane as detail to be measured  Item being photographed must be in pane parallel to the plane of the sensors within the camera  Capture different perspectives (aerial, under)  Victims, suspects, witnesses, actions  Take light and quality into account  Exposure, shutter speed, aperture, light sensitivity, focal length, F-number, depth of field  Photos can be blurry if handheld  Tripods necessary for  Low light situations  Close up photography  Shutter speed <1/60 sec  Protecting the scene o Must protect integrity o Indoors  Barricade  Include central scene  Probable entry points  Exit points  Focus on potential evidence o Ground outside a window o In rooms o Stairways o Entrances  Crime Scene tape might suffice  Locking doors o Outdoors  Protect entrance/exit points  Evidence along path on or near route leading to or from the scene  Onlookers may trample the scene  Need officer outside perimeter of scene  Can’t be wandering around  Need accountability to trace officer’s own tracks  Weather can be a factor  Large areas  Enlist aid of police cadets  Reserves  Others who can be trusted o Stay at scene  Send others for help (detectives)  Injured person o Critical injury  Saving lives is priority  Might have to sacrifice valuable evidence  Officers should take note of the loss of evidence o Non-life threatening  Note potential evidence  Sketch position of the victim o Lying or sitting o Position of hands/arms/legs/condition of clothes o Observe hands  Hairs/fibers  Injuries and position  Guide paramedical personnel to victim  Make aware of potential evidence  Ensure PO goes with victim to medical facility  Listen to conversations for potentially investigative information  Arrange to obtain victim’s clothing  Obtain from hospital/morgue  Often balled into a mess after cutting  Educational process essential (ME should know how to preserve clothing) o Deceased  Do not touch body, tamper with ropes/knots  Note death signs  Odor  Rigor: stiffening of the body (all muscles at the same time) o Must note if rigor broken in order to move body  Livor mortis (Lividity-postmortem hypothesis): reddish/purplish coloration in areas of body, settling or accumulation of blood, not the same as bruising o Evident within 30 min-2hours after death o Develops gradually o Maximizes at 8-12 hours then is fixed  Beginning decomposition  Autolysis: enzymatic breakdown of cells and organs  Putrefaction: bacterial activity and fermentation (commonly thought of as decomposition)  Sequence of events o Greenish discoloration of lower quadrants of abdomen o Greenish discoloration of head and neck and shoulders o Greenish black coloration of vessels o Generalized bloating o Vesicle formation, skin slippage and hair slippage—body is pale green to green black  Sketches must note position of body  Position of hands/ legs/ arms  Condition of clothing  Blood tracks  Artifacts created by paramedical personnel—secondary blood flow and/or stains created  Use phones to notify superiors  Police radios monitored by media  Call medical examiner/coroner  Usually has jurisdiction over body at scene  Firearms and ammunition o DO NOT TOUCH o Alert investigation personnel o May be inadvertently moved during moving of body or injured person o May be removed if cannot be adequately protected o Valuable evidence (cartridge cases, weapons)  Suspect at scene o Detain or arrest suspect o Use common sense o Find alternative to protect scene if can’t hold suspect in police vehicle or at scene o Longer suspect remains at scene  Greater possibility of changing or contaminating scene  Remove evidence  Gain information observing scene processing and detail  Miscellaneous responsibilities o Record names of witnesses and others sto enter the scene  Note who was there when 1 officer arrived o Establish basic facts  What happened  Assist detectives o Never initiate lengthy and detailed interrogations  Might affect protecting scene  Could damage later questioning  Could give misleading suggestions in statements of witnesses o Separate witnesses and suspects  Instruct not to discus events o Do not discus crime with witnesses or bystanders  Prevents suggestion and distortion o Listen attentively but not unobtrusively o Protect fragile evidence  Can disappear or get destroyed  Cover important tire tracks, with boxes, cardboard  Search techniques o Considerations  Time constraints, personnel required, environment, time of day o Indoor  Zone  Appropriate for scenes with discernable zones (vehicle)  May be prioritized  Point to point  Potential route of travel  Circular/spiral  One criminalist searches clockwise from waist level to celling, the other searches counterclockwise from waist level to floor o Outdoor  Point to point  Circular/spiral  Wheel/ray  Radiate outward from focal point  Line/parallel  Start at one end and finish at the other maintaining equal distance between searchers  Second search in perpendicular direction  Grid  Search in a line in one direction; at end, move over and double back to start  Continue until entire area is searched  Repeat in perpendicular direction  Scene debriefing and final survey o Discus preliminary findings o Assess physical evidence o Discuss potential forensic tests and sequence o Initiate any actions identified in discussion to complete investigation o Identify additional resources needed o Establish post-scene responsibilities for law enforcement personnel and other responders o Visually inspect the scene  Account for all evidence and remove it along with equipment from the scene  Construct a case file o Initial responder documentation o Emergency medical personnel documents o Scene entry log o Note, photographs, sketches/diagrams o Evidence documentation o Record of consent form or search warrant o Relevant reports should be added as they become available (laboratory, autopsy)  Blood spatter o Radial splatter:  Blood may be splattered or spattered BUT resultant stain is spatter  Requires at least two blows  First impact creates wound and source of liquid blood  Additional impacts spatter liquid blood  Low velocity Impact Spatter LVIS = 5ft/sec, relatively large in size  Dripping from something  Spread out pattern  Rounded  Medium Velocity Impact Spatter MVIS= 25 ft./second  Diffused  High velocity Impact Spatter HVIS = 100 ft./second, mist like in appearance  Spray  Gunshots  Can get high velocity from something that usually is MVIS like a bat if it is swung really fast o Bloodstain pattern  Contact transfer  Static: no motion (footprint)  Dynamic: motion (hand swipe)  Non-contact  Arc “cast-off” (hammer swinging backwards blood comes off it)  Arterial spurt (if you cut someone in neck and heart continues to pump and creates spray from wound)  Trail pattern (carrying something and blood forms a trail)  Expired blood  Drip secondary spatter (splash created when blood falls into pool of blood)  Gunshot wound spatter o Other patterns  Back spatter  Gases from muzzle of firearm  Collapse of temporary tissue cavity  Projectile impact with liquid blood  Pooled blood  Clotted blood  Post-even human, animal, or insect activity  Cleaning  Spread through fabric o Drying time increases with  Larger volume  Decreased surface area  Lower temperature  Higher humidity  Little air circulation o Factors affecting resultant stains  Droplet dynamics  Volume  Directionality: tail of droplet points to direction from which it came  Velocity  Geometry o Straight trajectory if gravity is only force (falls at 90 degree angle) o Arced trajectory if additional forces such as air resistance (falls at other angles)  Surface traits (porosity, texture)  Oblique collisions with surface o Back projection of impact angle  Stain selection  Smooth edges, elliptical in shape  Within 5 ft. of the source  Choose 10-20  2D area of convergence estimation  Draw lines through stains parallel to long axis until several lines converge  3D area of origin estimation  String and laser method o Calculate the angle of impact using the formula: arcsin angle A=d/D o A= angle, d= width of droplet, D=length of droplet o Tape the string to a surface at angle A from the wall o Origin lies where the majority of the strings converge o Experimental problems  Can never exactly reproduce the events  Variation in blood characteristics among humans  Using animal blood for testing sometimes not good enough  No such thing as a normal drop  The same droplet shape and size can come from different heights and objects People v. Richard Ramirez  For over a year, residents in LA lived in terror of “Night Stalker”  Upon his arrest, Ramirez was charged with 13 murders and 31 other felonies over the span of his murder, rape, and robbery spree  June 28, 1984 Jack Vincow arrived at his mother’s apartment in LA o The screen was missing from her open living room window o Jennie Vincow was found dead in her bedroom where she had been stabbed and sexually assaulted o Police recovered fingerprints from the screen later found on the living room floor  March 17, 1985 Maria Hernandez entered garage of condo she shared with roommate Dale Okazaki in Rosemead o As garage closed, she unlocked door and Ramirez shot her o After he left, Hernandez found Okazaki dead on kitchen floor o .22 caliber bullet retrieved from Okazaki’s skull  Hour later, he forced a car driven by Tsai-Lian Yu to the side of the road, where he pulled Yu out of her car o A man sitting by the side of the road noted the license plate o .22 caliber bullet recovered from Yu’s chest from same gun  March 28, 1985 two .22 caliber bullets removed from Maxine Zazzara’s head and neck that had been fired from the same gun as the other two victims o Police also discovered that the screen had been removed from the patio window at her residence which was pried upon o Outside the window there was a bucket  Footprints on the bucket and in the flower bed were made by an Avia athletic shoe  Following these crimes, Ramirez’s MO became clear with 3 more cases involving the .22 caliber gun, five where the window screen was ripped out, six where the Avia shoeprint was present at the crime scene, and several with Satan’s pentagram drawn  August 24, 1985 a teenager called the police to report a suspicious orange Toyota with its license plate number  When car was found, forensic team discovered one good print that matched Ramirez o Print matched one taken from window at Vincow scene  A week later Ramirez was arrested while stealing a car and spontaneously confessed blaming Satan for his misdeeds  Case showed excellent crime scene processing in o Finding and collecting evidence o Testing and matching evidence samples between scenes o Obtaining accurate witness statements DNA Databases DNA DATABASES  In the early 90s, the DNA community realized that DNA types could be used to do more than just confirm an individual was present or involved in a criminal act. DNA types (RFLP profiles), stored in a database could be used to proactively link and solve crimes just like fingerprints were being used.  DNA could be used to identify human remains of missing persons  Rapes could be linked together by DNA typing the various “unknown” semen from rapist and crime scenes. This created investigative leads  Statistics showed that rapist were recidivists. If a person were convicted of rape, then their DNA could be stored in a database to be compared to unknown suspect rapes.  Opposition o The concept of DNA databasing was hotly contested and there was a strong opposition from the ACLU and attorneys such as Peter Neufeld and Berry Scheck. o Privacy concerns were at the center of the discussion Rape in US  1993: 312,000 (rape and attempted), 173,000 (sexual assault), 1 in 5 (unknown suspect)  1994: 317,000 (rape and attempted), 117,000 (sexual assault), 1 in 3 (unknown suspect)  Recidivism o Mean age at first offense: 18.8 o Detected Sexual assaults: 2.8 o Undetected sexual assaults: 5.2 o More than 1 offense: 67.1% Combined DNA Index System CODIS  The CODIS project began in 1990 as collaboration among 14 forensic laboratories.  The FBI developed the CODIS software and then provided it for free to laboratories as they developed the capability to do DNA testing  Each state had to pass DNA legislation in order to set up the DNA databasing capability. It took several years for this to happen  The DNA Identification Act of 1994 authorized the use of DNA for forensic analysis and formalized CODIS. o It was the first federal legislation concerning forensic science o Established regulations controlling DNA forensic database laboratories o Provided for funding for establishment/improvement of state and local forensic DNA labs o Required the FBI director to determine DNA standards for the community via DNA advisory board  Standards issued in Oct 1998  Quality assurance program  Organization and management  Personnel  Facilities  Evidence control  Validation  Analytical procedures  Equipment calibration and maintenance  Reports  Proficiency testing  Corrective action  Safety  The FBI lab developed a single comprehensive audit document o Applies to both casework and convicted offender DNA laboratories  Subcontractors  Compliance required for participation in NDIS and receipt of federal DNA funding  Compliance with the FBI director’s standards  Protection of the privacy of the individual profiles in the database  Mandatory external proficiency tests every 180 days  All forensic DNA laboratories must be accredited within 2 years of issuance of the standards  By Oct. 1998, CODIS became operational on a national level NDIS because all 50 states had passed laws allowing them to collect and store DNA profiles from convicted offenders  As of 2004, all 50 states along with Puerto Rico, the US army and the FBI were CODIS participants  States began expanding their DNA laws to include more categories of convicted offenders. The original laws only collected from individuals who committed serious felonies like murder and rape. The addition of DNA profiles from burglars increased the number of cases linked together  Today over 180 public law enforcement laboratories participate in NDIS across the US.  Internationally, more than 60 law enforcement laboratories in over 30 countries use the CODIS software for their own database initiatives. International laboratories do not have any connectivity to the US CODIS system  Some states have enhanced their DNA database laws to allow for the collection and comparison of DNA from people who are arrested for crimes, even if they have not been convicted  There is currently not a federal law that allows for DNA collection from people arrested for a federal violation  CODIS is implemented as a distributed database with 3 hierarchical tiers. All 3 levels contain forensic and convicted offender indexes o Local DNA index system LDIS: installed at crime laboratories, is operated by police departments or sheriffs offices. DNA profiles originated at the local level can be transmitted to the State and national levels. Do case work and generated profiles at local level o State DNA index system SDIS: allows local laboratories within that state to compare DNA profiles. Operated by the agency responsible for implementing and monitoring compliance with the State’s convicted offender statute. Storage and convicted offenders, and look at evidence o National DNA Index system NDIS: is the highest level of CODIS, enables qualified State laboratories that are actively participating in CODIS to compare DNA profiles.  NDIS is maintained by the FBI under the authority of the DNA identification Act of 1994  Has PCR, STR (nuclear and Y) and mtDNA profiles in database  Y STR and mtDNA is only searched with the missing persons related indexes  Contains over 10,484,400 offender profiles and 412,500 forensic profiles as of Jan 2012  “Investigation Aided” tracks the number of criminal investigations where CODIS has added value to the investigative process. As of Jan 2012, CODIS has produced over 171,800 hits assisting in more than 165,100 investigations  States can share information with each other  Conduct typing of federal convicted offenders  Indexes categorize the profiles entered into CODIS o Convicted offender o Arrestees o Forensic crime scene evidence o Missing persons o Biological relatives of missing persons o Unidentified Human remains  In 2000 the FBI lab developed the National Missing Person DNA Database NMPDD Program for the identification of missing and unidentified persons o STR, Y-STR and mtDNA can be entered into the missing person indexes o NMPDD uses 3 indexes in NDIS to enter DNA profiles that can be searched against each other  Unidentified remains  Missing persons  Biological relatives of missing persons  Once a match has been identified, the laboratories involved in the match exchange information to verify the match and establish coordination between their two agencies o The match of the forensic sample against a record in the index may be used to establish probable cause to obtain an evidentiary DNA sample from the suspect o The laboratory can then perform a DNA analysis on the known biological sample from the suspect so that this analysis can be presented as evidence in court  Data acceptance rules o The DNA must be generated in accordance with the FBI director’s quality Assurance Standards o The DNA data must be generated by a laboratory that is accredited by an approved accrediting agency o The DNA must be generated by a laboratory that undergoes an external audit every 2 years to demonstrate compliance with the FBI director’s Quality Assurance Standards o The DNA must be one of the categories of data acceptable at NDIS, such as convicted offender, arrestee, detainee, legal, forensic, unidentified human remains, missing person, or relative of missing person o The DNA must meet minimum loci requirements for the specimen category o The DNA PCR data must be generated using PCR accepted kits o Participating laboratories must have and follow expungement procedures in accordance with federal law  CODIS in Pennsylvania o There are 4 CODIS labs in PA. o The PA State police are in charge of the SDIS o Statistics as of Nov. 2011  261,207 offender profiles  9,733 casework profiles  3,973 investigations aided Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods TWGDAM  Members include forensic scientists from various local, state, and federal laboratories  Issued QA/QC Guidelines in 1991. These were important in admissibility hearings concerning the admissibility of DNA typing  Revised TWGDAM Guidelines were issued in 95 to include mitochondrial DNA testing  Became SWGDAM  Scientific Working Group on DNA Methods SWGDAM o Serves as a forum to discuss, share, and evaluate forensic biology methods, protocols, training, and research to enhance forensic biology services as well as provide recommendations to the FBI director on quality assurance standards for forensic DNA analysis o Maintains and updates the FBI director’s Quality Assurance Standards o Maintains and updates the audit documents associated with the quality assurance standards Familial searches of DNA databases  DNA is inherited from parents so DNA profiles from siblings and offspring will share portions of DNA profile  Intentional or deliberate searching of the database, conducted after a routine search for the purpose of potentially identifying close biological relatives of the unknown forensic sample associated with the crime scene profile  Still not done in every state as it has been controversial o Denver, California, and Virginia have it (PA has pending legislation)  Grim Sleeper case in CA solved by familial search of DNA database o Serial killer responsible for at least 10 murders in LA, beginning in mid 80s. The murders stopped from 1988-2002 then began again o DNA search of California database found a profile that was a partial match to the crime scene samples from the Grim Sleeper. The son of the suspect had been arrested for felony weapons charge and his DNA profile had been added to the SDIS o 57 year old Lonnie David Franklin Jr has been arrested for the crime Document Examination Document: anything that bears marks, signs, or symbols, which have meaning, or conveys a message to someone  Paper, graffiti, stamp impressions on meat products, covert markings hidden in a written letter, among other things  Used in counterfeiting: Identification documents, drivers licenses, money, passports, historical documents  Forgery, identity theft, fraud, terrorism, immigration violations  Albert Osborn made ASQDE 1942  Physical and chemical examinations including the study and identification of o Writing materials o Printing materials o Erasures, obliterations, and alterations o Order and age of writing o Identification of authorship of writing  Very subjective discipline that is highly dependent on expertise of examiner. Least objective of the forensic science disciplines discussed in this course  Preliminary examination o Presence of obvious erasure, obliteration or alteration o Abnormal position of a signature with respect to the body of the writing o Quaver uncertainty or distorting in a signature o Patching of overwriting o Use of different inks o Noticeable differences in the writing as compared with genuine or an appearance of genuine letter forms  Scope of Document examination o Identification of counterfeit documents currency o Identification of handwriting and signatures o Identification of a document as a forgery o Identification of typewriters, check writers, and photocopies o Detection of alterations, additions, deletions, or substitutions o Deciphering alterations and erasures o Identification and deciphering of indented writing o Comparisons of inks and identification of type of writing instruments  Handwriting identification o Individual features that distinguish one person’s writing from that of another o Natural variations within the handwriting of each individual o Graphology is not forensic document examination: predicts character traits from handwriting examination o Class characteristics: particular writing system, family grouping, foreign language system, professional group o Individual characteristics: those which are personal or peculiar letters or letter combinations, which taken together would not occur in the writing of another person o Comparison study requiring authenticated specimens of known handwriting from the individual concerned  Like must be comparable to like: printing to printing, cursive to cursive, comparable letters, letter combinations, words, and numerals o Exemplars: authentic sample used for comparison purposes such as handwriting  A number of exemplar samples taken must be sufficient to show the examiner the range of natural variation that occurs in individuals characteristics  Previously written documents, letters, applications written around the time of the questioned document  Voluntary or court ordered  Gilbert v California: it is ok to obtain handwriting exemplars from a suspect prior to council being appointed. Exemplars identify physical characteristics and lie outside the protection privileges of 5 amendment  US v Mara: taking exemplars does not constthute an unreasonable search and seizure of a person and doesn’t violate 4 amendment  How to take them:  Forensic questioned document examiner should be consulted prior to taking exemplars  Writer should be comfortable  Writer should not be shown the questioned document or told how to spell words or told when to capitalize letters  Writer should be furnished similar pen and paper  Desired text should be dictated. It can be the same or consist of similar words, phrases, and letter combinations  Dictation should be done at least 3 times. It is more difficult to disguise writing consistently  Signatures should be obtained in conjunction with other writing  Forgery o Classes of forgery:  No attempt made by forger to imitate the genuine signature of the person purportedly signing the document  There is an attempt to imitate the genuine signature by some method of tracing of a model signature  There is a freehand attempt to simulate the genuine signature from a model  The document and the purported signer are fictitious  A cu and paste job wherein a genuine signature or copy thereof is transferred from some authentic source to a fraudulent document o Other disputed signatures include those which are genuine but were disguised or written in some illegible manner, by the writer for purpose of later deniability and signatures which though genuine, the author has no memory of executing or is unwilling to accept as genuine o It is possible for the document examiner to identify a document or signature as forgery but it is much less common for the examiner to identify the forger o The briefer the body of writing, the easier it is to continue the disguise, as the writing becomes more extended, the greater the probability that one’s own subconscious habit will intrude itself into the disguise attempt o There are no reliable methods of predicting from the writing whether the author was male or female, or right or left handed  Identification of Typewriters and Check writers o Whether a series od documents were prepared on the same typewriter o What make/model of typewriter was used o When was the typed document produced o Class characteristics: manual/electric, fabric ribbon/ carbon film ribbon, type bars/ daisywheel/ ball element, typeface design, o Individualizing characteristics: due to use or misuse, damage, general wear  Identification of Indented writing o Imprint, which may be left on the underlying pages when the top sheet of paper is written upon. This impression of the writing is influenced by pen pressure and thickness of the paper o Can be identified by a low angle oblique light and photography or ESDA o Electrostatic Detection Apparatus ESDA:  Produce an evidential record of any indentations which are present upon a page, resulting from previous pages of overwriting in a writing pad, notebook, or upon a letter placed inside an envelope which was then addressed. The ESDA is very sensitive and may record overwriting impressions which passed through several pages  Visualize and record any other transmitted impression, such as from a machine postal stamp upon an envelope or visualize and record any paper edge impressions of a page portion that was torn from a page within a notepad even if the page was removed some time later  Photocopy, Printers, and faxes o Exemplars taken from equipment for side by side comparison to evidentiary document o Transitory defect marks from debris on glass platen inner cover or mechanical portions of copier o Fax machines: Transmitting Terminal identifiers TTI  As faxes are transmitted, the sending fax produces a transmitting terminal identifier across the top of the page, some receiving machines have the capability to record a Receiving Terminal Identifier RTI which may also appear along the top of the document  TTIs and RTIs will have different type styles that can be used to compare microscopically to reveal alterations  TTIs can be used to determine make and models of faxes as they are determined by the machine that sends the fax  Alterations, Erasures, and Obliterations o Common way to alter a document is erasure or scrape away with rubber eraser, sandpaper, razor blade, knife o Disturb the upper fibers of the paper and they are apparent with the paper is examined under a microscope using direct light or by using side lighting o Examinations are performed in order to detect whether a portion of a document has been altered, some portion rendered not readily visible, or some text added  Video Spectral Comparator VSC  Allows examiner to examine the document through infrared illumination using an infrared sensitive CCD camera as a detector. The image is examined by viewing on a monitor and digital image processing through a computer. This is very useful in ink differentiation  Can analyze and compare inks: reveal alterations on a document  Visualize security features printed into papers  Has an imaging device that includes a color charge coupled device CCD video camera, a black and white CCD vide camera, excitation/ barrier filters, and various radiant energy sources (tungsten, halogen, and fluorescent lamps)  Light is a form of radiant energy that occupies the 400 nanometer through 700nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum and travels in different wavelengths  When light is directed toward and object, one of 5 things usually occurs depending on the emitted wavelengths o All or most of the light can be reflected off the object making it appear white (if white light is emitted) or lighter (if only specific wavelengths are emitted) o All or most of the light can be absorbed by the object making it appear black or darker o Part of the light can be reflected and part can be absorbed producing colors in the visible portion of the spectrum. The different intensities of radiant energy can be displayed using the VSC as shades of gray in the nonvisible portions of the spectrum o Light can be transmitted through the object o Light can strike the object, be absorbed, and then reemitted at a longer wavelength: an event called luminescence  Uses a combinations of cameras, lights, and filters to allow an examiner to produce each of these effects under certain circumstances  Some wavelengths of radiant energy, such as infrared IR and ultraviolet UV are not visible to the human eye. However all 5 previously mentioned effects that occur in the visible portion of the spectrum also occur in the IR and UV portions. There can be an important difference. The same object that absorbed light in the visible spectrum and appeared black, can now transmit radiant energy in the IR spectrum and appear clear like a piece of glass For instance, the VSCs camera operating in the IR portion of the spectrum can capture an image lying underneath an opaque blue ink, similar to the way an x-ray captures images of bones through skin  Software allows examiner to o Record images of the document being examined o Rotate, flip, and render negative the pictures o Temporarily store and mix different images, enabling distinct images to be overlaid or compared side by side  VSC-UV Luminescence  Security feature and other intentional markers can luminesce in the presence of UV radiant energy. The presence of those features can assist in verifying in money’s authenticity  Optical brighteners are added into materials during the manufacturing process. Different intensities during UV radiation shows when a page has been added or replaced in a multipage contract and enables examiner to sort shredded pieces of pear faster, enabling reconstruction  Luminescent fibers are added during manufacturing  VSC and visible and IR Radiant Energy  Using IR radiant energy source and filters, the examiner is able to see through inks to reveal objects that are obscured the naked eye  VSC spectral comparisons-Ink  Ink samples that appear similar in color to the naked eye, may have different color components revealed by color spectrum analysis. Capable of examining various characteristics of inks such as the absorption and reflectance properties using nondestructive methods and then producing graphs of the resulting spectrum This is preliminary and should be confirmed by chemical analysis Secret Service analysis examines evidence, develop investigative leads, and provide expert courtroom testimony  Much of the technology and techniques utilized by examiners is exclusive to the US secret service  Identification: has access to a full range of fingerprinted related services using the most up to date chemical and physical methods including the utilization of state of the art equipment for the development of latent prints  Questioned documents Current Security measures:  Portrait  Fine line printing  Water mark  Color shifting ink  Low vision features  Microprinting  Security thread  Federal Reserve indicators  Serial numbers Anatomy of a $100  Intaglio printing: begins with engraving, both of the portrait and the fine line detail surrounding the bill. Produced by a master engraver on steel plates. These master plates form the actual production plates used during the printing process  Raised printing: Left side near Ben’s shoulder is an area that should be rough to the touch, a result of the enhanced intaglio printing process used to create the image. Traditional raised printing can be felt throughout the note and gives genuine currency its distinctive texture  The portrait Ben Franklin  Microprinting appears just as a thin line to the naked eye but can easily be read upon magnification. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA on Ben franklin’s jacket, USA 100 around the blank space containing the portrait, ONE HUNDRED USA along the golden quill and small 100s in the note borders  Portrait watermark if the note is held up to the light there is an image of Ben in the blank space to the right of the portrait. The image is visible from either side of the note  Color Shifting ink bell shifts from copper to green which makes the bell appear and disappear in the ink well, as well as the number 100  Gold 100 large number on back helps those with visual impairments distinguish the denomination  Serial number and treasury seal seal to the left of the portrait represents the Federal Reserve System. A letter and number identifies the issuing bank. There are 12 regional banks and 24 branches located in major cities  Currency paper no wood fibers or starch. It is composed of cotton and linen fibers. The strength comes from raw materials continuously refined until the special feel of the currency is achieved  Red and blue fibers  Security ribbon and threads there is an embedded thread running vertically to the left of the portrait the thread is imprinted with the letters USA and the numeral 100 in an alternating pattern and is visible from both sides of the note. The thread glows pink when illuminated by ultraviolet light American Society of Questioned Document Examiners ASQDE  Oldest and largest organization in the world dedicated to the profession of forensic document examination  Publish the Journal of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners  Foster education, sponsor research, establish standards, exchange experiences, provide instruction in the field of questioned document examination, and to promote justice in matters that involve questions about documents American Board of Forensic Document Examiners ABFDE  Established in 1977  Establish and maintain and enhance standards of qualification for those who practice forensic document examination  Certify applicants who comply with ABFDE requirements for this expertise  Aims to safeguard the public interest by ensuring that anyone who claims to be a specialist in forensic document examination does in fact posses the necessary skills and qualifications American Society for Testing and Materials International ASTM  Globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards


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