New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSYC 2017 Spring 2016 Lecture Notes

by: Peyton Robison

PSYC 2017 Spring 2016 Lecture Notes PSYC 2017

Marketplace > Auburn University > Psychlogy > PSYC 2017 > PSYC 2017 Spring 2016 Lecture Notes
Peyton Robison
GPA 3.64

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

All of my lecture notes from Dr. Jennifer Daniels's Honors Introduction to Psychology
Honors Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Jennifer B. Daniels
PSYC, 2017, Psychology, honors, intro, Introduction
75 ?




Popular in Honors Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 60 page Bundle was uploaded by Peyton Robison on Monday June 20, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 2017 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Jennifer B. Daniels in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Honors Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


Reviews for PSYC 2017 Spring 2016 Lecture Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 06/20/16
January 19, 2016 The Story of Psychology  Goals for Today o Define psychology o Is psychology more than common sense? o Early approaches to psychology o Contemporary approaches to psychology  Psychology o With hopes of satisfying curiosity, many people listen to talk-radio counselors and psychics to learn about others and themselves  Defining Psychology o Psychology—Scientific study of behavior and mental processes.  Science—The use of systematic methods to observe, describe, predict, and explain behavior  Behavior—Everything we do that can be observed  Mental processes—Thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences privately but cannot be observed directly.  Is Psychology More Than Common Sense? o People who live together before marriage have longer, happier marriages.  False o Opposites attract/Birds of a feather…  Common sense says yes to both, research says “birds of a feather”  Those relationships tend to last longer if there are similarities in basic foundational values o As more ice cream is purchased, the rate of violence increases.  Yes, they are correlated  More violence occurs during hot, sticky summer months  Not related by cause o If your brother as schizophrenia, you have a 45% chance of also being diagnosed with the disorder.  False  If your identical twin has schizophrenia, then yes you have a 45% chance  Number drops to 17% for just siblings  Let’s talk about… o Roots of psychology o Modern psychology o Psychological perspectives  Name that Psychologist… o 1. Name an eminent psychologist from the past.  Sigmund Freud  Skinner  Pavlov o Name a living eminent psychologist  Haggbloom’s Top 10 o Abraham Maslow o Edward Thorndike o Neal Miller o Stanley Schachter o Carl Rogers o Leon Festinger o Albert Bandura o Sigmund Freud o Jean Piaget  And the #1 Psychologist Is… o B.F. Skinner  Roots of Psychology o Philosophy, Biology, and Physiology  Greek philosopher—Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle  French philosopher—Descartes (reflexes)  Direct Observation, reasoning, theory of motivation, drives, sensing, remembering, desiring, reacting, thinking, memory, and sleep  Modern Psychology o 1879 University of Leipzig—Wilhelm Wundt  Credited with starting the science of psychology  He had people drop a ball on a table and respond when they heard the ball, and respond when they were aware of the sound o Structuralism (Wundt and Tichener)  Attempted to identify the structures of the human mind with introspection  Introspection—looking into oneself o Functionalism (William James)—Concerned with the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the way we adapt to the environment  William James—the father of American psychology  Important Females o Mary Whiton Calkins—1 female president of APA st nd o Margaret Floy Washburn—1 female to receive a psychology Ph.D. (2 female APA president)  APA—American Psychological Association; an advocacy and lobbying group, the governing board of psychologists today  There are more females going into graduate school for psychology than males now  The number of APA presidents is about 50:50 male:female  Contemporary Approaches o Biological Approach—Examines behavior and mental processes through a focus on the body, especially the brain and nervous system o Ex. Talking in front of others o Neuroscience—Studies the structure, function, development, genetics, and biochemistry of the nervous system  Thoughts and emotions have a physical basis in the brain  How is blood chemistry linked with moods and emotions?  Behavioral Approach o Emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants o How do we learn to fear certain objects? Stop smoking? o John B. Watson (1878-1958)  Little Albert o B.F. Skinner (1904-1990  Operant conditioning o How does the environment effect our behavior and vice versa? o Well-controlled, lab experiments initially, now some natural settings o Rewards and Punishments determine our behavior o Not all behaviorists reject cognitions as important  Psychodynamic Approach o Freud (1856-1939) o Unconscious thoughts, childhood experiences, conflicts between biological instincts and societal demands o Hard to prove experimentally  Humanistic Approach o People choose to live by higher human values, emphasizes positive qualities and growth o Self-understanding o Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow  Carl Rogers  Empathy, Genuineness, Unconditional Positive Regard  Abraham Maslow  Hierarchy of needs  Cognitive Approach o Emphasizes the mental processes o Cognitions control behaviors o How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information  Evolutionary Approach o Charles Darwin:  Adaptation, Reproduction, “Survival of the Fittest”  Does not account for cultural diversity and experiences  Nature-Nurture Debate  Natural Selection  Sociocultural Approach o Focuses on how social and cultural environments influence behavior o South vs. North o African-American, Asian-American, European-American o Biopsychosocial Approach—Levels of Analysis  We look at the biological, the psychological, and the sociological  Cognitive  Development  Biological  Genetics  Spirituality  Family relationships  Social  Educational  Socioeconomic status  Behavioral  Areas of Specialization: The Highlights o Clinical and Counseling Psychology—diagnose and treat people with mental disorders  Counseling psych typically deals with less-severe illness, mild depression, anxiety, etc. o Cognitive Psychology—attention, consciousness, information processing, memory, perceiving, and thinking o Developmental Psychology—biological and environmental factors that influence how we become who we are. Our changing abilities throughout our lifetime o Forensic Psychology—legal issues o Health Psychology—psychological factors, lifestyle, healthcare system, stress, coping o I/O Psychology—workplace o Physiological Psychology—physical processes that underlie psychological processes, especially the brain o School/Educational Psychology o Sports Psychology—improving sports performance o Personality—persistent traits  Psychology’s Subfields: Research o A lot is done in Developmental (24.6%) o Next highest is Social (21.6%) o Experimental (14.1%)  Psychology’s Subfields: Applied o A lot in Clinical (67%) Thinking Critically With Psychological Science #1  Goals for Today o The Need for Psychological Science?  Did we know it all along? Hindsight Bias  Overconfidence  The Scientific Attitude  Critical Thinking  Descriptive Research  Why Do Psychology? o How can we differentiate between uniformed opinions and examined conclusions? o The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think and act as they do!  What about Intuition and Common Sense? o Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. o Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error.  Hindsight Bias o Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. o After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome o Ex. Hurricane Katrina, .com Stocks, Lottery numbers, Dating o Seeing Order In Random Events  Overconfidence o Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know o How long do you think it would take to unscramble these anagrams?  Anagrams  WREAT WATER  ETYRN ENTRY  GRABE BARGE o People said it would take about 10 seconds, yet on average they took about 3 minutes (Goranson, 1978)  The Scientific Attitude o The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning; this includes critical thinking abilities) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong).  Critical Thinking o Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly. o It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.  How do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? o Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.  Theory o A theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behaviors or events. o For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression.  Hypothesis o A hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory. o Operational Definition  A more specific definition (one that is measurable) so we can conduct the experiment.  Put the construct into measurable terms. o People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed.  Research Observations o Research would require us to administer tests of self-esteem and depression. o Low Score—Self-Esteem o High Score—Depression o = o Hypothesis Confirmed  Types of Research o Laboratories  Positives:  Control  Drawbacks:  Not natural  Control; Participants know they are being studied, Unnatural, Not representative o Natural Settings  Benefits:  Natural  Drawbacks:  Too many variables  Observe true behaviors; No control  Descriptive Research o Case Study o Observation o Surveys and Interviews o Standardized Tests  Description o Case Study  A technique in which one person or small group is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles.  Ex. Is language uniquely human?  Survey o A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people.  Benefits:  Large sample size  Drawbacks:  Lying on survey  Bias/wording  Who is going to respond? o Wording Effects  Wording can change the results of a survey.  Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbidden) o Random Sampling  If each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid.  The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them  Naturalistic Observation o Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.  Correlation o When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate. o r = +0.37 o r (Correlation coefficient)  Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables. o + (Indicates direction of relationship {positive or negative}) o 0.37 (Indicates strength of relationship {0.00 to 1.00})  Scatterplots o Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables. The slope of the points depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship. o The Scatterplot on the left (Perfect negative correlation {-1.00}) shows a negative correlation, while the one on the right (No relationship {0.00}) shows no relationship between the two variables.  Data o Data showing height and temperament in people  Scatterplot o The Scatterplot below shows the relationship between height and temperament in people. There is a moderate positive correlation of +0.63.  Correlation and Causation o Correlation does not mean causation!  Low self-esteem could cause depression  Or  Depression could cause low self-esteem  Or  Distressing events or biological predisposition could cause low self-esteem and depression. February 2, 2016 (cont. from 1-28-2015)  The Thalamus is the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.  Reticular Activation System (RAS) o Essential to the regulation of sleep, wakefulness, arousal, and even attention o Vital functions as heart rate and breathing o Also linked to sleep cycles.  Cerebellum o Controls bodily coordination, balance, and muscle tone o Two wrinkled hemispheres covered by an outer cortex o The primary function is to coordinate and regulate motor movements o Damage results in awkward, jerky, uncoordinated movements and may affect speech.  (Look at the picture of the brain in the book and be able to label parts for test)  The Limbic System o The Limbic System is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. o Amygdala  The Amygdala consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear and anger. o Hypothalamus  The Hypothalamus lies below (hypo) the thalamus. It directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. o Hippocampus  Memory formation  Problems result in deficits in memory for facts but not in memory for courses of action.  May also be involved in the regulation of some reproductive characteristics like female sexual behavior, the onset of puberty, and the release of pituitary hormones.  Structure of the Cortex o Each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes that are separated by prominent fissures. These lobes are the frontal lobe (forehead), parietal lobe (top to rear head), occipital lobe (back head) and temporal lobe (side of head).  Four Lobes of the Brain o Occipital Lobe—back of head, responds to visual stimuli o Temporal Lobe—above the ears, involved in hearing, language processing, and memory, ability to process information about the face o Frontal Lobe—behind the forehead, control of voluntary muscles, intelligence, and personality  Phineas Gage  Emotionally shallow, distractible, unaware of social mores  Prefrontal cortex—higher cognitive functions such as planning, reasoning, self-control, monitors and organizes thinking o Parietal Lobe—top and rear of head, registers spatial location, attention, and motor control  Functions of the Cortex o The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements. o The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs.  Association Areas o More intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex.  Language o Aphasia is an impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (can understand speech, but have impaired speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impaired understanding written and spoken speech).  Specialization and Integration o Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking words  Brain Plasticity o The brain is sculpted by our genes but also by our experiences. o Plasticity refers to the brain’s ability to modify itself after some types of injury or illness.  Our Divided Brain o Our brain is divided into two hemispheres. o The left hemisphere processes reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, and comprehension skills. In the 1960s, it was termed as the dominant brain.  Splitting the Brain o A procedure in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.  Split Brain Patients o With the corpus callosum severed, objects (apple) presented in the right visual field can be named. Objects (pencil) in the left visual field cannot. o Divided Consciousness  Left-Right Differences in Intact Brains o People with intact brains also show left-right hemispheric differences in mental abilities. o A number of brain scan studies show normal individuals engage their right brain when completing a perceptual task and their left brain when carrying out a linguistic task. Haley Kozuch Thinking Critically #2  Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life o Experimental Research o Ethical Considerations  Experimentation o Exploring Cause and Effect  Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological  research. Experiments isolate causes and their effects.  Exploring Cause and Effect o Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that  interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control. o Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships.  Evaluating Therapies o Double­blind Procedure  In evaluating drug therapies, patients and experimenter’s assistants  should remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and  which patients had the placebo treatment.  o Random Assignment  Assigning participants to experimental (writing about trauma) and control  (writing about what they did previous day) conditions by random  assignment minimizes pre­existing differences between the two groups.  Independent Variable o An independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect  of the independent variable is the focus of the study. o Ex. When examining the effects of writing about trauma upon stress, what is  being written about is the independent variable.   Dependent Variable  o A dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent  variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process. o Ex. In our study on the effect of writing about trauma upon stress, stress is the  dependent variable.   Confounding Variables o A situation in which the independent variable is intertwined or mixed up with  another, uncontrolled variable. o We cannot tell which variable is responsible for changes in the behavior of  interest.  o Operational Definition­ a statement of the procedures used to define research  variables o Ex. Love, intelligence, health, trust   Experimentation o A summary of steps during experimentation  Random assignment (controlling for other variables such as parental  intelligence and environment)  Comparison o Below is a comparison of different research methods  Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life  o Doubt big, round, undocumented numbers as they can be misleading and before  long, become public misinformation. o Statistical Significance­ The results are due to chance alone. o Clinical Significance  Describing Data o A meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation may  lead to incorrect conclusions.  Ethical Considerations o Informed Consent o Confidentiality o Debriefing o Deception   Other Considerations o Gender Bias o Cultural and Ethnic Bias o Socioeconomic Bias o Religious Bias o Any Others???  Measures of Central Tendency o Mean­ Statistical average o Median­ Number at the 50th percentile o Mode­ One that occurs most frequently  Extra Credit Has to be typed Turn in next Tuesday  Set up study­ tell what it is  Hypothesis (testable) What you expect to happen Which group is the experimental group Which is the control group  Independent variable  Dependent variable  Operationally define how you’re measuring the dependent variable Possible confounding variables (3 or 4) Any ethical concerns that you can Half a page Study needs to be in a paragraph format everything else can be in a list The Biology of the Mind   Neural Communication o The body’s information system is built from billions of interconnected cells called  neurons.  Neural Communication o Neurobiologists and other investigators understand that humans and animals  operate similarly when processing information. o Not the similarities in the above brain regions, which are all engaged in  information processing.   Neuron o A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different parts.  Dendrites (receive messages from other cells)  Terminal branches of axon (form junctions with other cells)  Axon (passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons,  muscles, or glands)  Cell body (the cell’s life­support center)  Neural impulse (action potential) (electrical signal traveling down the  axon)  Myelin sheath (covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural  impulses  Parts of a Neuron o Cell body or soma: Life support center of the neuron. Contains the nucleus­  metabolic and reproductive functions for the cell. DNA stored here. o Dendrites: Branching extensions at the cell body. Receive messages from other  neurons. o Axon: Long single extensions of a neuron, covered with myelin sheath to insulate and speed up messages through neurons. o Terminal branches of axon: Branched endings of an axon that transmit  messages to other neurons. o Need to be able to label a neuron and tell the functions of each parts Caitlin Bowen Thinking Critically #2  * Statistical Reasoning in everyday life  * Experimental Research  * Ethical Considerations   * Experimentation   Exploring cause and effect   Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments  isolate causes and their effects. Correlation =/= Causation   Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments 1) manipulate factors that interest us, while  other factors are kept under 2) control   Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships   Evaluating Therapies  * Double­blind procedure: in evaluating drug therapies, patients and experimenter’s  assistants  should remain unaware of which patents had the real treatment and which patients had the  placebo treatment. This prevents bias and the “placebo effect”  * Random Assignment­ Assigning participants to experimental (writing about trauma) and  control (writing about what did previous day) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre­ existing differences between two groups. Making sure the ind. variable made the difference  * An independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the  independent variable is the focus of the study. Ex. when examining the effects of writing about  trauma upon stress, what is being written about is the independent variable.  * A dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In  psychology, it is usually a behavior or mental process. Ex. In our study on the effect of writing  about trauma on stress, stress is the dependent variable. We can have more than 1 measurement  for dep. variable (questionnaires, cortisone levels)   * Confounding Variables   A situation in which the independent variable is intertwined or mixed up with  another, uncontrolled variable   We cannot tell which variable is responsible for changes in the behavior of interest  * Operational Definition­ a statement of the procedures used to define research variables. Ex­  love, intelligence, health, trust    * Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life   Doubt big, round, undocumented numbers as they can be misleading and before long, become  pubic misinformation    Statistical significance­ The results are not due to chance alone. Ex­ a new drug to help people  sleep better. People who take it sleep 15 mins longer on average. This is enough of a difference  to have statistical significance, but not enough to fund clinical significance     Clinical Significance­ enough difference to make a difference in the clinical setting. Ex. suicidal thoughts are gone, but they're still depressed. Still clinically valuable.   * Describing Data­ A meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation  may lead to incorrect conclusions. We can make data say just about anything we want.   * Ethical Considerations­ have to go through a review board, IRB, institutional review board   Informed consent­ the person must be told what the research entails, they must know the risk  and benefit. Some parts of the pop. cant give informed consent (children, elderly, prisoners, low  educational level)   Confidentiality­ we cant identity participants in any way, either random numbers or locked away data     Debriefing­ when the study is over, we have to tell them what the study was looking for. They  don’t have to know the outcome of the data, just what they're looking for    Deception­ Milgram’s study, people left his study thinking they'd killed someone. Can cause  difficult emotional problems, we cant deceive them without telling them in the end  * Other Considerations   gender bias   cultural and ethnic bias   socioeconomic bias   religious bias   Any others?  * Measures of central tendency   mean­ average    median­ number at 50% percentile    mode­ most common number  * Extra Credit: design an experiment­ typed, turn into class next Tuesday. Set up a study (like  bridge example). Define a hypothesis (testable), which group is control/experimental group.  Independent and dependent variable, operationally define dependent variable, any possible  confounding variables (3or 4), any ethical concerns. Roughly half a page.  The Biology of the Mind   * “The brain is wider than the sky” ­ Emily Dickenson  * Goals for Chapter   Neural Communication­ neurons   The nervous system­ peripheral and central   * The body’s information system is built from billions(40 billion) of interconnected cells called  neurons   * Neural Communication   Neurobiologists and other investigators understand that humans and animals operate similarly  when processing information. Humans have a large association area.    A neuron is a nerve cell that consists of many different parts­  * Dendrites­ Branching extensions at the cell body, receive messages from other cells  * Cell Body or Some­ cell’s life support center. Contains the nucleus­ metabolic and  reproductive functions for the cell, DNA stored here   * Axon­ long single extension of neuron, covered with myelin sheath to insulate and speed up  messages through neurons. Passes messages away from cell body to  other neurons, muscles, or glands  * Neural Impulse­  (action potential), electrical signal traveling down the axon  * Terminal branches of axon­ branched endings of an axon that transmit messages to other  neurons, form junctions with other cells  * Myelin Sheath­ covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses  be able to label parts and know functions   Studying the Brain o Selective Lesions—Destroy tiny clusters of brain cells o Electrical, Chemical and Magnetic Stimulation o Can even detect electrical pulse in a single neuron!  Electroencephalogram (EEG)— o Amplified read-out of electrical activity in brain’s billions of neurons sweeping in regular waves across its surface.  Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET Scan) o Shows each brain area’s consumption of its chemical fuel, glucose (temporarily radioactive). o PET Scan tracks gamma rays released and shows which areas are most active during a task  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) o Aligns spinning atoms of brain molecules o Radio wave disorients atoms o Atoms return to normal spin, emit signals o Detailed picture of soft0tissues o Show lesions or damage to brain  Functional MRI (fMRI) o Shows brain’s functioning and structure o See immediate responses of the brain to an event  Computerizes axial tomography (CAT/CT) o Locate abnormalities in structure or shape of brain o X-ray providing cross section of body  The Cerebral Cortex o The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body’s ultimate control and information processing center.  REVIEW  Pavlov o Behavioral movement and classical conditioning  When we pair an unconditioned stimulus (haven’t learned) with a stimulus that we have learned o Pavlov’s dogs o Instrumental in developing classical conditioning as a way of learning  Four Major Research Methods o Naturalistic observation o Case studies o Surveys o Correlational data o Experimentation  40 MC questions (2 points each), 2 essay questions (10 points each)  Bring a scantron January 28, 2015  Kinds of Neurons o Sensory Neurons carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system (CNS). o Motor Neurons carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands. o Interneurons connect he two neurons.  Pictures of all three  Action Potential o A neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane.  Occurring within the neuron itself  Threshold of Excitation o Threshold: Each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory signals from many neurons o When the excitatory signals minus the inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity (threshold) the neuron fires an action potential  Action Potential Properties o All-or-None Response: a strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potentials strength or speed o Intensity of an action potential remains the same throughout the length of the axon  Synapse o Synapse—a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft.  Electrical impulses (action potentials) travel from one neuron to another across a tiny junction known as a synapse  Neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitters (chemicals) released from the sending neuron travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing it to generate an action potential.  Reuptake o Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake. This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action.  How Neurotransmitters Influence Us o Serotonin pathways are involved with mood regulation. o Dopamine pathways are involved with diseases such as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease  Neurotransmitters o Some neurotransmitters and their Functions Neurotransmitter Function Examples of Malfunctions Acetylcholine (Ach) Enables muscle action, With Alzheimer’s learning, and memory. disease, Ach-producing neurons deteriorate. Dopamine Influences movement, Excess dopamine learning, attention, and receptor activity linked emotion. to schizophrenia. Starved of dopamine, the brain produces the tremors and decreased mobility of Parkinson’s disease. Serotonin Affects mood, hunger, Undersupply linked to sleep, and arousal. depression; Prozac and some other antidepressant drugs raise serotonin levels. Norepinephrine Helps control alertness Undersupply can depress and arousal. mood. GABA (gamma- A major inhibitory Undersupply linked to aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitter. seizures, tremors, and insomnia. Glutamate A major excitatory Oversupply can neurotransmitter; overstimulate brain, involved in memory. producing migraines or seizures (which is why some people avoid MSG, monosodium glutamate, in food).  Glial Cells o Cells that provide support and nutritional benefits in the nervous system o Keeps neurons in their proper places o Destroy and eliminate dead neurons and then often replace those neurons o Help to make sure that signals do not get crossed.  Nervous System o Central Nervous System o Peripheral Nervous System  The Nervous System o Nervous System: Consists of all the nerve cells. It is the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system. o Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain and spinal cord. o Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): the sensory and moto neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body  Autonomic Nervous System: part of the PNS that controls the glands and other muscles (controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands)  Sympathetic (arousing)  Parasympathetic (calming)  Somatic Nervous System: the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles (controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles)  The Nerves o Nerves consist of neural “cables” containing many axons. They are part of the peripheral nervous system and connect muscles, glands, and sense organs to the central nervous system.  Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) o Sympathetic Nervous System: Division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations  Fight-or-flight  Tense up, sweaty, etc. o Parasympathetic Nervous System: Division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy  Rest and digest  Central Nervous System o The Brain and Neural Networks o Interconnected neurons form networks in the brain. These networks are complex and modify with growth and experience.  The Brain: Older Brain Structures o The Brainstem is the oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull. It is responsible for automatic survival functions.  Medulla Oblongata o The point where the spinal cord enters the skull and joins with the brain. o Entirely controls the heart rate o Largely controls breathing, swallowing, and digestion. Also, sneezing, coughing, and vomiting. o Neurons cross over to the other side of the brain here as well o Even the slightest damage in a critical region of the medulla can cause death  Pons o Relay station, containing neurons that pass signals from one part of the brain to another. o Fine-tunes motor messages o Processes some sensory information, especially visual info o Helps control respiration o Influence facial expression February 11, 2016 Learning  What is learning? o A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience. o Behaviorism—theory of learning that focuses only on observable behaviors, not mental activity o Associative learning—an association is made between two events o Conditioning—process of learning associations  How do we learn? o We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence. o 2000 years ago, Aristotle suggested this law of association. Then 200 years ago Locke and Hume reiterated this law.  Associative Learning o Learning to associate one stimulus with another. (CLASSICAL CONDITIONING)  Two related events:  Stimulus 1: Lightning + Stimulus 2: Thunder  Result after repetition:  Stimulus: We see lightning  Response: We wince anticipating thunder o Learning to associate a response with a consequence. (OPERANT CONDITIONING)  Response: Pushing vending machine button  Consequence: Receiving a candy bar  Behavior strengthened  Classical Conditioning o How it was first operationalized… o Video o Pavlov’s dogs o Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)—A stimulus that unconditionally— naturally and automatically—triggers a response without prior learning o Unconditioned Response (UCR)—unlearned, naturally occurring response to the UCS o Conditioned Stimulus (CS)—an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an US, comes to trigger a conditioned response o Conditioned Response (CR)—The learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) UCS → UCR (food) (saliva) ↓ CS (bell) → CR (saliva) o Acquisition—the initial learning of the stimulus-response link. Neutral stimulus should come about .5 seconds before the UCS. (UCS and CS go together) o Salience. Does the CS “stand out”? Ex. Soft Russian Ballad vs. Bell o Intensity. Usually, the more intense a UCS, the more readily conditioning takes place. o Frequency. If bells were only occasionally accompanied by feeding, Pavlov’s dogs would have been less likely to be conditioned. o The time between the UCS and CS pairing is important  Contiguity—connectedness in time and space, needs to occur close together  Contingency—predictability of the occurrence of one stimulus from the presence of another o Generalization—A new stimulus that is similar to the original CS is likely to elicit a response that is similar to the CR o Discrimination—The process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to others o Extinction—the weakening of the CR in the absence of the UCS o Spontaneous Recovery—A CR can recur after a time delay without further conditioning  Classical Conditioning in Our Lives o Little Albert Study by Watson and Rayner Pain → Fear/Cryin g ↓ Doctor’s → Fear/Cryin office g o Demonstration…  Demonstration…What did you learn? o US?  Water o UCR?  Flinching o CS?  The word “can” o CR?  Flinching o Stimulus Generalization o Stimulus Discrimination o Extinction o Spontaneous Recovery o Reconditioning February 18, 2016  Motivation, cont. o Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. o Ex. Can teach a mouse to press a lever for food, but can’t teach a mouse to clap its paws. o What are the main differences between classical and operant conditioning?  Operant conditioning is voluntary  Operant conditioning is learned over a longer period of time or with more repetition  Classical conditioning is learned  Pairing shapes classical conditioning  Result shapes operant conditioning o What are the similarities between classical and operant conditioning?  In both, we are teaching a new skill in order to receive an outcome.  Both can involve a reward  In both we’re looking for a response  Look in book at chart  Cognitive processing and classical conditioning… o Expectancy—Awareness of how likely it is that the US will occur  Cognitive processing and operant conditioning… o In fixed-interval schedule, an animal expects that repeating the response would soon produce a reward o Rats in mazes develop a cognitive map (mental representation) even with no rewards by demonstrating latent learning (learning became apparent only when there was some incentive to demonstrate it.)  Learning by Observation o Observational Learning o Modeling-Albert Bandura and Bobo Doll Study o Infants imitate as young as 8 months o Prosocial effects  Most effective when actions and words are consistent o Antisocial effects  Movies, TV, Video Games, Aggression in home, etc. February 16, 2016  Goals for Next Section o Quick Review of Classical Conditioning o Operant Conditioning  Operant Conditioning o Type of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior’s occurrence o Voluntary behavior o Ex. $100 to come to class, Asking someone on a date o Edward Thorndike  Cats in puzzle boxes o Law of Effect—over time, behaviors that are rewarded are strengthened. Behaviors that have negative consequences are weakened. o Acquisition—occurs because a certain behavior was reinforced o Extinction—person will no longer perform behavior if not reinforced o Generalization—behavior can generalize if wider and wider range of behaviors are reinforced  Shaping—only reinforcing closer and closer approximation of the behavior we want o Ex. Table Manners, Language  B.F. Skinner o Father of Behaviorism o Skinner Box  Principles of Reinforcement o Reinforcement—the process by which a stimulus or an event strengthens or increases the probability of a behavior or an event that it follows  Increases the likelihood that the behavior is going to reoccur in the future o Positive Reinforcement  Adding something pleasant to get a behavior to happen again o Negative Reinforcement  Something that we are going to take away (something undesirable) o Primary Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink. o Conditioned Reinforcer: A learned reinforce that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforce.  Ratio Schedules o Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. (e.g., piecework pay.)  Rewarded every 10 time o Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. (e.g., behaviors lthe gambling, fishing.)  Rewarded, on average, every 10 time  Interval Schedules o Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (e.g., preparing for an exam only when the exam draws close.)  Rewarded every 10 minutes.  A scallop effect o Variable-interval schedule: Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses. (e.g., pop quiz.)  Rewarded, on average, every 10 minutes o Punishment—An aversive event that decreases the likelihood a behavior will occur o Positive Punishment  Adding an aversive stimulus o Negative Punishment  Taking away something pleasurable to decrease the likelihood of a behavior happening again o Advantages and Disadvantages of using punishment…  Advantages:  Quick results  Disadvantages:  Not teaching them correct behavior  Motivation o Intrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake. o Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments. o Aversive conditioning—avoiding a particular behavior or setting as a consequence of punishment in association with the given behavior or setting. o Premack Principle—a more desirable activity serves as a reinforcement for a less desirable one. Intelligence  Goals for Today o Discuss cognitive psychology development o Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? o Intelligence and Creativity o Emotional Intelligence  Development of Cognitive Psychology o Humans vs. Computers… o Similarities/Differences o Input → Processing → Output o Human mind able to develop new learning goals, rules, relationships, concepts, and patterns o Human mind is aware of itself o Human mind has rich consciousness o Artificial Intelligence o Up to 1950s, behaviorism and psychoanalytic primary schools of thought o By late 1950s, into hey day in 1980s, cognitive psychology rising o Cognitive psychology—explains observable behavior by investigating mental processes and structures that cannot be directly observed.  What is Intelligence? o Intelligence (in all cultures) is the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations. o In research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures. This tends to be “school smarts.”  Intelligence: Ability or Abilities? o Have you ever thought that since people’s mental abilities are so diverse, it may not be justifiable to label those abilities with only one word, intelligence?  General Intelligence o The idea that general intelligence (g) exists comes from the work of Charles Spearman (1863-1945) who helped develop the factor analysis approach in statistics. 1. Athleticism, like intelligence, is many things o Spearman proposed that general intelligence (g) is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis. o For example, people who do well on vocabulary examinations do well on paragraph comprehension examinations, a cluster that helps define verbal intelligence. Other factors include a spatial ability factor, or a reasoning ability factor.  Types of Intelligence??? o Is there more than one type? o Gardner’s Eight Frames of Mind 1. Verbal—Think in words and use language to express meaning 2. Mathematical 3. Spatial—Think three-dimensionally 4. Bodily-kinesthetic—manipulate objects and be physically adept 5. Musical—Sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone 6. Interpersonal—Understand and interact effectively with others 7. Intrapersonal—Understand oneself 8. Naturalist—Observe patterns in nature and understand natural and human-made systems  Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory o Analytical Intelligence—Analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast o Creative Intelligence—Create, design, invent, originate, and imagine o Practical Intelligence—Use, apply, implement, and put ideas into practice, “street smarts”  Intelligence and Creativity o Creativity is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable. It correlates somewhat with intelligence. 1. Expertise: A well-developed knowledge base. 2. Imaginative Thinking: The ability to see things in novel ways. 3. A Venturesome Personality: A personality that seeks new experiences rather than following the pack. 4. Intrinsic Motivation: A motivation to be creative from within. 5. A Creative Environment: A creative and supportive environment allows creativity to bloom.  Emotional Intelligence o Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, understand, and use emotions (Salovey and others, 2005). o The test of emotional intelligence measures overall emotional intelligence and its four components. o Emotional Intelligence: Components Component Description Perceive emotion Recognize emotions in faces, music and stories Understand emotion Predict emotions, how they change and blend Manage emotion Express emotions in different situations Use emotion Utilize emotions to adapt or be creative  Assessing Intelligence o Psychologists define intelligence testing as a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with others using numerical scores.  Alfred Binet o Alfred Binet and his colleague Théodore Simon developed intelligence questions that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system. (1904)  Lewis Terman o In the US, Lewis Terman adapted Binet’s test for American school children and named the test the Stanford-Binet Test (1916). The following is the formula of Intelligence Quotient (IQ), introduced by William Stern: IQ = mental age/chronological age * 100  David Wechsler o Wechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (1939) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) (1955), an intelligence test for school-aged children, the WIPSI (1967) for preschool-aged children. February 25, 2016  Take an IQ test o What did they not do in making this o What was good/bad o Did it measure intelligence in a broad scope or a narrow way o Due Thursday (4 extra credit points)  Principles of Test Construction o For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill the following three criteria:  Standardization  Reliability  Validity  Standardization o Standardizing a test involves administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison.  Normal Curve o Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve.  Extremes of Intelligence o Two extremes: the intellectually disabled (IQ 70) and high intelligence (IQ 135). These two groups are significantly different.  Reliability o A test is reliable when it yields consistent results.  Split-half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are.  Test-Retest Reliability: Using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency  Inter-rater Reliability  Validity o Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict.  Content Validity—a measure represents all aspects of a given construct  Predictive Validity  Discriminant Validity—obtained when we measure two things that are thought to be dissimilar and our measures can discriminate between them  Construct Validity  Flynn Effect o In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points. This phenomenon is known as the Flynn effect.  Biases in Intelligence Testing o Race o Socio-economic status o Religion o Education of parents o Urban vs. Rural o Primary Language o How easy/hard to form culturally unbiased assessment of intelligence?  Longitudinal design—same people followed across time  Cross-sectional design—people of different ages viewed at the same time  Aging and Intelligence o Phase I—Cross-Sectional Evidence  Intelligence declined  Mental decline part of aging process o Phase II—Longitudinal Evidence  Followed same cohort  Until late in life, intelligence is stable o Phase III  Steeper intelligence decline after 85  Intelligence not a single trait  Older people have slower neural processing o Crystalized Intelligence—accumulated knowledge as reflected in vocab and analogies tests o Fluid Intelligence—ability to reason speedily and abstractly  Stability o By age 4, intelligence tests predict scores as adolescents and adults o Scores at 11, predict living independently at 77, less likely to have Alzheimer’s o More intelligent children and adults live longer  Why?  Extremes of Intelligence o Low scores and poor adaptive functioning = Intellectual Disability o Low IQ score = 70 or below o Poor Adaptive Behavior:  Conceptual Skills  Social Skills  Practical Skills  The High Extreme o IQ = 130 and above o Healthy, well-adjusted, academically successful o Some critics don’t want to have “gifted” programs because of self-fulfilling prophecy of others o Need to have proper developmental placement 3/3/16 Intelligence  Fourth paper­ development (or any chapter in the book that you would like to know more about)  Genetics  o Do genetics influence intelligence? o Heritability­ 50­80% o Twin studies   Identical twin brains are virtually the same in areas associated with verbal and spatial intelligence  Intelligence is polygenetic   Means that there is not one specific gene for intelligence  There are a lot of different genes that make up intelligence  Genetic influence, not environment, become more apparent as we gain  life experiences   Genetics holds a lot more power than environment 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.