Hist 2110 at Georgia State University: Professor Conner's Class
Hist 2110 at Georgia State University: Professor Conner's Class Hist 2110
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Date Created: 06/29/16
Lecture 1: Exploration Key Questions: What are key basic characteristics of Spanish colonial approach? How would you compare/contrast European colonization efforts? Notes: Natives Central American Tribes: o Aztecs Dominant tribe- their capital had 150-200,000inhabitants and ruled over 20 million Warrior society- how they gained their numbers Demand tribute in livestock, crop and especially captives (for religious sacrifice) Felt human sacrifice was important because it kept the gods happy and alive Eastern Woodland Tribes o Estimated 5 million natives in America at this time o They were farmers and had settled villages o Powhatan- rules empire of 14-15,000; much smaller than Aztecs What’s Happening in Europe Interested in trade with Asia (mercantile industries) o Italians were monopolist of Asian trade; rest of Europe wanted their own trade route that they can control Religious Controversy Sparking o Spain/Portugal- keep Catholicism and look to Pope for guidance o England/Germany: Break away from Catholisism When European Exploration Begins: Hernando Cortez: Spanish conquistador o Starts expeditions at 19, ends up in Cuba o Eventually asked to go to Mexico as asked by Spanish government in order to build an outpost 4000 Aztecs greet him bearing gold decides he wants gold and not to build an outpost conquers small villages eventually ends up at capitol have human sacrifices there- believes they are heathens and worship the devil loves the gold in the capitol-Technochitlan takes over Aztecs with 250 men by disease, superior weaponry, and help from rival tribes uses enemies against Aztecs and then turns on his allies later Encomienda o Labor system Awards native villages to soldiers Soldiers may demand tribute usually in the form of labor Soldiers are to protect the villages from attack and protect their souls by converting to Christianity Natives are worked to death since no one oversees soldiers actions FORCED LABOR AND BRUTALITY French Colonialization o 1550’s- after Spanish (by about 50 years) o Begin exploring northeastern waters mainly Canada and north eastern US (don’t go south to avoid dealing with Spanish) o French start the fur trade in Europe- huge industry so $$$ o Not many soldiers- they are friendly to the natives so that they help them capture beavers for trading furs. Build partnerships, soldiers would be counter productive o Trade alcohol and weapons and other goods for beavers’ fur o Some interest in converting Natives to Christianity- not as forceful Columbian Exchange o Ecological exchange between the New and Old World- went both ways Europe: bananas, cattle, chickens, citrus, coffee beans, horses, pigs, grapes, rice, wheat, sugar cane (smallpox) Americas: beans, caoco, corn, peanuts, pineapples, potatoes, tobacco, tomatoes, turkey (also syphilis) African Slavery in New World o Look to Africa for slaves: this is started by the Spanish once they run out of Natives Consequences of the Fur Trade: o Natives kill many of the native animals on their land and fight with neighboring tribes for their animals so they can keep trading with the French. This is more lethal since the French have given them weapons through trade o Most animals are killed- ecological impact Basically- the Spanish dominated the early stages of exploration and their empire grew very large both land wise and economically Lecture 2 Notes Key Questions: English Colonization at Chesapeake How do the English differ from the Spanish/French? How and why do Chesapeake colonies evolve over time (economy, labor)? How and why did the nature of slavery change in Chesapeake change over time in the 1600-1700’s. Notes: Chesapeake colonies were in Virginia and parts of Maryland The English colonize later than most of Europe: starting in 1600’s Group in England forms the Virginia Company, a joint stock company o This is suppose to turn a profit for each stock holder o Company gets land grant in 1607- mostly men and teen boys; there are few women No way to grow since there are few women o Those who go to VA think they will be rich like Spanish, hoping to find gold not build and establish a long lasting colony John Smith o Early leader of Jamestown: one of the most influential o Came from a lower class family and joined army at early age o Convicted of mutiny on the way to Jamestown, but escaped execution since King James named him as leader of Jamestown o He makes the colonist build and farm instead of search for riches- “He who does not work, does not eat” o After Smith leaves Jamestown due to illness, the colonist go back to looking for gold and not farming. Town begins to suffer, only 60 of the 500 survived the winter English Approach to Colonization o Don’t want to conquer Indians or to set up lasting relations with them for trade. They want to be civil to Indians, and set up a “little England” basically o Only reason the Chesapeake colony is surviving is that the Virginia Company keeps sending in replacements for those who die Virginia Company has not made much money and turns their focus to tobacco for money Tobacco in Chesapeake o Introduced by John Rolfe in 1612 o Takes a lot of people to farm and produce tobacco commercially but will be very profitable if they get enough people o Create Insentive 1. Political Rights have right to vote on how the colony is run legislature established in 1619 in Jamestown 2. Headright System system of land grants- settlers pay their own way and are awarded 50 acres of land This is a huge incentive but is incredibly expensive This leads to indentured servitude Only those who pay for passages (not servants) are awarded land Indentured Servitude o Labor contract(4-7) years in return they receive a ride to VA o They are provided with food andclothing o 80% of those who come are indentured servants ¾ of them are young men18-25 (poor and young0 o Advantages: freshstartafter receiving freedom they lack education and literacy so this is helpful o Disadvantages Know nothing about who hired them May workthem to death or not follow contract Exposed to new disease- many die before contractends Wont see family again When they finish their contract, there isn’t much land left or it is incredibly expensive Indentured Servants to Slavery o Blacks are treatedas either slaves, indentured servants or free (having the same rights as all FREE men) o Laws begin to limit this in 1662: Black servantwomen are property and are taxed White servantwomenare household dependents Whatever the baby is born is the same status as the mom: mom=slave, then baby=slave, mom=free, baby=free Differentpunishments for whites and blacks White servants cannotbe beatenin public, black servants can No intermarriage (1705) Why does this happen? o Colonial slave masters see slaveryas profitable Inherited slavery is created o Slavery increases as result of mortality rate decreasing- no longer cheaper tokeep getting servants because their contracts endand they cannot keepthem so slavery become a better investment Bacon’s Rebellion o Servants who make it out of their contracthave no where to go- land is expensive and rare. Theyaskfor VA to expand westto create more opportunities. It is denied. Law is createdsaying you must own land to vote and the poor men have no voice in the government anymore Creates class struggle 1676 Nathaniel Bacongoes westto provoke Natives in hopes the Natives attackand thatwould lead to war andexpansion. This fails but does show elitist thatthey canno longer ignore the poor andlook for common ground- emphasize race togive privilege. White mencanvote and no black men canvote. Slavery picks up in the 1650’s and 1660’s, after Bacon’s Rebellion: they wantto separate lower class blacks and whites to keep them from over throwing the government. Theydo this by revoking black men’s right to vote. This is the beginning of Africanslavery. Lecture 3 Notes New England Colonies KeyQuestions: How are the English colonies in New England different from the English colonies in Chesapeake? Whatare the fundamental elements/structures of Puritan society? How do religious beliefs influence their society? How/why do courts reinforce secular and religious order? Notes: Massachusetts,Connecticut and Rhode Island = New England England broke awayfromCatholic church o A group felt that the new churchwas still “too Catholic” and wantedto purify it. Startedto be persecuted They moved to New England 1620- Pilgrims move to New England o First settlers atPlymouth 1630- Puritans come to New England Puritans wantto purify religion o Est. Massachusetts BayColony John Winthrop o Puritan leader o Does not wantpoor people in his society- wants those who cansupport themselves with trades o Most of the group coming to Mass. Baywill be middle class o Colony grows rapidly- less mortality and people come as family units versus mostly men o Farming, lumber, fishing- commercial economy: Boston become global trade empire Puritans and Literacy o They wanttheir society to be able to readandinterpret the Bible This leads to anemphasis on education for everyone sothat they become literate and are able to interpret the Bible Roger Williams o Banished from MA for challenging consensus Called for separation of churchand state Wantedfair treatmentof the Natives o Founds Rhode Island o Puritans hate him and anyone who challenges authority Puritans and Predestination o Humans are naturally born evil; canonly be redeemedby divine intervention (being saved) o Only certain number of souls canbe saved o Only God knows who is saved(“the elect”) o Can’tchange status (heavenor hell) you are born that wayand its already decided and cannot be changed Puritan Society o Focus on order and hierarchy o Well ordered family = well orderedsociety Father was in charge andprovides for family Family must respecthim-they are subordinate Wife is to respecthusbandand help him, it is a partnership but not equal. She is subordinate to him Children are subordinate to parents, espfather “Bundles of evil” that must be taught self control so that they don’t turn to the devil and go to God instead. Always busy, never idle. Idle time = devil’s time Master Servantrelationship Servantsubordinate to master while learning trade Puritans and Punishment o Punish strictly because crimes go against Bible and Puritan covenant o See themselves as a “city upon a hill” and they cannotscrew up because of this-they are to be a model society o Don’t wantto be damned by God o Don’t wantothers to be brought to evil Lecture 4 Road to Revolution KeyQuestions: Whatare the effects of the Frenchand Indian War? Whatare the British taxation policies? How and why do they colonist respond? (From reading-ch7) How/Why did the Americans win the revolution? Or why did the British lose? Notes: Frenchand Indian War- 1750’s Battle over who Ohio belongs to- Frenchor English British soldiers have to adapt new fighting methods- back woods fighting versus formal war British win after sending large amounts of soldiers and money British getFrench land (including OH) but now have to protect it The war ends with a large amount of British debt and British feelas if it’s the colonist fault/ or that theyshould pay since they fought for them and their protection Proclamation of 1763 o BannedSettlement Westof Appalachian Mountains o Ineffective;angers colonist and begin to question the British The colonist andBritish are not considered equal- the colonist cannot join the British army, but canjoin local militia: happens to G. Washington Taxes are createdfor the Colonist by the British o Stamp Act-1765 Taxon paper items; affects allcolonist “No taxation without representation” Feelas if they did not consent to tax Feelthe taxis illegal since it is a tax to raise money instead of regulating trade Colonist want direct representation(accustomedto this in colonies, British saythey have virtual representationin Parliament (house of commons) Virginia Resolves PatrickHenry composes this Only colonial legislatures cantax colonist- NOTParliament Spreads to other colonies Political Protest Sons of Liberty Attackgovernor’s house Targettax collectors that waythey are too scaredtodo their jobs By 1766 the stamp actis completely ineffective andrepealed Social Protest Townshend Duties-1767 Taxes on specific imports (paint, glass, tea, etc.) Colonist did not consent- they feelit is unfair Turn to non-consumption (boycotts) Ladies were veryactive in boycotts British sendtroops to Boston-this pisses them off since they feelthey are not equalif they have to send troops Colonist begin to question if they agree with Patriots or British Boston Massacre Starts as teens annoying soldiers, as day goes on turns to men and gets angrier: soldiers fire and 5 die Called massacre togetpeople to join Patriots in revolution Growing sense of colonial unity Lecture 5 KeyQuestions Whatproblems does the new government face? Whydo the Articles fail? How does the federalgovernment differ under the Constitution and the Articles? Whatare competing vision of how the nation should develop and be governed? (Jeffersonvs Hamilton) Notes Articles of Confederation (1777) o Decentralization confederation of states o No chief executive or judiciary o Single-house congress;eachstate gets one vote o Congress’s powers are limited Can:conduct war andforeign relations Can’t:impose taxes, regulate trade,raise anarmy, and print money (no taxes=no money = no build roads, etc) Everything must be unanimous Shay’s Rebellion (1786) o Result of MA taxation policy- must pay in gold and silver no paper money o Crisis that shows articles of weakness o Prompts push for new, stronger system of government o Demonstrates ordinary Americans’ perception of legacy of the Revolution--- taxation without representation o Farmers startmarching @ court houses to protest, MA askgovernment for troops, they deny because theycannot form an army o Shay’s Rebellion fails, but highlights the flaws of the Articles of Confederation/ government The Constitution (1787) o Effective in 1789 after ratification/bill of rights added o Strong centralgovernment o 3 branches;checks andbalances o principles of federalism- centraland state o congress can:tax, coin and borrow $, raise army and declare war o provides for strong chief executive and national judiciary Three Fifths Clause (in constitution) o Salves states wantslave to count in their population totalin order to gain more representation in congress o Every slave counts as 3/5 of a person o Slave states getmore power in congress and in electoralcollege Federalist: Support Constitution o Articles too weaktopromote trade/economic growth or protectthe people o Higher up wantedfederalist government- wealthy and business classes o Fear of excess democracy o Constitution checks and balances will protect rights and liberties Antifederalist : Opposed to Constitution o Could lead to tyranny o Creates large republic with representation distant from people (fear toobig) o Favored Bill of Rights * this was universally supported * o Common people favored this (small businessmen and farmers) Jefferson“Republican” Vision o Limit centralgovernment o American society of small farmers o Restraint in commerce andurbanization o Bestgovernment is the one that governs the least – TJ o Support self = true independence Hamilton’s Federalist Vision o Strong/active centralgovernment o Government support for manufacturing (local vs import) o Modern industrial economy is ideal Whiskey Rebellion (1794) o Armedmen protest across PN (Pittsburgh) (over 25% taxon alcohol) o Washington tries to negotiate- fails- leads 13,000 troops Rebels go home without force whenthey hear Washington is on the wayand that they are out numbered Shay’s vs Whiskey o Shays has no army to put it down showing a weakcentralgovernment o Whiskey rebellion is able to assimilate anarmy showing a stronger central government o Both rebelled against “taxation without representation” andgovernment ignoring the commoners who did not like it
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