Hist 2110 at Georgia State University: Professor Conner's Class Test 2
Hist 2110 at Georgia State University: Professor Conner's Class Test 2 Hist 2110
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Date Created: 06/29/16
Lecture 1: Test2 The MarketRevolution Key Questions What factors contribute to the Market Revolution? How/why? Causes? Why do women go to work in the factories? What are some advantages/disadvantages for them? What economic and social effects occur due to the market revolution? In rural/urban areas? In communities? In the workplace? Family? Notes Market Revolution: 1815-1860 Began in northern states Shift from subsistence -> impersonal Agricultural -> commercial Barter ->cash Improvements in technology and transportation allow this change in economy and create the market revolution Transportation: o changed from “corduroy” roads to steamboats and railroads o Erie Canal-1825 Upstate NY Albany to Buffalo Albany-> all of eastern coast because of Hudson River and it empties in the Atlantic Ocean Buffalo-> Lake Erie to all of the Midwest Farmers grow more (sell through Erie Canal) to get cash so they can buy manufactured goods which increases their standard of living Technology o John Deere Plow (1837) o McCormick Reaper (1831) o Cotton gin (1793) South’s staple crop was cotton, mainly exported to England for textiles The north got an idea to create a textile industry in the US that way they can keep the money in the US strengthening the economy Women in factories o Men don’t want the jobs o “send us your daughters, we will take care of them!” mainly farmers’ daughters o Lowell “Mill Girls” – late teens and early twenties o They send money to their families to support financially o Work long hours (usually 14 hours a day) 6 or 7 days a week o Dangerous- heavy machinery o Bad conditions- no heat or A/C, breathe in cotton everyday leading to respiratory problems o Live in company housing, required to go to church and are constantly supervised- loss of freedom/independence o Independence in the sense of having their own income instead of asking a husband or father for money Market Revolution and Effectsonthe Workplace o Separation of production from retail o Master craftsmen became bosses instead of producers o Traditional bond between masters and workers is altered Masters impose discipline No longer have shared outlooks as producers New residential pattern- producers with other producers and other middle class individuals, and producers with other working class members in another neighborhood “Separate Spheres” o Men: Men’s place = world public sphere (politics/ workplace) bread winner upward social/economic mobility o Women Women’s place = home Home as refuge against immoral world- protect morality Domestic duties important Responsibility for ensuring morals (of family and society) Market Revolution o Transportation and manufacturing improvements helped cause it o Expanded web of economic connections o Production for external markets, not just local o Spread of industry o Growth of cities o Shift towards cash based economy o Improved standard of living Lecture 2: Test2 Antebellum Reform Movements Key Questions What are the common characteristics/ beliefs of reform movements? What are reformers’ goals/tactics? What roles do women play in reform efforts? Why? Notes Characteristics of Revivals/ Reform Belief in human agency, not predestination All people are equal in the eyes of god (even those low in society) Belief that millennium is imminent Perfectibility of individuals and society (believed its attainable) Idealistic and optimistic Second GreatAwakening 1800-1850 Primarily located in Northern States Women were veryactive Emotional style of religion Utopian Reformers Mainstream society is too corrupt; must breakaway Ideas of perfection, equality, communalism Ex: Shakers, Mormons, Oneida o Oneida: John Noyes Rejectmainstream class/gender/property norms Rejectexclusive/individual ownership Wantcomplete equality betweensexes Emphasize communal living Complex marriage Veryradical group Sylvester Graham Health reformer often called “father of vegetarianism” Purify body by purifying food Createdgrahamcrackers Self control andrestraint Temperance Movement Try to get people to stop drinking alcohol Women take active role in this movement- morality Play up social problems associatedwith alcohol o Too much money on alcohol not supporting family o Violence o Cognition/behavior/inhibition o Productivity o Health o Political ->drink alcohol and vote- supplied atelections Women’s Rights Wantto improve legal status- voting and property Seneca Falls Convention (1848) o Gathering of women’s rights activist (SusanB Anthony was a major one) o Declaration of Sentiments Major Milestones o New YorkMarried Women’s PropertyAct(1848) Allowed women to keep control of property she brings into the marriage (money) Allows fathers to care for their daughters if theymarry someone who blows through money- and leaves inheritance for their children Lecture 3: Test2 The Slave South Key Questions 1. Why do white Southerners support slavery? Economical/social benefits? 2. What are proslavery arguments that are made? 3. What is the experience of slavery like for slaves? Notes o Why Southerners’ support slavery o Neighbors who own slaves are more productive; they strive to be like their neighbors in their success o Non-slave owning whites want slaves road to wealth, success and status o Slavery as a “Necessary Evil” o 1770’s-1820’s o It was originally seen this way throughout the country, they knew it was wrong but needed slaves and were trying to phase it out since there was no good option other than slaves o “We have the wolf by the ear, and we can neither hold him nor safely let him go” -TJ o Hoped slavery diminish overtime if it becomes less profitable o South: slavery became more profitable when the cotton industry boomed in the South; economy depended upon slavery o North: abolish slavery (some states gradual) and call slavery evil o Slavery as a “Positive Good” o 1820’s-1860’s o Good for slaves/masters o See slavery as favor for slaves o “Freedom” for slaves in sense that they are “free” from responsibilities o White men in charge socially- white men are head of household (and head of society) regardless of whether or not they own a slave; white men are the “masters” of their family, especially over slaves Lecture 4: Test2 Jacksonian Democracy Key Questions 1. What are characteristics of Jacksonian Democracy? How expressed with Jackson’s politics? 2. What contradictions are there within Jacksonian Democracy? 3. Why do Americans push for Indian Removal? How/why do the Cherokee respond? Notes “Era of theCommonMan” Andrew Jackson: Born into severe poverty makes name for self and becomes rich Embodies the “Rags to Riches” ideal of the American Dream First “Western” President Speaks for the common folk, often called the Common man’s president * 1820’s all free men can vote-lifts property requirement forvoting* Jackson’s Philosophy o Limited national government o Ex: Maysville Road Veto --- only benefits Kentucky not whole country o Uses veto frequently- 1 president to veto because he doesn’t like something rather than because its unconstitutional o Government should protect individual liberties and serve the people’s will o The Spoils System o “Spoils” those who agree with Jackson o Puts democrats in office, replaces republicans o “Gives people what they want” they voted a democratic president- they want democratic office people/ democratic clerks o Against morality reforms (temperance) Indian Removal o Jackson’s number one priority when voted into office o Indians before 1820- “Noble Savages” o Cultural inferiority o Can become civilized if they conform to White American Lifestyle o “Five Civilized Tribes” adopted some of the White American Lifestyle tried to assimilate with religion, writing, constitution and growing cotton o Indians after 1820 – “Savages” o Biologically inferior/ racially inferior o Not capable of change/civilization o After Jacksonis president o GA expands state laws to include Cherokees Says Cherokee law is invalid- trying to saythey aren’ta sovereign nation o Cherokee sue Georgia, case makes it to the supreme court o 1832- “Worchester vs. Georgia” Supreme Court rules in favor of Cherokee GA ignores ruling and Jacksondoes not enforce ruling o 1830 Indian Removal Act Promise land in Westif they give up their land in the East o Trail of Tears 15,000 Cherokee forcedto move to Oklahoma, 4,000 die on the way Summary Jacksonpreaches to protectliberties, butrestricts theliberties if the Nativesandincreases the number of slaves. He onlyis willing to protectthe liberties ofthewhite men. Lecture 5: Test 2 Road to Succession Key Questions 1. Whatis free soil ideology? 2. How does debate about slavery and territories contribute to sectionalism? 3. How/why do sectional tensions result in succession? Notes Manifest Destiny: American’s have a duty to spreadprogress and liberty across the continent (west) Missouri Compromise (1820): o Boundary for slavery, 36 30 line o Missouri is a slave state o Maine enters as a free state Free Soil Ideology o Democracylinked to white men’s property ownership and ability to control own labor (slavery is the opposite of this) o Slavery is anobstacle to progress and democracy o Slavery should not spreadwest o Westis preservedfor “white man’s territory” o Component of new Republican party—basedin north o Against slavery because it hurts wages of working whites Polk as President(1846) o Says if he is electedhe will annex Texas (he also wants CA, NM) o Mexico wont sell Texas… SoPolk provokes Mexico to startwar War with Mexico: A Nation Divided o North feels like it is a movement to add more slave states o Wilmont Proviso (1847) o Would have banned slavery in any territory gained from MX o Proposedmany times, fails everytime o BUT, votes ran along sections of the US, not by political party o USwins war in 1848 o USgets AZ, TX, CA,NM (USSouthwest) o Do the states enter free or slave… Popular Sovereignty o Vote to be free or slave state o By 1850, CA canapply for statehood because itgained enough citizens due to the gold rush o CA wants to be free,but it will scue the numbers so it creates a problem Compromise of 1850 o CA admitted as a free state o Restof SWby Popular Sovereignty o Slave trade (not slavery) abolished in DC o New,more effective fugitive slave law o Passedas individual bills, failed as a package o 1 Henry Clay, 2 Steven Douglass (got it to pass as individual bills) Kansas Nebraska Act(1854) 1. Repeals MO Compromise line 2. Popular sovereignty for Nebraska andKansas o Proposedby StevenDouglas democrats angry because it allows potential for slavery so pissed off they create a new party, the Republican Party(NorthernBased) o Democrats are basedmainly in the South after this o Destroys the national Democratic Partyand sectional parties are born Fugitive Slave Act(1850) o All citizens must assist in returning runawayslaves o Poses danger to free blacks in North o North is angry at helping preserve slavery o South is angry at refusalto respectslaves as a property right Conflict Growing o HarrietBeecher Stowe o Uncle Tom’s Cabin o Never beento Southern Plantation o Exposes horrors of slavery- Northerners because increasingly angry with slavery and wantnothing to do with it and refuse tohelp with fugitive slaves’ return o Violence regarding slavery increases o Sumner Brooks Affair (1856) o Sumner speaks against slavery, especially in SC o Brooks, SC congressman beats Sumner with a cane andis kicked out of congress, Summer suffers brain damage, but southerners admire Brooks o Shows major conflict betweenNorth and South; no longer caninteract in a civil way regarding slavery AbrahamLincoln o Supports free soil, but says he will leave slavery alone where it is already existing o Republican candidate for president o Wins without Southern support o South upset- no voice in presidency; unfair representation Confederate States of America o Succeedfrom the Union to preserve slaveryand white supremacy Lecture 6: Test 2 Reconstruction Key Questions 1. Whatdo freedpeople value about freedom? 2. Whatare different approaches to Reconstruction? (Presidentialv Congressional) 3. Why does Reconstruction fail? 4. How does the status of blacks in the Post-Reconstruction South change over time? Notes th Amendments: 13 abolishes slavery 14 grants citizenship to freedslaves 15 voting cannot be denied on reasons of servitude, color or race (Loop hole- candeny right to vote on other premises) Share Cropping: Landowner provides the land; the tenant works the land in return for share of crop atharvest(tenants are often exploited) also creates massive debtfor famers (hardto pay back loans after badharvest) Cultural o AfricanAmerican women do not wantto work outside the home; they wantto take care of their families (eventually they have to go to work to support their families, but they wantedto be like the white women of the time) o They have a strong push for education- know it is the keyto success o Pushto exercise political rights (esp. suffrage) Presidential Reconstruction vs. Congressional Reconstruction Presidential: o Lincoln: o Implemented during war (Emancipation Proclamation) o For re-admission as states 10% of voting population must take loyalty oath Acceptfederalpolicies on slavery/emancipation o Johnson o Presidentafter Lincoln’s assassination o Accepts endof slavery, but favors white supremacy o Fails to protest Southern BlackCodes Black codes are state laws thatrestrict black rights (esp. voting) Congressional: o Invalidates southern state governments createdunder presidential (states must reapply for statehood) o Reapplication is stricter and forces military rule in south o Southern states mustguarantee black suffrage o Congress must approve statehood Compromise 1877 o Hayes electedpresident if he pulls out troops from the South o Making dealwith devil; neglects Republican beliefs for political votes Ku Klux Klan o Try to regain control andenforce white supremacy o Terroristic tactics o Federalgovernment steps in (reluctantly) to take action against KKK;trails against some members Socially Restrictions onVoting o Poll tax: tax to vote, and must pay tax for all years eligible to vote not just currentelection year o Grandfather Clauses: o Literacy Tests:must pass reading testto vote o These should effectwhites,but it is directed only towardfreedmen Increasing Segregation Plessyvs. Ferguson o Supreme Court rules “separate but equal” is legal… leads to Jim Crow laws Summary: Reconstruction collapse, often called a “failed revolution” and leads to further injustice in the forms of Jim Crowe laws when the North doesn’t uphold the laws it creates andwhenthe South ignores the created laws
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