Hist 2110: Test 3 All Lecture Notes
Hist 2110: Test 3 All Lecture Notes Hist 2110
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Date Created: 06/29/16
Lecture 1: Test 3 The Progressive Movement Key Questions 1. Who are the “Progressives?” What are their beliefs/goals? 2. What are some examples of Progressive Reforms? How do those reforms demonstrate Progressive beliefs? 3. How do US international efforts reflect Progressive outlook? 4. Are Progressives reformers or agents of social control? Notes The US at this time is very industrialized, resulting in: o Growing class divide o Poverty o Corruption (political and business) o Monopolies The Progressives want to address the above issues o Middle class o “Help those less fortunate” Forms of Progressives o Muckrakers: Journalist who expose the horrible truths behind various industries o Tarbell standard oil expository o Riis “How the Other Half Lives” about poverty in NY; includes photographs and a call to action o Upton Sinclair meat packing industry in Chicago “The Jungle” undercover journalist writes about the meat packaging industry and the exploitation of the animals and the workers (community is outraged) Leads to Pure Food and Drug act in 1906 (FDA established) o Middle Class Women o Focus on consumer protection (food inspection, child labor, etc.) o New “Professionals” o Beaurocrats and administrators o Era of business schools and programs (MBA) Progressive Values: o Optimistic and Idealistic society capable of improvement o Emphasis on social connections and bonds o Fait in science and expertise; rational solutions o Believe gov’t must take active role in society and economy (one of most important values) Prior to the Progressive Era: Laissez Faire Capitalism and Social Darwinism During the Progressive Era: Reject Laissez Faire and Social Darwinism o Laissez Faire Capitalism: Government stays out of economy and let market sort things out o Social Darwinism: “Survival of the fittest” “get ahead in business because of your inherited traits” same goes for “failure”/poverty Settlement Houses o NOT housing projects/developments o They are community places only some social workers are able to live in the Settlement Houses o Hull House o Jane Addams1889 o Response to Riis turn poverties conditions around o Geared towards immigrants English language classes, daycare, vocational skills, health clinics and playgrounds and physical changes to the community o Teaches white upper class standards, which are not always attainable or desirable —“How much do I give up to assimilate to white American culture?” this is what the Progressives push for “White Americanism” Progressive Movements Suffrage for Women o Not a push for equality, but for women to be better wives and mothers o Not trying to alter existing gender norms o 19 Amendment: 1920 o Women get right to vote Trustees o Control companies form monopolies o Example: Standard Oil Co. – Rockefeller o Progressives want to break up the existing trusts Teddy Roosevelt o “Good trusts” stay in business, breaks up “bad trusts” Overseas Expansion o War with Spain in 1898 o Period of economic growth o Spread progress (Americanization) to less developed counties (this is like manifest destiny) this is an ideal created by Teddy Roosevelt o After war, US gets Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines World War I: The Great War o Result of competition and secret alliances among European Powers o Triggered by murder of Arch Duke Ferdinand and his wife in 1914 o Allied Powers vs. Central Powers o America tried to remain neutral o Enters war after unrestricted submarine warfare o Germany sinks Lusitania (commercial ship) 1200 die mainly civilians; Germany sinks it because they believe it may be carrying weapons to England o Wilson is President during this time Democracy Abroad, Restrictions at home o Propaganda for support of war “Four minute men” 100% Americanism o Alien and Sedition Acts Illegal to criticize draft or US government (against amendment 1) Used to crack down on labor and radicals Fourteen Points o Wilson’s Peace Plan o Calls for… o Self determination (self rule, not colonization) o Freedom of seas o Arms reduction o League of Nations to arbitrate international disputes (US never Joins) Summary Progressives believe the world is capable of rational government and improvement. Progressive ideals fade after WWI Lecture 2: Test 3 The Roaring Twenties Key Questions: 1. How does technological change affect society and economy? (Cars; electricity) 2. What changes are stimulated by mass communication/advertising? 3. How/ why di traditionalist respond? “Roaring” – Booming economy Effects of the Model T o Created by Henry Ford o Uses assembly line, but streamlines it (Revolutionizes it) o 90 mins to build a car vs. 12 hours previously o Makes more affordable o Very productive o Leads to growth in other industries o Steel, rubber, etc. o Development of suburbs don’t have to live in the city because you can now drive into the city for work o Trips for Pleasure o Surge in restaurants, motels, road maps, tourist attractions o Spread of Electricity o Leads to “time saving” goods Electric washers, etc. Formation of Credit o Installment Plans o Pay some upfront and the rest in payment plans o Usually for electrical goods Ex: electrical washers, refrigerators, electric stove tops o Advertising Industry Grows Make a better person by buying these goods Shift to materialism, “Keeping up with the Jones’) Advertise toothpaste and deodorant BO and Bad Breath Social diseases created Leisure o Movie Theaters created o Ex: The Fox Theater (1929) o Sports o Sports Arenas o Sports stars advertise goods with their fame (endorsements) Flappers o Radicals (women) want same social rights as men o Smoke in public, play sports, drink in speak easies. o Typically women from middle class, in cities o Wear makeup (traditionally actresses and prostitutes wear makeup) o Shorter dresses and shorter hair o Small percent of population marketing makes it look larger than reality o Flapper Image without the flapper lifestyle is common There is intense conflict of economic and social growth with traditional values. Who can be an American and what is an American? Traditionalist o Do not like the new (flapper) changes o Backlash against flappers, immigrants and African Americans o Culture Wars Before 1890 o “Old Stock” immigrants o North and Western European o England, Germany, Ireland o “Look like Americans” After 1890 o “New Stock” immigrants o South and Eastern Europe o Italy, Russia, Poland, Greece o Seem different than Americans o Not protestant (may be Catholic, Muslim, Jewish) o May dress differently o Look foreign from native born Americans o Increasing number of immigrants Sacco and Vanzetti o Court Case o Pay roll robbery, guard killed o Both lied to the cops and carried guns o Both have alibies and ballistics prove they did not do it o DA wants to prosecute anyways because of who they are/represent o Found guilty by jury appeal 56 times and lose every time o Executed by electrical chair for a crime they did not commit Immigration Reform o John Reed Act (1924) o Cap on total immigration (161 K annually) o Quota (2% nations representation in 1890 census) o Limits/excludes southern and eastern Europe o Cuts off Asia o Does not limit Latin America Resurgence of the KKK o 1920’s at top of Stone Mountain, GA o Not just anti African American o Now Native White Protestant Supremacy more violent and employ economic terrorism o 3 million members Lecture 3: Test 3 The Great Depression and New Deal Key Questions: 1. What are the causes of the Great Depression? 2. What is Hoover’s response? Compare with FDR? 3. What are goals of the New Deal? How do programs try to achieve them? 4. How/why does Huey Long criticize the New Deal? What are pros/cons of his alternative? Notes The Great Depression was caused by the stock market crash—it was unregulated at this time—some even play stocks on credit o Panic selling realize stocks have no actual value and want to cash out before others realize the same Wheat was needed for WWI for the army so the US inflated the price of wheat to give incentive to farmers to produce greater quantities of wheat farmers became too productive (grow more than they can sell) soil become dry in Midwest due to the dry soil and the dust bowl is created (naturally) Causes of the Great Depression Immediate Cause: Stock Market Crash in October 1929 Underlying Causes: o Lack of diversified economy (auto and consumer spending are the main ones growing) o Uneven distribution of wealth Self perpetuating problem International situations worsen problems Banks go under (played stock on investors money), people lose their home and roughly 25% are unemployed (does not count underemployed or over qualified workers) President Hoover’s Response: Voluntary Cooperation o Keep factories open and people employed hurts in short term but helps long term o Problem… Voluntary… businesses cut production to save money Government Stimulation of Economy o Hoover Dam massive projects to employ people and kick start the economy o Provide federal loans for railroad projects Opposed Direct Aid to Citizens o Willing for government intervention, but draws line for private citizens o Believes it removes incentive to work (gov handouts) Place for private charities not federal government Hoovervilles o Shack communities named by the residents living in them blamed Hoover for their poverty Bonus Army Situation1932 o Background: Veterans who fight in WWI get bonus by 1945; when older and not working o Veterans want their money early because they feel they will be dead in 1013 years when they would receive their bonuses. They camp out in DC o Hoover sends in Army to drive out veterans but army goes too far bayonets and tear gas o Citizens believe Hoover doesn’t care about them, especially because of the way he treated the veterans. FDR: A New Direction Sense of optimism and that the Depression is fixable Created “Fireside Chats” to communicate with the public and show that he cares; explains the steps he takes to help correct the problem Bank Holiday o Close banks to inspect and they can reopen if they are found to be secure and stable (cant open if they aren’t) o Explains this in a fireside chat Goals of the New Deal Program (3 R’s) o Relief: provide relief to poor and unemployed o Recovery: Encourage recovery of agricultural and industrial sectors (thus reducing need for relief) o Reform: Reform government and economic system in order to prevent future problems Criticism o Too much money spent o Too much government intervention o Huey Long represents small farmers/ small people Alternative: “Share our wealth plan” Max on income and minimum on income and puts a tax on those who have more than the max and includes family inheritance Homestead allowance Free college education Old age pensions Veterans pension (bonus) Lecture 4: Test 3 America and WWII Key Questions 1. How/why does America become involved in WWII? 2. How did WWII affect the home front, especially women and African Americans? 3. How do US officials justify Japanese internment? What are the effects on the Japanese Americans? Notes NYE Committee Conspiracy Theory that many Americans begin to believe Did the banks/ arms manufacturers push the US to enter the war for profit vs. the idealistic crusade Wilson advertised it as “Merchants of Death” (Big banks and corporations) Europe Want to reestablish and improve the country o Hitler creates scapegoat Jewish See Germans as superior race Creates internment camps and wants to exterminate any nonGerman (especially the Jewish) Motivation German Homeland Appeasement o Give Hitler what he wants in hopes it satisfies him but Hitler can’t be appeased he wants a war to prove German supremacy o British and French do this but realize this is a bad idea when Hitler invades Poland an then rest of western Europe Japan See themselves as superior race in Asia Want to build an empire o Don’t have resources to sustain empire (expansion) o Mainly invades Asia (Manchuria, China, etc.) o Europe and US didn’t take action until 1940’s US Intervention o Stops oil sales to Japan and stops selling scrap metals o Japan feels war is the only option left Arsenal of Democracy (Dec 1940) Imperative to Assist Allies o Oceans will no longer protect US o Axis victory means possible global domination US Role to Supply Allies not Fight o LendLease Program (March 1941) US can sell or lease arms to nations in our nation’s interest Sinking of the USS Rueben James Unofficial naval warfare with Germany in the Atlantic Ocean (fall 1941) Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor Dec 7, 1941 Americans NOW support war with Japan only Japan is allies with Germany, so Germany declares war on US leading the US to be involved in European Theater Major War Combatants Allies: Great Britain, Free French, USSR, US, China Axis: Germany, Japan, Italy Most European fighting is done in the USSR Begs allies to invade France to take some of the heat away from the Soviets Normandy (DDay) June 6, 1944 Allied Armies invade France on coast Germany surrenders one week later Pacific Island Hopping US Strategy o Seize one island, then hop to another and continue the process getting closer to Japan o Brutal fighting o Japanese have mentality “suicide before surrender” to keep their honor Kamikaze o Load planes with bombs and fly into US ships hoping to sink them o USS Franklin WWII ends Depression – puts people to work During Depression women don’t work During War women are encouraged to work (“Men's jobs” industrial) Women have a pay imbalance Contradiction Us fighting for freedom of others but at home, African Americans are discriminated against and women have a pay imbalance A Philip Randolph Proposes a march on Washington in 1941 o Protest that they aren’t hired for defensive jobs (well paying) FDR ask Randolph to cancel march if FDR will make clause about discrimination towards defensive jobs “Double V” Campaign Need victory against fascism and victory over Jim Crow laws Biggest Contradiction Japanese Treatment US even before P.H., was skeptical of the Japanese (question their loyalty) Feeling after P.H. They are spies for Japan when living on west coast (cant be trusted) FDR passes act saying he can remove people from their home if need only used on the Japanese not the German or Italian Americans Lecture 5: Test 3 The Cold War Key Questions 1. Why did the US drop the atomic bomb? 2. What is containment? Notes Truman: takes over for FDR (dies in office) and learns about the Manhattan Project Manhattan Project: Development of atomic bomb August 6 Hiroshima and Nagasaki Use to minimize American loss vs. land invasion if they can drop a bomb End war ideally not needing additional invasions Cost 2 billion dollars to builtdon’t want to “waste” it Post WWII Truman takes harder stance on Soviets Doesn’t want to look like appeasement Coldwar US and Soviets never go to war Does have espionage, arms development, development, proxywars (US Supports South Korea and soviets support North Korea) Lasts roughly 40 years US Strategies to Combat Communism Economic Aid o Marshall Plan (1848) Economic aid to Europe for recovery $$ to be spent on US goods/services Containment o Use strong military/economic resistance to contain spread communism o Truman Doctrine (1947) US policy to support free peoples against outside subjugation Domino Theory If one country falls to communism, the rest of the countries surrounding them may fall to communism as well Eisenhower Emphasize nuclear industry Massive retaliation o Respond with overwhelming force o Determent o Mutually assured destructionwipe out each other Likely outcome of massive retaliation Becomes arms race between US and USSR Lecture 6: Test 3 The 1950’s: The Age of Affluence Key Questions: 1. How does containment influence US domestic concerns? 2. What are the effects of the babyboom and culture of affluence? 3. What are some of responses and/or contradictions to the 1950’s affluence? Notes: The Red Scare: Fear of communism in America 1947 House Committee on UnAmerican Activities (HUAC) o Targets those in Hollywood “Are you or have you ever been communist?” o Hollywood Ten Do not answer questions Follow first amendment rather than the fifth Blacklisted cannot work ever Guilt by association o Moves beyond Hollywood to everyone o Integrated into culture o The Crucible is written at this time and is an allegory to the Red Scare/ McCarthyism Joseph McCarthy US Senator Says he has a list of 200 people in government who are communist, but the number tends to vary (decrease) over time Begins character smearing people saying they’re communist and awful o Creates evidence that they are communist Investigates the US army, especially Generals and its broadcasted on TV o After this people begin to doubt him 19451960 More in the middle class Faith in technology easier and better life Emphasis on family Babyboom Growth of population Men coming back from war and having families and those who lived through the Great Depression and war are getting married because they can now afford it Women getting married younger and having more children Family oriented TV Fuels economic growth must buy more because there are more children Surge in housing developments cheap to build and cheap to buy (affordable) Sunbelt South and Southwest Warm and inexpensive Growth in development Car becomes important since suburbs are growing o Restaurants (fast food) o Drivein theaters 1950’s: Time of Conformity Women go back to working in the home Women are told to please their husbands Don’t question it until the early 60’s Friedan “Feminine Mystique” 1963 Book “Problem that has no name” About women’s frustration on conformity on these issues Challenges to 50’s Conformity in Literature and Film Emphasis on spontaneity Teenagers rebel conformity Catcher in the Rye about fake people in society James Dean Rebel Without a Cause Rocknroll: loved by teens and heated by adults (teens love Elvis) Segregation Everything is segregated throughout country African Americans living at or below poverty line (contradiction) o Not everyone is affluent Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) o Rules segregated school systems are unconstitutional (Kansas) o Schools are to be integrated with “All deliberate speed” o Little Rock Nine Integrate Central High School Chosen for their great academic performance Lecture 7: Test 3 The Civil Rights Movement Key Questions 1. What type of strategies/tactics do Civil Rights activist use? Why? 2. What are different perspectives on Civil Rights within the Black community? (MLK vs Malcom X) 3. Why does the movement become fragmented? Notes Citizen’s CouncilWhites advocating segregation Emmitt Till 1955 o Leaves Chicago to visit family in Mississippi (he’s 14) o Whistles at a white girl not knowing the racism is worse in the south, and is never seen alive after that night. o White men break into the house, take him and brutally beat him and throw his body in the river. o Takes a long time to find it, and his mother is advised to have a closed casket funeral since the body is in such bad shape, but she refuses because she wants everyone to see what all these men did to him Rosa Parks Challenges Montgomery Bus System leading to the bus boycott Montgomery Bus Boycott1955 o Don’t take buses that way it puts pressure on the city to change the policy o They walk and carpool instead lasts 381 days o Almost causes city to go bankrupt o Buses become integrated by peaceful protest Black Churches Play a Role in Civil Rights JFK: Galvanizes youth to action (1960’s) Teens become involved College students sitin at Greensboro lunch counter and demand service they deserve Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) o Student run o Refuse adult control of organization A lot of the civil rights movements stem from younger generation In 1963 Civil Rights begsin to slow down… so… Birmingham 1963 (Most segregated city in US) MLK Police respond with violence and mass arrest (including children) and documented by media MLK breaks law saying its unjust and those are the laws that are worth breaking Malcom X: From North different type of injustice more subtle Hostile towards whiteswant to blacks to get ahead and not unify with whites Keep money in black communitydon’t involve whites More violent approachmore radical Lecture 8: Test 3 US and Vietnam Key Questions 1. How does the US become involved in Vietnam? How does commitment change over time? 2. Why does the American public turn against war? What is the role of media in this shift? Student protest/counterculture? 3. How is Vietnam different from previous conflicts? 4. What are effects/ consequences of Vietnam? Notes Ho Chi Minh: Communist leader; fought for Vietnamese independence Hopes America will support his independence, but supports France in gaining Vietnam as a colony again Don’t help Vietnam because leader is communist o Fear “Domino Theory” Geneva Accords (1954) French defeated and withdrew Vietnam divided along 17 parallel o Communist North, led by HCM o Democratic South, backed by US Elections to be held by 1956 to unify North Vietnam Led by Ho Chi Minh Communist Backed by USSR and China South Vietnam: Led by Ngo Dinh Diem Democratic (in theory) Backed by US Becomes tyrant o Repress Buddhist o Repress communist o Does not care about South Vietnamese The US “Enemy” Viet Cong (VC): South Vietnamese insurgents who support HCM o Use Terror and guerilla tactics to destabilize South Vietnam from within North Vietnamese (NVA): external enemy US Bombs NV, but does not invade Ground combat in SV to try to prevent spread of communism 1950’s US Supports and Trains South Vietnam Kennedy continues this in the 1960’s Johnson does not want this to continue, but us pressured by politics wanted to focus on domestic Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Aug 1964 Response to North Vietnamese attack on US war ships Grants openended authority to President Johnson o “Take all necessary measures” Expansion of Presidential power to conduct war; bomb to break their will to fight Attrition Never declare war Break down and make them submit (N.V.) US Marines Arrive in SV in 1965 500,000 troops moved to land in SV Children of WWII veterans average age is 19 in war Racial and class divisions Insurgent fight cant always identify enemy Body count tells if you are winning war or not Americans support war at first, but then turn against it in the late 1960’s Wonder if victory is achievable Tet Offensive North Vietnam and Viet Cong fighters attack cities/bases in South Vietnam Communist goal was to spark popular uprising in South and overthrow south Vietnam government Result in defeat on battle field for communist forces, but victory in sense Americans begin questioning what is going on and what the government is telling them (win politically) Leads to antiwar effort Antiwar Effort and Counterculture Typically young adults Reject middle class efforts o Sexual repression, materialism, etc. Woodstock music festival o Some antiwar music is included major part of counterculture “Drop acid, not bombs” and “make love not war” Vietnamization Nixon says he will end war, but will take 4 years US trains troops in SV so the US can pull out of war Does not win war, but does let US leave “Peace with Honor” 1973 Peace Agreement o Us Pulls out, NV returns Prisoners of War (POW) o NV ends up taking over SV because their government is weak War Powers Act1973 If president sends troops overseas, congress notified within 48 hours Congress must approve in 60 days or troops are withdrawn Veterans treated poorly and hostile Vietnam Syndrome: Citizens don’t want to be involved uncles we know WHAT we are getting into and HOW we are going to get OUT Lecture 9: Test 3 The Rights Revolution and the Rise of Conservatism Key Questions: 1. Why did the Civil Rights movement become so fragmented? 2. How/why do other groups (women’s and gay rights) build on African American Civil Rights movement? What are their goals? 3. What factors contribute to the rise of conservatism? 4. How does Reagan’s presidency represent a fundamental political shift? Notes Civil Rights Act of 1964 Banned discrimination in public facilities and employment Result of Birmingham protests in 1963 Does not address voting rights (loopholes in current voting law) Voting Rights Act of 1965 Outlawed grandfather clauses, literacy tests, etc. that restricted voting High point of Civil Rights movement Conflict: Is true change actually possible? Still dealing with poverty, discrimination and inequality Conflict over which is the best way to counter these problems? MLK vs Malcom X approach Did end Jim Crow Era Women Women’s rights resurged in the 1960’s Some radical, some reserved Want to go to college, get jobs and work but still have family “Modern Woman” National Organization for Women (NOW) o Push for equal employment opportunities and equal pay for equal work o Want women in political office Women’s Liberation o More radical group; burn bras and makeup o Go against sexism and similar topics Gay Liberation Great repression after WWII Could be fired from job if gay, especially in government jobs Medical committee said it was a disease and homosexuals were subjected to being locked into mental institutions and forced treatment of lobotomies, electrical shock therapy, etc Summer 1969 Stonewall Inn o Patrons begin to fight back(socially and physically) at bar when being arrested o Leads to small riots o Gay liberation vs gay resistance spread nationally Conservatism Chicago Democratic National Convention of 1968 Protestors are outside meeting (protesting war) Police attack them, starts as antiwar then antipolice People associate Democratic Party with upheaval/chaos Republicans upplay this People shift towards stability—Conservatism/Republicanism Wallace1968 Third Party Candidate Running for President o Appeals to white southerners because he is against civil rights (prosegregation) Nixon Republican Also running on “Law and Order” Platform (like Wallace) Wants to appeal to the “Silent Majority”those not voicing their opinions (radical movements threaten tradition) Appeals to southern white democrats to win (will not further create civil rights, but will not take away them either) Spread of Conservatism Too much money spent in Vietnam so it affects those in the US (rationing of gas) Want social conservatism family values Ronald Regan Threads together conservatism “Are you better off today than you were four years ago?” o most answer no, Reagan wants to fix the economy Social Conservatism appeals to traditional Republicans Wants to break down New Deal social programs “too much money going towards handout” Reaganomics He appeals to traditional Republican base, southern whites, blue collar workers, and the suburbanites
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