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Marketplace > Ohio State University > Biology > BIOLOGY 1101 (Evan Waletzko) > BIO 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE
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This is a compilation of all my Biology 1101 midterm study guides, with a final review at the end of the most important concepts I gathered from the last few chapters that helped me pass the final.
Introduction to Biology (BIO 1101, Evan Waletzko)
Evan Waletzko
Biology, Bio, Science, bio1101, midterm, exam, study-guide, bio-1101
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BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG Table of Contents • All CARMEN QUIZZES throughout the semester • All LECTURE NOTES derived from PowerPoint slides and What Is Life? required textbook • All answers to IN-CLASS ACTIVITIES • Answers to all TOPHAT QUESTIONS asked throughout the semester • All What Is Life? TAKE-HOME MESSAGES for required readings and some suggested readings • FINAL REVIEW CARMEN QUIZZES 1 Earned 5/5 points. 1. Which of the following IS a polysaccharide? a. Insulin (hormone) b. Cellulose c. Fructose (monosaccharide) d. Glucose (monosaccharide) 2. Which of the following is NOT a protein? a. Hemoglobin b. An enzyme c. Cholesterol d. Insulin e. An antibody 3. Energy used in cellular respiration can originate from: a. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. b. c. 4. Glycogen belongs in the class of molecules known as: a. Polysaccharides. b. 5. What can happen if an enzyme is altered, even slightly? a. It won't work anymore. 2 Earned 5/5 points. 1. Which statement is NOT part of the modern cell theory? a. Cellular reactions include both energy-releasing and biosynthetic types. 1 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG b. Cells arise from other cells. c. All living organisms consist of one or more cells. d. The first cell arrived on earth from outer space. e. Cells contain hereditary information that passes from one generation of cells to the next. 2. Which of the following is a cellular characteristic of ALL eukaryotes? a. A nuclear membrane i. ii. iii. 0.Problem%20Set%202%20KEY.pdf 3. A cell's interior is considered isotonic to the surrounding fluid when: a. The solute concentrations are the same within and outside the cell. i. 4. The primary function of molecular membranes is the transport of ions and molecules in and out of cells. The movement of molecules from areas of low concentration to those of high concentration against chemical gradients is best described as: a. Active transport 5. Which of the following is NOT true of ALL cells? a. They eliminate wastes, b. They assimilate nutrients. c. They move by means of flagella or cilia. i. d. They have DNA as their genetic material. e. They synthesize new cellular material. 6. The principle components of cell membranes are… a. Lipids i. 7. Sugar and CO2 are dissolved in water to make carbonated soft drinks. Which of the following is the solute? a. The water and the sugar b. The water and the CO2 c. The CO2 only d. The sugar and the CO2 e. The sugar only i. ii. 8. Which of the following organelles are enclosed by a double membrane? a. Mitochondria and chloroplasts i. 9. Active transport, the movement of molecules from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration across the membrane, is often coupled with processes that… a. Gain energy (something like that) 2 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG 3 Earned 5/5 points. 1. Which of the following is NOT a product of photosynthesis: a. Water b. Oxygen c. Sugars d. Carbon dioxide e. None of the above; all are products of photosynthesis 2. When energy is converted from one form to another: a. The quantity of energy in the universe changes. b. Some energy is converted to heat. c. It becomes more useful to organisms for fueling cellular activity. d. A small amount of energy is created. e. A small amount of energy is destroyed. 3. Which by-product of photosynthesis was important in altering the atmosphere of the earth so that aerobic organisms could evolve? a. Oxygen b. Air c. Carbon dioxide d. Methane gas e. Nitrogen 4. The graphs above show data relating to seasonal differences in the amount of pigment molecules present in leaves and how this is related to leaves changing colors. What is the dependent variable presented in these graphs? a. Time at which the amount of pigment was measured b. The wavelengths of light reflected by each photosynthetic pigment c. The seasons in which the measurements were taken d. The measure of the amount of each pigment molecule present in leaves e. The difference in pigment between spring and fall 5. Fermentation reactions generally occur under conditions of a. Low glucose levels b. High oxygen concentrations c. High temperatures d. Low methane concentrations e. Low oxygen concentrations 4 Earned 5/5 points. 1. Peas were well-suited for Mendel's breeding experiments for all of the following reasons except: a. Peas have a particularly long time between generations. b. Many of the characteristics that vary in pea plants are controlled by single genes. c. It is easy to obtain large numbers of offspring from any given cross. 3 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG d. Peas exhibit variations in a number of observable characteristics, such as flower color and seed shape. e. Mendel and his staff could control the pollination between different pea plants. 2. In pea plants, purple flower color is dominant to white flower color. If two pea plants that are true-breeding for white flowers are crossed, then the offspring will be the following: a. Half of the flowers will be purple and half will be white. b. One-quarter of the flowers will be purple and three-quarters will be white. c. All of the flowers will be purple. d. Three-quarters of the flowers will be purple and one-quarter will be white. e. All of the flowers will be white. 3. In snapdragons, flower color is inherited as a trait with incomplete dominance. There is an allele, Cw, that produces no pigment (white), and an allele, CR, that produces red pigment. A plant with the CWCR genotype will produce ____ flowers. a. Red b. White c. No d. Pink e. Two kinds of 4. In the case of Mendel's peas, a single gene determined the height of the plant; however, in humans, adult height is influenced by many genes. A trait such as human height is said to be: a. Multi-allelic. b. Incompletely dominant. c. Polygenic. d. Codominant. e. Pleiotropic. 5. Genes that are ______ do not assort independently, but they may recombine by crossing over. a. Polygenic b. Pleiotropic c. Linked d. Continuously variable e. Epistatic 6. Most genes come in alternative forms called: a. Chromosomes b. Alleles c. Gametes d. Recessives e. Dominants 7. Capital letters represent a dominant allele, and lower case for a recessive allele. At locus a (position along the gene), the individual bearing these two chromosomes is: a. Heterozygous for the recessive allele b. Heterozygous for the dominant phenotype c. Homozygous for the dominant phenotype 4 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG d. Homozygous for the dominant allele e. Homozygous for the recessive allele 8. The law of segregation states that: a. An allele on one chromosome will always segregate from an allele on a different chromosome. b. The number of chromosomes in a cell is always divisible by 2. c. Gametes cannot be separate and equal. d. The transmission of genetic diseases within families is always recessive. e. Each of two alleles for a given trait segregate into different gametes. 9. Which term refers to the genetic control of continuously varying traits such as height? a. Incomplete dominance b. Pleiotropic c. Multi-allelic d. Polygenic e. Codominant 10. Linked genes: a. Never have multiple alleles b. Never show crossing over c. Are on the same chromosome d. Have alleles that assort independently of each other e. Must be immediately adjacent to each other on the same chromosome 11. Which of the following did Gregor Mendel never see? a. An F2 generation b. A hybrid c. A pea d. A chromosome e. A stamen 12. A cross between homozygous red-eyed flies and homozygous white-eyed flies results in baby flies that all have red eyes. This result demonstrates: a. A dihybrid cross b. Dominance of genes c. The blending model of genetics d. The norm of reaction e. The law of independent assortment 13. The offspring from each cross done in Mendel's pea experiments always looked like one of the two parental varieties because: a. Each allele affected phenotypic expression. b. Many different genes interacted to produce the F1 phenotype. c. One allele showed complete dominance over the other. d. The traits blended together because of crossing-over in meiosis. e. Many different genes interacted to produce the parental phenotype. 14. Which of the following is NOT a continuously varying trait? a. Skin color b. Weight c. Eye color 5 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG d. Sickle-cell disease e. Height 15. We say that genes are linked when they: a. Are responsible for producing the same protein. b. Contain multiple alleles. c. Assort independently. d. Are located near each other on a single chromosome. e. Produce a balanced polymorphism. 5 Earned 5/5 points. 1. Evolution occurs: a. Only when the environment is changing. b. By altering physical traits but not behavioral traits. c. Only through natural selection. d. Only via natural selection, genetic drift, migration, or mutation. e. Almost entirely because of directional selection. 2. Evolution is defined as: a. A change in the frequency of a physical trait in a population over time. b. A change in a physical trait of an individual during its lifetime. c. A progressive "ladder" of changes from the most primitive organisms to the most advanced organisms. d. Survival of the fittest e. A change in the frequency of alleles in a population over time. 3. During gene flow, where do the genes flow to? a. The genes flow into and out of the population due to migration of individuals from one population to another. b. The genes flow from a locus on one chromosome to a locus on another chromosome. c. The genes flow from a locus on one chromosome to another locus on the same chromosome. d. The genes do now flow at all; flow is a mathematical metaphor for mean gene frequencies being unstable and drifting from one number to another. 4. Natural selection results from interactions between: a. Individual organisms and their genes. b. Species and their populations. c. Genes and ecosystems. d. Species and their environment. e. Individual organisms and their environment. 5. Which of the following is a statement that describes the concept of convergent evolution? a. Closely related organisms develop similar traits b. Organisms that are not directly related develop similar traits. c. Similar traits evolve at the same time in different organisms. d. Different organisms merge to become one species. e. Closely related organisms adapt to a wide range of different traits. 6 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG 6. A population consists of a group of organisms: a. Of the same species living in a specific geographic area that have the potential to interbreed. b. Living in a specific geographic locale. c. Of the same species. d. Consisting of 5,000 or more individuals. e. Residing in a geographic area that measures one square mile or greater. 7. All of the following statements are true about mutation EXCEPT: a. Mutations are almost always random with respect to the needs of the organism. b. The mutation rate can be affected by natural selection. c. The origin of genetic variation is mutation. d. A mutation is any change in an organism's DNA. e. Most mutations are harmful or neutral to the organism in which they occur. 8. When a sudden change in the environment, such as a flood or fire, reduces the size of a population, the survivors' collective gene pool will only be a limited representation of what was present before the disaster. This phenomenon is called the: a. Genetic load b. Culling effect c. Hardy-Weinberg effect d. Founder effect e. Bottleneck effect 9. In humans, random mating is most likely to occur for which of the following characteristics? a. Physical appearance b. Blood type c. Meow d. Meow e. Meow 10. Human birth weight is a classic example of the results of: a. Stabilizing selection b. Genotype by environment interaction c. Directional selection d. Genetic drift e. Disruptive selection 6 Earned 5/5 points. 1. Before exposure to the fear of snakes, a captive monkey will: a. Express a fear of a plastic snake b. Not reach over a plastic snake for food c. Reach over a plastic snake for food i. d. Reach over a real snake for food e. Eat a plastic snake as food 7 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG 2. In Belding's ground squirrels, why are females much more likely than males to engage in altruistic behavior by sounding alarm calls? a. Belding's ground squirrels have a sex ratio that is biased toward males. b. Belding's ground squirrels have a sex ratio that is biased toward females. c. Females invest more in foraging and food storage, so they are more likely to lose their lives or their food if a predator attacks. d. Females tend to remain in the area in which they were born, so the females that call are warning their own kin. i. e. Males have smaller vocal chords, which are unable to make sounds that can be heard from a distance. 3. When one monkey grooms another, the monkey being groomed has its fitness improved because: a. As a result of the grooming, the percentage of grooming alleles has increased in the population. b. The groomed monkey looks better afterward and is more likely to find mates. c. The groomer is avoiding an antagonistic encounter. d. The groomer is removing parasites. i. e. It now owes an obligation to the groomer. 4. The energy that a parent puts into the growth, feeding, and care of offspring is called: a. Reproductive success b. Kin selection c. Total reproductive output d. Reproductive investment e. The mating system 5. Which of the following is true about the sexual behavior of males and females? a. The sex of any species with the greater energetic investment in reproduction will be more discriminating about mating. i. =male+bush+crickets+spend+a+great+deal+of+effort+courting+females,+while+f emales+are+much+choosier&source=bl&ots=BSNc_jZT- N&sig=EQNLg0wYT6Q1x22tTe9PzWc6pKM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiZo _Ti1prLAhXim4MKHbbdCR4Q6AEIHDAA#v=onepage&q=male%20bush%20c rickets%20spend%20a%20great%20deal%20of%20effort%20courting%20females %2C%20while%20females%20are%20much%20choosier&f=false b. Females are generally more willing to take a mating opportunity; males are generally more hesitant. i. Opposite c. Nearly all mammals are characterized by a greater initial reproductive investment by males. d. Male bush crickets spend a great deal of effort courting females, while females are much choosier when picking a mate. i. Opposite 8 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG e. The sex of any species with the higher energetic investment in reproduction will compete for access to the sex with lower energetic investment. 6. Although most children don't talk until they are a year old, by the age of three they understand most rules of sentence construction, and the average of 6-year-old native English speaker already has a vocabulary of about 13,000 words. Language acquisition is: a. Highly variable across cultures b. Prepared learning c. A fixed action pattern d. An example of supernormal stimulus e. All of the above choices are correct 7. Altruistic behavior in animals may be a result of kin selection, a theory maintaining that: a. Genes are more likely to persist within a population when they cause behaviors that assist other animals that share those genes. b. Aggression between sexes increases the survival and reproduction of the fittest individuals. c. Companionship is advantageous to animals because in the future they can recognize those that helped them in the past and request help once again. d. Companionship is advantageous to animals because in the future they can recognize those that helped them in the past and provide help to those individuals. e. Aggression within sexes increases the survival and reproduction of the fittest individuals. 8. In a random study of 1000 wills, it was shown that ______ received the smallest share of a deceased's estate. a. Non-relatives b. Spouses c. Grandchildren d. Siblings e. Children 9. Which of the following is the best way to distinguish male from female? a. Males are larger. b. Males are more brightly colored. c. Males are more aggressive. d. Males produce motile gametes. e. All of the above choices are correct. 10. Usually, the female is more discriminating than the male when it comes to mating; however, in bush crickets, the opposite is the case. Why is this? a. The male contributes a massive amount of energy to the female during mating--his ejaculate makes up about one-fourth of his body weight. b. Male bush crickets are prettier than female bush crickets. c. Male bush crickets accept the newly fertilized zygotes from the female and incubate them. d. A male bush crickets must bring the female a large offering of food in order for the female to accept him as a mate. e. Male bush crickets have tremendous variation in the desirability of their territories. 9 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG 11. Behaviors that are learned easily and by all (or nearly all) individuals in a species are called: a. Instincts b. Fixed action patterns c. Prepared learning d. Innate behaviors e. Reciprocal altruism 12. In amphibians, it is generally the case that: a. The male invests more energy in the care of offspring than does the female b. Neither the female nor the male invest much energy in the care of offspring c. Both males and females invest significant energy in the care of offspring, but the female invests more d. Both males and females invest significant and equal energy in the care of offspring e. The female invests more energy in the care of offspring than does the male 13. Mate guarding is a reproductive tactic that functions to: a. Reduce paternity uncertainty b. Increase the female's investment in the offspring c. Reduce the male's reproductive investment d. Reduce the female's fitness e. Increase the number of mates to which a male has access 7 Earned 5/5 points. 1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a density-dependent limiting factor that will influence carrying capacity? a. Food supply b. Flooding c. Disease d. Predation e. Territory availability 2. Which of the following is NOT a factor that limits population growth? a. Density of parasites b. Insufficient food supply c. Lack of nesting space d. Accumulation of waste products e. All of these factors may limit population growth 3. In the graph depicted above, what does curve A represent and what does curve B represent? a. Logistic growth curve; maximum sustainable yield b. Exponential growth curve; logistic growth curve c. Logistic growth curve; exponential growth curve d. Logistic growth curve; carrying capacity e. Carrying capacity; logistic growth curve 10 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG 4. The lynx-snowshoe hare population dynamic pictured above represents an example of population: a. Unsustainability b. Logistic growth c. Demographics d. Oscillation e. Explosion 5. According to estimates by the United Nations, Earth's carrying capacity for humans is somewhere between… a. 7 to 11 billion b. 8 to 10 million c. 7 to 8 billion d. 6 to 7 billion e. 6 to 7 million 6. Population density is determined by the number of: a. Individual organisms in a given area b. Species in a given area c. Individuals of a species in a given area d. Individuals of a species in an ecosystem e. Breeding individuals of a species in a given area 7. Which factor is MOST LIKELY to have a density-independent influence on population growth? a. Availability of essential nutrients b. Availability of shelter c. Infectious diseases d. Abundance of prey e. Extreme weather conditions 8. The population size that a particular habitat can support indefinitely is called the: a. Carrying capacity b. Intrinsic population size c. Survivorship curve d. Realized niche e. Cohort 9. The purpose of a population model is to: a. Predict or explain changes in an organism's abundance from one generation to the next b. Demonstrate the effective population size of an endangered species c. Graph changes in a population over time d. Estimate the likelihood of extinction of an inbred population e. Test the effectiveness of conservation plans 10. A population pyramid: a. Can be constructed from data gathered in one census of a population b. Directly predicts future age distribution of the population c. Shows the current birth and death rates of a population d. Predicts survival and mortality rates for an individual at a given age 11 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG e. Reflects the number of individuals in various age groups in a population 11. A population: a. Consists of all of the organisms of a particular habitat b. Consists of any organisms of the same species c. Consists of all the breeding individuals in a group d. Is a group of coexisting organisms capable of interbreeding e. Is a semi-isolated group that maintains some level of gene flow with other groups 12. Density-dependent and density-independent factors influence the growth of a population by causing changes in the: a. Death rate and pattern of dispersion b. Age structure and birth rate c. Carrying capacity and age structure d. Pattern of dispersion and carrying capacity e. Birth rate and death rate 13. What type of effect has an increasing impact as the population size increases? a. Coriolus effect b. Density-independent effect c. Mortality effect d. Density-dependent effect e. Survivorship effect 14. A life history of an organism does NOT consist of the organism's: a. Birth b. Death c. Growth to maturity d. Reproduction e. None of the above choices is correct; all are part of an organism's life history. 15. A population pyramid with a wider top and thinner base represents ____, whereas a column-like (even at the base and the top) population pyramid represents ____> a. Increasing growth; declining growth b. Declining growth; stationary growth c. Stationary growth; increasing growth d. Declining growth; increasing growth e. Increasing growth; stationary growth 7 Earned 5/5 points. 1. The distribution of terrestrial biomes across the globe corresponds most to which of the following? a. Climate b. Organisms c. Human influences d. Entropy 2. ____ and _____ are the major factors that determine climate. a. Wind; elevation 12 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG b. Temperature; precipitation c. Elevation; precipitation d. Precipitation; wind e. Elevation; temperature 3. Most of the carbon in the earth's atmosphere exists as: a. Methane b. Carbon tetrachloride c. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) d. Carbonic acid e. Carbon dioxide 4. When two species battle for resources until one is driven locally extinct, the process is called: a. Competitive exclusion b. Resource partitioning c. Mutualism d. Parasitism e. Character displacement 5. The "competitive exclusion" principle states that: a. K-selected species will always outcompete r-selected species b. Dominant species can always outcompete recessive species c. Only two species may occupy the same niche in a given community d. No two species competing for the same resources can stably coexist e. Predators will always competitively exclude their prey 6. Which of the following is an example of an abiotic factor? a. Disease b. Average life span c. Rainfall in an ecosystem d. Rate of predation on a prey population e. Average litter size 7. Which of the following organisms would occupy a higher trophic level? a. Bacteria b. Rabbit c. Wolf d. Fungus e. Grass 8. Which type of organism takes the abiotic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) out of the soil and brings it into the food chain/web? a. Hawks b. Moles c. Snakes d. Worms e. Plants 9. The phenomenon in which species that live together in the same environment tend to diverge in those characteristics that overlap is known as: a. Competitive exclusion 13 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG b. Character displacement c. Resource partitioning d. Evolution e. Symbiosis 10. Keystone species: a. Occur only in intertidal zones b. Can be removed from a habitat without any impact on the remaining species in the habitat c. Are primary producers and, therefore, are usually plants d. Are more expendable than commensal species, from a conservation perspective e. Play an unusually important role in determining the species composition in a habitat 11. An ecosystem: a. Consists of all of the living animals in a given area b. Is composed of the plant life and climate of a given area c. Consists of all of the living and non-living things functioning together in an area d. Is composed of all of the abiotic factors that influence living organisms in a given area e. Consists of all of the living organisms in a given area 12. Roughly how much energy in a trophic level is available to the next trophic level? a. 10% b. 1% c. 75% d. 90% e. 50% 13. The largest reservoir of phosphorus in most ecosystems is: a. Dissolved in water b. In mycorrhizae c. Bound in below-ground plant tissues d. In the atmosphere e. In rocks and sediments 14. The "fundamental niche" of an organism is defined as the: a. Physical space that the organism occupies b. Range of environmental conditions under which the organism can survive and reproduce c. Area that an organism occupies immediately after birth d. Area in which the organism reproduces e. Climatic conditions required for the organism to survive and reproduce LECTURE NOTES Week 1 Notes • Science as a philosophy 14 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG o A process through which we can gain a better understanding of the world around us. o Science, however, is unlike other philosophies in that it is testable, falsifiable, and self-correcting. • Theory vs. Hypothesis o A theory is a blanket statement, or an explanation for a phenomenon or relationship of the natural world that has been extensively tested • Can still be falsified o A hypothesis is developed through experimentation and conclusion • The Scientific Method Observe, hypothesize, prediction, design experiment, conduct experiment, conclude, o review, redesign o Experimentation 3 variables: • § Standardized: variables the research tries to keep constant between all the treatments § Independent: variable you manipulate or change to determine if it affects the outcome being tested (x variable) § Dependent: variable measured as the outcome of the experiment, or what is being affected by the experiment (y variable) • Biological fitness o Survival which will allow the organism to leave the most copies of itself in future generations • Correlation vs. Causation o Correlation is not causation • For example, in Evan's powerpoint, the graph on slide 57 illustrates that the per capita consumption of mozzarella cheese is correlated (connected) to the number of civil engineering doctorates awarded. The graph on slide 58 shows that the per capita cheese consumption correlates with the number of people who died by becoming tangled in their bedsheets. Does that mean that the increase in PhD graduates caused people to die from becoming entangled in their bedsheets? No. does that mean that people dying from becoming entangled in their bedsheets caused more engineers to get their PhDs? No! • Levels of Organization in Biology o Molecular o Cellular o Organ/organ system o Organism o Population o Community o Ecosystem Week 2 Notes • Chapter 2: Chemistry o Learning Objectives • Describe what atoms are, their structure, and how they bond 15 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG • Understand water's features that help it support all life • Describe the structure and function of… § Carbohydrates § Lipids § Proteins § Nucleic acids o Overall theme: Molecular structure influences the properties of the chemical. • E.g. size, shape, polarity • Main 4 elements in the human body o Oxygen o Carbon o Hydrogen o Nitrogen Properties of water that make it critical to life • o Cohesion • Hydrogen bonds make water cohesive o Large heat capacity o Low density as a solid o Good solvent • Types of Macromolecules o Carbohydrates • C, H, and O • Primary fuel for organisms § Can be used as an energy source in the bloodstream § Can be stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver for later use § Can be converted to fat • Most carbohydrates are ultimately converted into glucose (a monosaccharide), which is blood sugar. • Complex Carbohydrates are "time-release" fuel pellets • Not all digestible § Cellulose -not digestible, but aids in digestion, because it contains fiber. § Chitin o Proteins • Essential dietary component for growth, repair, and replacement. • Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins. § 20 of them • 17,294 known gene codes for proteins § Each gene code can code for more than one protein. Therefore, there are a minimum of 17,294 proteins in the human body. • Types of Proteins § Complete: contain all essential amino acids § Incomplete: do not contain all essential amino acids § Complementary: incomplete proteins that when combined, have all essential amino acids How to think of proteins: • 16 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG § Plants make amino acids. § Then they string them together to make proteins. § When you digest a protein, your body breaks it apart into individual amino acids again. § To make your own proteins, your cells string these amino acids back together in a new order. • Shape is important. § Sequence determines shape. § Shape determines properties. § When shape is deformed, protein cannot function. o Nucleic acids • Store info on how to build and run a body. • Examples DNA § • Nucleotides: • Adenine (A) • Guanine (G) • Cytosine (C) • Thymine (T) § RNA • Single-stranded • Nucleotides: • Adenine (A) • Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) • • Uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) o Lipids Lipids do not follow the monosaccharide/polysaccharide relationship, but the • other three types of macromolecules do. • Store energy not for immediate use/for a rainy day. • Contain more stored energy than carbohydrate molecules • Types § Saturated and unsaturated fats § Sterols • Cholesterol • Steroid hormones § Phospholipids • Characteristics § Non-soluble in water, greasy to the touch § Functions • Long-term energy storage Insulation • • Membrane formation • Hormones 17 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG Week 3 Notes • Lecture 3: Cells o Learning Objectives • Describe what a cell is and the two general types of cells • Describe major differences between animal and plant cells • Cell Theory and Endosymbiotic Theory • Basic structure of membranes and their importance • The cell o Smallest unit of life that can function independently and perform al the necessary functions of life, including reproducing itself. o Nearly all contain DNA o Discovered by Robert Hooke in the mid-1600s when he was looking at cork Cell Theory • o All living organisms are made up of one or more cells. o All cells arise from other pre-existing cells. Types of Cells • o Prokaryotic -no nucleus o Eukaryotic -nucleus present Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Cells Single-celled Single to multi-celled Nucleus? No Yes DNA located Middle of the cell In the nucleus in… Noun Form Prokaryote Eukaryote Notes Structurally simple, If you can see it, it's a extremely diverse eukaryote. • Prokaryotes o Plasma membrane o Cytoplasm o Dna o Ribosomes -all cells that produce protein have ribosomes o Cell wall -protects and gives shape to cell • Basic Structure of Cells o Animal cells • Have centrioles, which aren't in plant cells o Plant cells • Chloroplast • Cell wall • Vacuole o In both animal and plant cells: Nucleus • 18 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG • Plasma membrane • Ribosomes • Mitochondria • There are 2 organelles associated with energy in eurkaryotes o Chloroplast -convert solar energy into chemical energy (glucose) • Found in plant cells • Plant cell's energy collector/converter § Site of photosynthesis • Light --> chemical energy (glucose) o Mitochondria -convert chemical energy (glucose) into another form of energy (ATP) Found in plant and animal cells • • Convert glucose to ATP • Important o There are many forms of chemical energy, but Evan said that we're only considering glucose in this class. o ATP is like a common currency, but it can be used by all cells. o Glucose cannot be used by all cells. • Endosymbiotic Theory o Explains presence of 2 organelles in eukaryotes, chloroplasts in plants, and mitochondria in plants and animals o Double membranes o Own DNA like bacteria o Circular Week 4 Notes • Chapter 4: Energy o Learning Objectives Potential vs. kinetic energy • • How energy flows from the sun and through all life on Earth • How photosynthesis uses energy from sunlight to make food • How cellular respiration converts food molecules into ATP, a universal source of energy • 2 key processes o Photosynthesis o Cellular respiration • Nearly all life depends on energy captured from the sun and converted into forms that living organisms can use. • Energy o The capacity to do work • Work is moving matter against an opposing force • Potential vs. Kinetic o Potential energy is stored energy • Types § Gravity gradient Chemical bonds § 19 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG • Chemical energy is a form of potential energy stored in chemical bonds. • All food has potential energy, because the chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds in the food can be broken and the energy can be released during cellular respiration. § Concentration gradient o Kinetic energy • Energy of moving objects § Heat energy § Light energy Made up of photons (like energy packets) • • Thermodynamics o Study of the transformation of energy from one type to another o Laws • First Law of Thermodynamics § Energy can never be created or destroyed. § It can only change from one form to another. • Second Law of Thermodynamics § Every time energy is converted from one form to another, the conversion isn't perfectly efficient. § Some of the energy is always converted to the least usable form of kinetic energy: heat. o Heat is useless to living organisms in performing work, but it helps with homeostasis. ATP is energy currency. • o Energy is stored in the bond between the phosphate groups. o The potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy. Electromagnetic Spectrum • o Range of energy that is organized into waves of different lengths. o The shorter the wavelength, the higher the energy. o The longer the wavelength, the lower the energy. • Photosynthetic Pigments o Primary photosynthetic pigment is called chlorophyll a. • Chlorophyll a efficiently absorbs blue-violet and red wavelengths of light. • Can't efficiently absorb green light. Reflects the green back, so that's why we see them as green. o Chlorophyll b • Absorbs blue and red-orange wavelengths • Reflects back yellow-green wavelengths o Carotenoids • Absorbs blue-violet and blue-green wavelengths Reflects yellow, orange, and red wavelengths • • Photosynthesis o Energy of sunlight is captured and stored as chemical energy. 2 steps: o 20 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG • Light reactions (photo-) -ATP § Make ATP from sunlight • Dark reactions (-synthesis) -Glucose § Make glucose from ATP o H2O + CO2 + Light Energy --> O2 + Glucose o 6H2O + 6CO2 + Light Energy --> 6O2 + C6H12O6 • Cellular Respiration o 2 steps: • Glycolysis § Occurs in cytoplasm § All organisms § Produces some ATP Universal energy-releasing pathway § § Just need to know that there's a net gain of ATP, not exact numbers. § Always the first thing organisms go through • Krebs Cycle + electron transport chain Occurs in mitochondria § § Produces waaaay more ATP than glycolysis § Needs oxygen § Most efficient method of producing ATP IN-CLASS ACTIVITIES Week 2 Earned 5/5 points. 1. What is the question the researchers asked before performing this experiment? a. Which sugar(s) do(es) the crab(s) respond to better? 2. If the crabs tasted a sugar, how did they predict they would respond? a. The researchers predicted that if the crabs tasted a sugar, they would release a feeding pellet. 3. What did the researchers find? a. The researchers found that the more complex the sugar, the more feeding pellets the crabs would release. 4. What is one characteristic of these sugars which could be influencing how the crabs responded? a. The complexity of the sugar. 5. Why did the researchers include a control group? a. It's part of the scientific method. b. It can't be a testable prediction if there's no control group. c. Also, to minimize the margin of error. d. Serves as a standard for comparison against the experimental group. 6. What is the benefit of having both a "male control" and a "female control" in this study? 21 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG a. The benefit of having both a male control and a female control is that we can compare the sex hormones in each. 7. If indeed Atrazine facilitates the conversion of testosterone to estrogen, how do you predict estrogen levels would differ between these treatment groups? Draw another graph similar to the one above with Estrogen in the y-axis. Draw this in the margins of your worksheet. a. Estrogen in the atrazine males would equate to or exceed estrogen levels in control females. 8. In this study, frogs were exposed to Atrazine during development (as tadpoles). This study did not explicitly test whether it was the absence of testosterone, or the presence of estrogen which led to the hermaphrodite state in Atrazine-treated males. Generate two alternative hypotheses, one of which addresses each of these possibilities. a. Hypothesis 1: If frogs are exposed to increased levels of estrogen, then they will turn into hermaphrodite state. b. Hypothesis 2: The absence of testosterone in frogs will lead to a hermaphrodite state. 9. Are your hypotheses mutually exclusive (that is, does support for one mean the other is rejected)? Why would this be an important consideration in scientific investigations? a. No, they are not mutually exclusive. This is an important consideration in a scientific investigation because then each will have to be tested separately. 10. Bisphenyl A (BPA) is another known endocrine disruptor. BPA is structurally similar to estrogen, and can initiate some of the same biological responses as estrogen. Like Atrazine, BPA seems to have a greater effect on developing individuals than adults. Why might endocrine disrupters that influence sex hormones have a greater influence during development? Growth and development is highly influenced by endocrine signals, so endocrine disrupters that influence sex hormones will interfere with development/have a greater negative effect during development. 11. A common saying by toxicologists is “the dose makes the poison.” How is this saying relevant to studies of endocrine disruptors such as Atrazine and BPA? a. There's a certain carrying capacity. b. This is relevant to studies involving endocrine disrupters because it's only harmful once it hits a certain level. Week 3 Antibody Activity Membrane IN CLASS ACTIVITY (anti-body, antigen) 1st question Antigen-foreign Antibodies first line of defense in of immune system Antigens are substances that elicit an immune Antibodies are proteins which ID particular antigens and neutralize them by binding to the antigen and then calling other elements of the immune system into action. 1. Why is it important that antibodies not react to an organisms' own cells? 22 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG a. If the antibodies reacted to its own organism's cells, then the organism would essentially self-destruct because the antibodies would be attacking its own cells. 2. The binding site of antibodies is highly variable (millions of possible forms). Why is it important for organisms to have many antibodies? a. So that they can identify the myriad antigens that could be detected in the body. 3. Some antibodies are on their own in blood plasma (the liquid portion of blood), but others are attached to B cells which either replicate or preserve themselves once “activated”. These B cells retain the antibodies on them and will remain in the body for the rest of the organism’s life. What advantage might organisms gain by having cells on hand with previous antibodies for antigens the organism has already encountered? a. Because then antibodies already know how to neutralize the antigens that the body has already encountered. 4. What is a real-life example of your response to #4 in action? a. Vaccinations, because the virus is already in your body so you don't get sick when you encounter it again. 5. When B cells replicate, is it making exact replicates of itself (mitosis), or slightly different varieties (meiosis)? How do you know? a. When B cells replicate, they are making exact replicates of themselves. I know this because that's the only way that these cells would have previous antibodies for antigens the organism has already encountered. Membrane IN CLASS ACTIVITY (blood type) 6. For each of the four ABO blood types, what are the antigens, and what types of antibodies would an individual of that blood type have? a. Type AB -A and B antigens, no antibodies b. Type A -A antigen, anti-B antibody c. Type B -B antigen, anti-A antibody d. Type O -no antigens, anti-A and anti-B antibodies 7. Individuals with type AB blood are often referred to as "universal recipients" and those with type O blood are often referred to as "universal donors." Explain the meaning of these descriptions. a. Individuals with type AB blood are "universal recipients" because they have no antibodies, so they can receive any type of blood without interference from antibodies. However, individuals with type O blood are "universal donors" because the blood cells have no antigens, so they can be accepted by any other blood cells. 8. If our bodies can mount an effective immune response towards red blood cells of the wrong ABO type, why is it so problematic for the recipient of the transfusion? a. Receiving the wrong blood type is problematic for the recipient of the transfusion, because the antibodies in its blood cells would attack the antigens and would reject the blood cells. For example, if someone with blood type O received a transfusion with blood type AB blood, the type O blood's anti-A and anti-B antibodies would attack the A and B antigens present in the type AB blood type. In-Class Activity: 2/23/16 Observation 23 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG Side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) are a small lizard species found in many states in the American West and Mexico. Males come in three varieties, each with a different throat color: orange, yellow, or blue. Those throat colors announce to the lizard world what mating strategy a male will use. Orange-throated males are bigger and more aggressive, and they have large territories with several females. Blue-throated males have smaller territories with only one female, and they cooperate with other blues for defense. Yellow-throated males, whose markings and behaviors mimic those of females, are known as "sneakers"; they don't keep a territory but instead cluster around and sneak into the territories of other males to mate with their females. scissors-118219795/#v3GzlL0rHpeo79CU.99 Hypothesis Certain morphs (yellow, orange, blue) will have greater fitness depending on the environment (competition) they find themselves in. Predictions • Orange will have a higher reproductive success when competing mainly against the color BLUE. • Blue will have a higher reproductive success when competing mainly against the color YELLOW. • Yellow will have a higher reproductive success when competing mainly across the color ORANGE. ***Each member of the group must pick a color and enter it into TopHat*** A. At this point you have already chosen your color and they are all displayed. B. Examine the results and determine which color type is the most prominent. C. Depending on your birth date (odd/even) you will be able to choose a new color for the next generation. Choose the color type that would do best in the current distribution of color types. D. I will open TopHat back up to do the next round. E. Go back to B. This will be done for 9 rounds. ***Graph the results of each round on one large graph*** 1. Use the terms "allele" and "population" in your description of what happened over the several generations we ran the simulation. a. The blue, orange, and yellow lizards represented different alleles present in the lizard population. 2. Only half of the students were allowed to change their colors in between rounds based on their birthdates. What was that simulating? a. The lizards that reproduced in each generation. The changed colors represent the lizards in the next generation. 24 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG 3. Over the course of the simulation was there a color type (morph) that was more successful (biological fitness) than all the others? Explain your reasoning. a. Yes. Orange. I added up the total of each color lizard and orange had 100 over the 6 generations, compared to 82 for blue and 62 for yellow. Clearly, orange had a higher biological fitness than all the others. LOL JK BC EVAN SAID NO THERE WASN'T ONE THAT WAS MORE SUCCESSFUL AHH. 4. Look at the graph you made for the 6 years. Was there a pattern to the change of color prominence over the several generations we ran the simulation? a. Yes. Each generation, the majority of the morph types were the morph types that won out over the majority in the last generation. For example, if blue was the majority in the previous generation, orange tended to be the majority in the next generation, because orange has a higher reproductive success over blue. 5. Do you think you can generally predict the color type that will be most prominent the next generation? If so, what will the color be? a. Yes. Yellow, because yellow has a higher reproductive success over the orange, which was the most prominent morph in the last in-class simulation. 6. Why is it important to do this several times? a. To observe trends and track overall biological fitness of the different lizard morphs. In-Class Activity: The Mating Game (3/1/16) 1. Which sex was more cautious about choosing a mate? FEMALES. a. Why was this? THEY HAD LESS GAMETES TO TRADE. 2. Meow a. For the females, was there a clear point along the quality gradient (letters) where their reproductive success started to drop off? i. As letters decreased b. For the males, was there a clear point along the quality gradient (letters) where their reproductive success started to drop off? i. No. more sporadic because males suck. 3. Meow a. For the females did your strategy for selecting a mate change in later rounds? NO LATER ROUNDS. i. If so, how did it change? NO LATER ROUNDS. b. For the males did strategy for selecting a mate change in the later rounds? NO LATER ROUNDS. i. If so, how did it change? NO LATER ROUNDS. 4. In terms of evolution, explain how those strategies/behaviors could have evolved. a. FEMALES WERE PICKY ABOUT BECAUSE THEY WANTED THEIR OFFSPRING TO HAVE THE BEST ADVANTAGES. TOPHAT QUESTIONS 25 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG 2 1. In general, why do coastal areas have milder, less variable climates than inland areas? a. Oceans have a high salt concentration b. Large bodies of water take a long time to change temperature c. Hydrogen-bonds (H-bonds) give water a high heat capacity d. H-bonds give water a low heat capacity e. Both B and C f. Both D and C--not possible because D and C are opposites 2. Why don't oceans freeze as easily as fresh water lakes? a. Salt prevents water from forming crystals easily b. Salt helps water form crystals more easily c. Salt absorbs heat d. Salt reduces melting point 3. What best describes glycogen? a. A large complex molecule, made from polymers--goes against the definition of what a polymer is, since a polymer is the result of many monomers put together. Monomer-polymer relationship. b. A large complex molecule, made from monomers c. A small simple molecule, made from one monomer d. A simple molecule, made from one polymer 4. What molecule is the arrow pointing to (the green thing)? (What is Life? 2.9, page 57 / Figure 2-23 / IMG_6355) a. Glucose b. Unsure of name, a sugar monomer c. Glycogen d. Unsure of name, a sugar polymer 5. When we eat a simple sugar like white processed sugar (glucose) instead of a potato (starch) what step in the digestion process do we skip? a. The breaking down of glucose to get energy b. The breaking of bonds between glucose found within starch c. The breaking of bonds between starch found within glucose d. The formation of starch 6. Which type of carbohydrate will cause moderate, long term increases in blood sugar? a. Polysaccharide b. Disaccharide--digested quickly because there's only one bond to break c. Monosaccharide d. Both A and B 7. Cellulose is nearly identical to starch; however, we cannot digest cellulose. Why? a. Cellulose molecules have a different shape. b. Cellulose molecules are larger. c. Cellulose molecules are acidic. d. Cellulose molecules lack carbon-hydrogen bonds. e. Cellulose molecules are formed entirely from fructose. 26 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG 8. Which combination of foods would contain all of the essential amino acids? a. Apples and white rice b. Almonds and lentils c. White rice and lentils d. Almonds and apples 9. Egg whites contain protein. Why does beating or heating eggs change their texture, making them stiff? a. The energy input (temp, beating) broke the protein into amino acids. b. The energy input (temp, beating) disrupted the H-bonds that create the 3-D shape of the protein. (2.17 The heat breaks the hydrogen bonds that give the proteins their shape. Denaturation.) c. The energy input (temp, beating) changed the sequence of amino acids. 10. Why does a misspelling in the primary structure of phenylalanine hydroxylase inhibit its function? a. Enzyme shape is incorrect b. Enzyme fails to bind phenylalanine c. Enough tyrosine is produced elsewhere d. Tyrosine now binds to the enzyme e. Both A and B 3 1. Which type of fat would be liquid at room temperature? a. Saturated fat (like animal fat) b. Unsaturated fat (like canola oil) c. Trans fat (like margarine) d. Both 1 and 3 are correct. 2. What is the molecule surrounding grease? Enter your answer below. a. Soap. i. The area that hates water is the part that attaches to grease. Soap has a part that sticks to the grease but also a part that doesn't mind the water. Hence, it washes away. 3. When a manufacturer hydrogenates an oil, they make ____ more _____. a. Animal fat; like vegetable fat b. Animal fat; healthy c. Vegetable fat; like animal fat d. Vegetable fat; healthy 4. Why is our understanding of cells called a "theory" rather than a "hypothesis"? a. Observations are well-supported by empirical data. i. Only seen cells from other cells b. Observations are viewed with confidence by the scientific community. i. Confident with observing and reporting. c. Observations are a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. (Definition of hypothesis) 27 BIOLOGY 1101 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE BUNDLE SPRING 2016 | THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY | SOPHIE CHANG d. 1 and 2. e. All of the above. 5. What is the independent variable in this graph? a. Cell number b. Mitochondria number c. Metabolic rate d. Cell type 6. Which can be found in BOTH eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? a. Nucleus b. Mitochondria c. Ribosomes d. Membrane-bound organelles 7. What two pieces of evidence found in mitochondria and chloroplasts support the endosymbiotic theory of Eukaryote evolution? (Choose two) a. Presence of a nucleus b. Presence of DNA c. Presence of double membranes d. Presence of cytoplasm e. Presence of a single membrane 8. What is the best answer to describe the molecule responsible for letting things into and out of the cell? a. The cell membrane b. Proteins embedded in the cell membrane i. Take-Home Message 3.5: Proteins found in the plasma membrane enable it to carry out most of its gatekeeping functions. c. Carbohydrates embedded in the cell membrane d. Proteins 1. What does crossing over do? a. Creates new alleles b. Creates new combinations of alleles c. Crea


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