HESC 342 (stress management) study guides
HESC 342 (stress management) study guides hesc/knes 342
Cal State Fullerton
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Theint Myint on Sunday July 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to hesc/knes 342 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Karen Fazio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Stress Management in health science, knisiology at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 07/03/16
HESC/KNES 342 Exam #1 Study Guide 30 Points The exam will be comprised of 30 multiple choice and true/false questions based on Kottler and Chen Chapters 1-5, and LGW readings from Weeks 1, 2, as well as the video What Causes Your Stress? (Week 1). Understand the psychological and physiological reactions to stress. Physiological: affect adverse conditions- sleep deprive, infections, heart palpitations, sweat, dry mouth, fatigue, insomnia, nausea, dizzy, lose appitite, high bp, weight loss/gain Psychologically: impaired memory, disorientated, unrealistic demands, disasterizing, unlogical, externalized blame, obsessive, lose humor, suicidal, surremder. Excessive fantasies Know the definition of stress Psychological and physiological reaction to a real or perceived threat that requires some action/ resolution Survival mechanism= increase internal awareness of danger, transform all body’s resources to heightened state of readiness Know the stress related disease percentages 75-90% Know the stress related diseases that people suffer. Asthma, diabetes, high bp, cholesterol, Alzheimer’s, sexual dysfunction. Aoda, anorexia, ulcers, obesity, arthritis, canker sores Know the difference between homeostasis and allostasis. Allostasis- the physiological and psychological adaptation to threats or harmful situations Homeostasis- stabilized internal environment Understand the stages of General Adaptation Syndrome. Alarm stage- 1 exposure, acute stress disrupts body’s homeostasis = series of physiological reactions in autonomic and endocrine systems, endocrine= produce corticosteroid for fight or flight, but cay weaken immune system Resistance stage – continued presence of stressor= necessitates bodily adaptations and coping mechanisms to sustain life as long as resources avail Exhaustion stage- prolonged exposure to stressor= depletion of energy resistance= exhaustion= permanent damage= illness or even death Know the body's changes during the fight-or-flight response. Increase heart rate, blood pressure, glucose Eyes dilate, muscle tense, heavy breathing, sweating Digestive and immune system shuts down, adrenaline surge, release free fatty acids, blood coagulation Inhibit sexual desire and reproductive capability Know the Four-Stage Model of Stress Management and Prevention. 1. Life situations/ chronic stressors- no control over certain stressors, choose and know how to respond to them 2. Perception and evaluation- everyone react different to same stressor because their perception/ personality type 3. Stress response – emotional, psychological, physiological response to perception of stressor- endocrine and autonomic NS 4. Consequences a. Prevention= more effective that management b. Small changes= big effects c. Don’t count on magic solution to solve stress probs d. Tailor a program to your schedule and means e. Develop comprehensive plan for stress prevention and management Know the difference between eustress and distress. Distress= negative, harmful, destructive type of stress Eustress= good stress; inspires/ motivates you Be familiar with the symptoms of PTSD. Flashbacks, Nightmares, Insomnia ,Loss appetite Know the area of the brain responsible for controlling emotional responses. Limbic Know the structure in the brain that is first activated during the fear response. Amygdala Understand the difference between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. Sympathetic- on- fight or flight – pupils dilate, less secretion to lungs, thick saliva, slow gastrointestinal movement, sphlinters contract Parasympathetic- off- body relaxes – pupils constrict, thin saliva, increased gastrointestinal movement, sphlinters relax, promotes energy storage Be familiar with the various stages of human development. 1. Infancy: birth- 3yo: 2. Early childhood: 3-6 yo: defensive coping strategies, wet bed, withdrawal isolation, start reasoning skills, over generalize 3. School age: 6-12: indirect coping, seems like acting out, violent, poor school behavior 4. Adolescence: 13-18: family= less influential 5. Early adulthood: 19-23 6. Young adulthood: 24-38: friendships/ social network, selecting partner, college, career 7. Mid life: 39-50: family, multiple roles, create meaningful life, realize mortality 8. Later maturity: 51-65: ageism, retirement 9. Old age: 66- death Know the serious warning signs of possible suicide. Allusions to suicidal thoughts / previous attempts Plan? Ability to carry out plan? Arrangements? Serious signs of depression Obsessive thinking Family suicide history Be familiar with the Transactional Model of stress. Greater emphasis on cognitive appraisal/ perception (mediator between external and internal events) o Primary appraisal –identify environmental demand on person/ relation between event & personal goals, perceived susceptibility, severity, motivational relevance, casual focus o Secondary appraisal- considers persons own resources w/ nature of challenge – perceived control of outcomes and emotions, self efficacy Stress= transaction between external and internal event Ticket- broke vs. wealthy Stressor > primary appraisal (perceived susceptibility, severity, motivational relevance, casual focus) > secondary appraisal (perceived control of outcomes and emotions, self efficacy) >coping effort (prob management, emotional regulation, meaning based coping) >outcomes of coping (adaptations of emotional well being, functional status, health behaviors) Know the difference between classical and operant conditioning. Classical (Pavlov/ Hans seley) – ring bell +food; dog connects bell to food (fears= pairs w/ other stimuli in environment; evoke same reaction later) Operant (skinner) – reinforce behavior by reward in early life (give kid candy to be quiet –reinforce bad behavior) Understand the causes of depression. Overwhelming stress > sense of helplessness and powerless Biologically bases Because certain medical conditions Side effect of certain prescribed medications Know what emotional intelligence means. Persons ability to identify, use, understand and manage emotions in positive ways Be familiar with the definition of somatization. Expressing experiences about stress= not appropriate in some cultures Reporting bodily symptoms that reflect stress= ok (head hurts etc.) Know the causes of diabetes (type 2) Lack of physical activity Poor nutrition Review readings about reproductive and sexual health Be sure to review key points from the Week 1 Video What Causes Your Stress? If you watch and pay attention you should be just fine :) Stress Management 342 Exam #2 Study Guide 25 Multiple Choice/True/False Questions Chapters 6-9 Kottler and Chen LGW-Fazio-Modules Two/Three Readings, Films 1. Understand the meaning of cognitive restructuring Change how you experience and respond to stressful situations by changing how you view them What people say to themselves or others (internalized and externalized language) 2. Know how REBT works and what it means Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Teach people how to identify what they’re doing to get upset & change nature of their thinking to produce more desirable outcomes 3. Know ABC Theory-what does each stand for? A- activating even B- irrational belief C- emotional consequence D- disputing the irrational belief E- emotional effect 4. Be familiar with irrational themes and beliefs Absolute demands (“Life isn’t fair”) – when things don’t go your way Awfulizing/ catastrophe (“It’s awful”) – irrational beliefs because exaggerations- think suffered the worst tragedy Low frustration tolerance (“I can’t stand it”)- think cant tolerate anymore when can – want instant gratification, only think about pleasures instead of implications, impatient, no self discipline or hard work, abandon plan program that could help, procrastinate Musterbation (“I must get what I want”)- demand that people or things be a certain way- self abuse- think you're special/ deserve special privileges Absolute judgments (“I’m incompetent”, shy- always been that way, I’m not good at math, Italian- that’s why have bad temper)- use absolute self- descriptors that define you based on a limited sample of your behavior. 5. Know how problem solving methods work (according to your text) Closing gap between goals and actual outcomes – related to perceived life satisfaction 6. Know the difference between concern and worry Concern: focus on what you can control- pay attention to relevant details and get info to make wise decision Worry – focus on what’s OUT of your control – magnifies- makes worse- narrows/limits options- lots of energy into trivial matters of little consequence 7. Understand your text's "point of view" regarding time management No such thing as wasting time- you choose to use it how you want and always have time to do what you want Procrastinate because perfectionism, don’t prioritize correctly because we always find time to do what we want 80/20 rule – 80% of what we do in life may only contribute to 20% of what we want to do in life 8. Know what random access memory means and how to address it Reduce mental clutter by writing down important tasks Limited amount of memory Mental working space used to work in life Write things down, organize, review at specific time = helps memorize and less declutter RAM 9. Understand methods inducing an altered state of consciousness Runners high (rush of endorphins), alcohol/ drugs, imagination, self-discipline, meditation, yoga, tai chi 10. Know the benefits of physical exercise Decreased symptoms of depression, anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol, blood clots, heart arrhythmias and body fat Improved sleep quality, sense of balance, muscle control and elasticity, flexibility, weight control, appearance, energy and life expectancy Improved self discipline, frustration and pain tolerance, concentration, alertness, problem solving, self confidence and self esteem and enjoyment of sex 11. Know examples of "types" of exercise EX: anaerobic, aerobic, etc. Aerobic- moderate intensity, extended period of time- sufficient oxygen Anaerobic – physical activity in initial state/ short duration- body needs more oxygen – weightlifting Combined= tennis, basketball 12. Know what PMR is "Progressive Muscular Relaxation is and how it is described Physical relaxation technique – learn to reduce stress by becoming aware of tension in various muscle groups then relaxing them one at a time throughout the body Treat those with muscle tension Inhale- tense, exhale- relax Do NOT have to start head to toe 13. Know the uses and types of Guided Imagery and how it works Feeling state imagery- o To elicit feelings of love, care, security, and happiness End stat imagery o To create the ideal outcome or goal o Imagine self running cross finish line Physiological imagery o Evoke healing processes of the body Metaphoric imagery o Uses symbols to connect with the unconscious mind and evokes healing from the core of your psyche Psychological imager o Targets a person’s specific psychological issues by offering corrective content Spiritual imagery o Brings a kind of being that transcends ordinary existence How guided imagery works o Neurological and biochemical connection theory Brain nerves are interconnected with endocrine glands and immune cells through hormones and cytokines o Cognitive theory Changing negative thought patterns leads to reduction in autonomic nervous system arousal and a decrease in muscle tension, mood disturbances and pain o Cognitive distraction theory Impossible for brain to be occupied with 2 opposing ideas at the same time Brain filters certain signals (pain, attention) becomes focused on other info such as the guided imagery suggestions o Use all senses, not just mind 14. Be familiar with yoga and its origins Origin= India (east) Hatha (gentle), astanga (vigorous) Tense and relax, posture, breathing, self control, focused concentration, inner peace 15. Know the possible impact of having poor fitness 10% chance of dying 16. Know what Tai Chi is helpful for Balance/ control energy Promote energy circulation Produce healing or rehabilitation of injury, surgery, or serious illness (heart attack, stroke) Chronic pain, respiratory and hastroinestional disorders, anxiety, depression, circulatory probs and balance probs Relaxation, balance/ control, Breathing, mindfulness, recover from injury 17. Know what problem orientation means Perception 18. Know what being spiritual means Ones faith in supernatural being, search for meaning, sense of connection with others, transcendence of self Has elements with inner qualities related to persons soul and heart (meaning of life, compassion, forgiveness, and love) 19. Know the various time management strategies, their barriers and successes Strategies o Do one thing at time o What’s in the way o Make list, check twice a day o Make best of down time o Calendar, plan, set goals o Stop complaining o Make necessary cuts Barriers o Reluctance to delegate o Unrealistic expectations of performance o Distractions o Too many tasks on the table o Insufficient support o Unhealthy lifestyle o Failure to prioritize Find balance, better sleep 20. Know what is true about mindfulness Relaxed, open attention to your ongoing experience Mindfulness video: Aware of thoughts, awake to present moment 21. Know the explanation for why exercise is beneficial in regard to the perceptions people have about themselves Improved self confidence and self esteem Psychosocial hypothesis o Enhanced ability to tolerate physical discomfort and have self discipline dedicating self to activity, improve confidence in a host of other areas 22. Know the exercise recommendations 3-5 times/ week; 20-30 mins 23. Review the main messages from the film How to Make Stress your Friend WK 5, Vulnerability (Brene Brown WK 6) Think of stress as preparing you Beliefs/ perception of stress= what kills people 24. Review material on the components of happiness (Week 6) Self medicating- major issue = vulnerability - Cant selectively numb – numb pain also numbs joy Happiness= pleasure (feel good), engagement (living good life- friends, fam, work), meaning (using strengths for larger purpose) o Can be defined scientifically Involve daily positive emotions and global sense that life= worthwhile Ppl can accurately report their own level of happiness HESC/KNES 342 Study Guide Exam 330 points Review College student stress and how it relates to the job market/occupational stress causes College student stress: academic stress, financial stress social stress, career stress Relates to occupational stress causes: work overload, harassment, not enough resources Globalization less jobs avail because performed overseas Know the various causes of college student stress Social stress: Relations new, intimate, maturity, networking, sexual exploration, diff social opportunities Financial stress: Tuition, school+ work, credit debt Career stress: understand market, does education relate to career? Competition, experience Minority: language, culture, prejudice/ discrimination, lack resources, physical disability, sexual orientation Review stats. on the American obesity 33%/ 1/3 Understand the difference between physical and emotional hunger Physical hunger= survival Emotional hunger= eat for comfort not really hungry, crave carbs and sugar when stressed Understand the differences between proteins/carbohydrates/minerals, fats proteins: provide body with amino acids (form muscle, bone, blood, enzymes) – lean meat, soy, beans, dairy carbohydrates beak to simple sugars while plant foods, while grains, fruits, veggies (291) minerals help regulate body functions, maintain body tissues, catalyst for energy release) calcium, K, magnesium, sodium, chloride, phosphorus fats: major source of energy, gene formation, cell membrane, transport fat soluble vitamins, improve metabolism, regulate immune system : healthy fats: unsaturated: fish, avocado, nuts Know what "good and bad" cholesterol is good= unsaturated (mono poly )= healthy = HDL = can transport back to liver (elimination) bad= saturated/ trans fatty acids= unhealthy = LDL (low density lipoproteins) = releases cholesterol in artery lining= heart disease Review vitamins as they relate to stress vitamins stress depletes: B complex and Vitamin C Know the harmful effects of smoking and alcohol abuse 37% of drug abusers have addiction and abuse most drink to relax people who suffer with addiction show actual physical changes in areas of the brain crucial for judgment, decision making, learning and memory, and behavior control. Review ways to improve your memory engage all senses Be familiar with nutrition as it relates to managing stress Know the importance of good sleep hygiene function at optimal levels, help balance self sleep deprivation= eventually irreversible damaging effects o affects concentration, weakens immune system, elevates cortisol levels, faster aging, impair growth and memory, lower sex drive, more susceptible to disease (diabetes/ crushing syndrome) Understand the impact that financial stress has on college students credit card debt increases college student health risk sleep and appetite loss/ increase, addictions, self destructive behaviors, relation probs Understand your textbook's strategies for managing finances spend less than earn, save, rest, invest early, keep credit clean, avoid credit interest, but what need not want Tuesdays With Morrie Questions when you know how to die, you know how to live Know the causes and complexities of addiction (Module 3 LGW) a person may feel more confident, more relaxed, better equipped to perform, happier, even euphoric, and depending upon the type of drug used Addiction usually begins in childhood and adolescence. This is unfortunate because the prefrontal cortex of the brain is still developing into adulthood. This complication is two fold: 1. The prefrontal cortex is the area of the brain responsible for judgment, decision making and keeping our emotion under control. Because a person has not matured yet they are more vulnerable to make poor decisions about using in the first place. 2. Using drugs while the brain is still developing can cause longlasting negative effects. MBSR training (Module 3) Be sure to review the training link. Helps with: Cope with stress, pain, and the challenges of everyday life Deal with disturbing events with grace and composure Be fully present and alive in this moment cope with stress, pain, and the challenges of everyday life. Body scan Uses for cognitive behavior therapy (Module 3) focus on present oriented towards problem solving Patients learn skills that identify dysfunctional thinking, seek to relate to others in various ways, and change beliefs and behaviors Review statistics on American household debt. $7500, over 18% interest Review text material on occupational stress and burnout occupational stress: symptoms of sustained arousal and reactivity to demands at work sources: factors intrinsic to job itself, career development, relations at work, organizational structure/ climate, workfamily interface, lack of anatomy, isolation, environmental factors burnout= depleted energy, lack motivation to continue or care for self o results from incompatibility between requirements of job and imbalance and lack of control o = can lead to exhaustion, feels of failure/ () attitude, pessimism/ cynicism, lack motivation, oversleeping, absences Some exam answers 1 tsp salt= 2300 mL sodium caffeine= higher levels of cortisol & adrenaline , essential nervous system stimulant reduce test anxiety= join study group, relaxation exercises anxiety disorders, brain abnormalities higher credit score= pay off balances sleep deprivation = don’t function at optimal level, over time= damaging effects = irreversible
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