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This 32 page Bundle was uploaded by Eden Notetaker on Wednesday July 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PHI 220 at Independence University taught by Toni LaMont in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Logic in History & Philosophy at Independence University.
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Date Created: 07/13/16
1 Running head: LOGIC PHI220 Intro to Logic Eden Ramos Independence University Dr. Toni LaMotta Critical Thinking 2 Abstract Assignment: In a 500word essay, summarize the six stages of critical thinkers that are presented by Paul and Elder. Explain which of the six stages describes your current level and why you put yourself at that level. Identify one long term goal for developing a specific critical thinking skill. How would developing this skill enhance your personal and professional life? Critical Thinking 3 Paul & Elder As Director of Research and Professional Development at the Center for Critical Thinking and Chair of the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, Dr. Paul is an internationally recognized authority on critical thinking, with eight books and over 200 articles on the subject. He has written books for every grade level and has done extensive experimentation with teaching tactics and strategies, and devising, among other things, novel ways to engage students in rigorous selfassessment. (Thinking, Dr. Richard Paul, 2013). Dr. Linda Elder is an educational psychologist and a prominent authority on critical thinking. She is President of the Foundation for Critical Thinking and Executive Director of the Center for Critical Thinking. Dr. Elder has taught psychology and critical thinking at the college level and has given presentations to more than 50,000 educators at all levels. Dr. Elder has also developed an original stage theory of critical thinking development. Concerned with understanding and illuminating the relationship between thinking and affect, and the barriers to critical thinking, Dr. Elder has placed these issues at the center of her thinking and her work. (Thinking, Dr. Linda Elder, 2013). Stages 16 If the stages of intellectual development are two improve the thought processes of thinkers. The stages are for teachers to realize developmental stages of the students they are teaching. The Unreflective thinker is the first stage meaning these thinkers lack the knowledge that high quality thinking requires practice and being involved to improve. They are unaware that Critical Thinking 4 thinking in their lives may improve their way of life. The second stage is the Challenged Thinker, who have the same problem as an Unreflective Thinker but are more aware to some degree. They believe their thinking may be higher than in actuality. (Paul, 2013). The third stage is the Beginning Thinker who actively takes up a challenge that takes command over their thinking over time in their lives. They not only asses the standards of thinking but internalize clarity and precision to use deliberately in thinking. The Practicing thinker is stage four and has developed habits that help them take charge of their thinking. Stage five is the Advanced thinker that uses thinking in everything that they do constantly going back to improve. The sixth stage and final is the Accomplished thinker that systematically takes charge of their thinking. Improving it regularly in an insightful critiquing way of thinking. (Paul, 2013). Describes Me There once was a time where I was very ignorant and didn’t care about the pursuit of knowledge. As a child I would rather play then learn. I soon realized that I loved learning new things. Being dumb and ignorant was shameful to me. I believe that I am A stage five Advanced Thinker. I will not call myself an accomplished I feel as though I haven’t earned that yet. I write down the things I want to accomplish and think them out before executing them. On the other hand, maybe I think I’m smarter than I am and just simply be a Challenged Thinker. Long Term Goal Critical Thinking 5 I do have a long term goal. I plan on going to school for a long time. I love learning new things and being able to say that I know how to do something. I want to become an Accomplished Thinker who has not only knowledge but wisdom. Personal & Professional Though I still have some experience to gain I will improve myself by using sociocentrism in my thinking, by leading discussions on intellectual perseverance, intellectual integrity, intellectual empathy, intellectual courage, and fairmindedness. () This will improve my professional and personal life. (Paul, 2013). Critical Thinking 6 References Paul, L. E. (2013). Critical Thinking Development: A Stage Theory. Retrieved from Foundation for critical thinking: https://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/critical- thinking-development-a-stage-theory/483 Thinking, F. f. (2013). Dr. Linda Elder. Retrieved from Critical THinking .org: http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/dr-linda-elder/819 Thinking, F. f. (2013). Dr. Richard Paul. Retrieved from Critical Thinking .org: http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/dr-richard-paul/818 Even though this was just a problem for the kids to find their shoes, though the girl was new, she was trying to find a solution. There was a problem with the kids and as adults its their responsibility to show them how they can resolve problems. The second employee saw an opportunity to use critical thinking. She used the basic questions like, “What about...?” and used her knowledge of children liking colors to solve the problem. She also asked the other employee what she thought about the idea she was understanding of others opinions. The caregiver did not group think the idea or accepted the way the first caretaker did things. Critical thinking is an approach to the world, a way of life that goes beyond skill or technique. Critical thinkers have hearts as well as heads, and their overall attitudes or habits of mind are at least as important as their arsenal of skills. (Learning, 2016). References Learning, C. (2016). Qualities Of A Critical Thinker . Retrieved from Cengage Learning: http://college.cengage.com/masterstudent/shared/content/articles/qualities_c ritical_thinker.html How would developing your own emotional intelligence enhance your personal life, career, or interactions with others? From personal experience having control of your emotions can determine whether you keep your relationship but trusting the other or being over baring and jealous. From a business perspective breaking down in front of customer humiliates you and the establishment. In interacting with others being kind can keep those people around you or lose friends that could have been great. On a positive note being confident before a meeting, or in bed, can elevate you to a higher position. If you pay attention when your applying for a job they ask you if you are easily controlled by your anger. For example: Employee satisfaction surveys provide management with the knowledge and tools to build positive employee relations and a positive work environment. Employee attitudes, burnout tendencies, passion factors, loyalty, workplace climate and competitive intelligence are key indicators for employee retention, satisfaction, and productivity. (Smith, 2013). What are some strategies that you can use to enhance your emotional intelligence? I think that being aware of how you are feeling can enhance emotional intelligence. I know that seems like a no brainer but I have seen many a people who are kind and thoughtful but get angry like it’s the end of the world. There are some conditions where your emotions fluctuate like the weather. Personally, I have depression. Sometimes I get sad for no reason or really emotional in sad situations. Becoming aware of my condition helped me seek help to better keep my emotions together. References Smith, S. (2013, Febuary 4). Employee Satisfaction Survey Questions: 3 Sample Templates You Can Use Today. Retrieved from Qualtrics: http://www.qualtrics.com/blog/employee-satisfaction-survey/ 1 Running head: TED TALK Option One Ted Talk Eden Ramos Independence University Dr. Toni LaMotta Assignment 2- Emotion and the Work Place 2 Abstract Option one Review the following Ted Talk about the relationship between technology and emotion. The speaker discusses how emotional enabled technology can be used in communication and education. In a 500word essay, explore the potential benefits and risks of this technology. Toward the end of the presentation the speaker asks the audience to be part of the conversation. What ideas or thoughts about this technology can you bring to the conversation? Will allowing technology to track and express your emotions help you or hurt you in your workplace? Why? Assignment 2- Emotion and the Work Place 3 Introduction After watching the Ted talk about bringing emotion to technology, I really had to sit down and think about it. Rana el Kaliouby, chief science officer and cofounder of Affectiva, an MIT Media Lab spinoff, is on a mission to bring emotion intelligence to our digital experiences. (Speaker, 2014). This woman with a degree from Cambridge wants to bring emotion to technology. She wants to connect to her family, whatever the distance, to help them understand how she is feeling. She is using Action Units to program the application to be able to learn what we are feeling by facial movement. To help people with disability and retrieve data for statistics. I had to sit down and think about how I felt about this. Are the benefits, peoples’ beliefs, the cons of this experiment going to affect people as a whole more beneficially or cause harm? Will my fright of something new and the idea of the movie Terminator going to affect my opinion? Benefit and Risk As mentioned in the video there are benefits to this technology. This can provide statistic information that helps businesses understand what people prefer. This can help those who take online surveys and as she mentioned voting behavior. Another benefit they are using this technology for is for the visually impaired or those with autism read the faces of other people. With the emotion enabled wearable glasses they can use this device to do such a task. I understand the benefits to emotion reading technology but I would have liked to hear some of the negative influences that can occur. If our employer know that we hate them does that mean pink slip is in order. Is this technology considered artificial intelligence and will the programing Assignment 2- Emotion and the Work Place 4 become selfaware? If we connect this to our security system will it protect us or will it set off due to a heated discussion? Will this technology make our privacy more none existent as we post our daily lives on social media? This is what had to say in the Huffington post, “Affectiva’s technology allows brands to not only listen in on what we say about what we’re feeling, but to actually see for themselves what we’re feeling.” (Bosker, 2013). As a personal issue if I wanted someone to listen in on me and truly understand how I’m feeling then people would be telling the absolute truth. Things like: posting in social media, reports asked from employer, and web cam conversations. I just believe that emotions are displayed to let others know how we feel and sometimes we don’t want people to really know, the feelings we have for them. I say this especially for the workplace. Ideas I think that technology having any clarity scares me a bit because as of right now humans are on the top of the food chain. With that thought said technology could become the step above us with benefits like living forever, being stronger, and having intelligence. This fear I believe began with the terminator movies and every copy cat idea that technology if selfaware will dominate over us. With that aside, I use technology almost every day. My son is beginning to learn how to use technology. But his father and I believe that we don’t want him being in the house all day because of technology, or outside for that matter. We are millennial parents yes but we were raised to go outside and play. That technology is making us weaker were become more depended on this new form of communication. There is hardly any human interaction anymore. I fear that Assignment 2- Emotion and the Work Place 5 this new generation will become more dependent on their devices then their own selves. In Japan couples will meet for a date and talk to each other using their mobile device. Naomi Baron wrote an article for American University saying, “More than half the world’s population now has access to mobile phones. While these devices enable spoken communication, many users (especially teenagers and young adults) heavily employ them for sending and receiving written text messages.” (Baron, 2016). Yes, I believe that technology is useful but I don’t want to become reliant on devices. Fin To conclude, there are benefits for this new technology and there are negative sides. The progression of technology is becoming more advanced in a way that I don’t understand fully. I hope the benefits outweigh the bad. I hope our future generations realize that knowing how to make something and not relying on goods to already be made are important to our progression. Assignment 2- Emotion and the Work Place 6 References Baron, N. S. (2016). Talk about Texting: Attitudes towards Mobile Phones. Retrieved from American University: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search? q=cache:Oo4AKfE9Q_UJ:www.american.edu/cas/lfs/faculty-docs/upload/Talk- about-Texting-WSR-Baron.pdf+&cd=3&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us Bosker, B. (2013, Jan 2). Affectiva's Emotion Recognition Tech: When Machines know how your feeling. Retrieved from The Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/24/affectiva-emotion-recognition- technology_n_2360136.html Speaker, T. (2014). Rana el Kaliouby Computer Scientist. Retrieved from TED: http://www.ted.com/speakers/rana_el_kaliouby In the Nizkor project it says that, “This fallacy is committed when it is assumed that the middle position between two extremes must be correct simply because it is the middle position. this sort of "reasoning" has the following form: Position A and B are two extreme positions. C is a position that rests in the middle between A and B. Therefore C is the correct position. (Project, 2012). Now this is the type of fallacy that I would commit. I also believe that I been witness to before. My husband and I love to fight with each other but it get a little to heated sometimes and I finally give up compromising with my own moral standing and what he wants. For example, Husband: Why arenet the dishes done? Me: I haven’t gotten to them yet, but I will. Huband: Well I want them done before I get home. I work and this is your job so I expect them to be done. After all that is said, plus so other words. I think to myself I must get what he wants done despite everything I have to do that day, So ill be happy, and he wont yell at me. To avoid doing this again I just believe what I am telling myself so that I can be happy. Husband comes first, right? References Project, N. (2012). Fallacies. Retrieved from Nikor.org: http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/index.html#index 1 Running head: AVOIDING FALLACIES Assignment 3 Strategies for Avoiding Fallacies Eden Ramos Independence University Toni LaMotta Strategies Against Fallacies 2 Abstract Assignment: Present a 500word essay describing a specific fallacy from the video and presenting at least two strategies for avoiding this fallacy. Define and describe the fallacy. For example, if you select the post hoc, you want to define the post hoc and discuss what occurs in the post hoc. Describe the error that is committed in the fallacy. In other words, what's wrong with the argument? Identify two strategies that will help you in avoiding this fallacy. You can choose strategies presented in the class or create your own strategies that you think will help you in avoiding this type of fallacy. Requirements: APA format A title page Oneinch margins 12point font, doublespaced 500 Words A reference page Include sources, and be sure to cite them in the body of the paper and include them on the reference page. Submit your assignment as a Word document. Strategies Against Fallacies 3 Introduction to Fallacy This week we are learning about fallacies. Watching the video provided, opened my eyes to the deception that people can deceive others and not even know. I knew that people did such a thing but I can be blind on matters like that. I usually let people take advantage of me and if it weren’t for my husband I would still let them. I think it’s just in my ideologies to think that maybe there is some good in people. I knew watching that video that they were giving examples of fallacies and I better understood what they were trying to do. The first fallacy was the Slippery Slope and gave an example on how people think that because we have automated cars that they are going to take over and harvest our bodies. The second was about John McCain, diverting attention from the main point about the economy to how many houses he has. Talk about funny to me because the point didn’t relate to anything. The third was about Hilary Clinton and the only reason that she got to be Senator is because her husband cheated on her. What a horrible thing to assume. The fourth fallacy was funny, due to the sesame street character, Ernie, implying that him having a banana in his ear is keeping the alligators at bay. The fifth was a SNL skit about those on the Bandwagon, if we all do it we won’t be in breach of decorum. The sixth raised some points on Harald Ford but just attacked him. False Authority was the seventh with Tom Cruise stating that he knew about psychology but wasn’t an authority on such a subject. Lastly, there was a speech by Mrs. Quale saying that most woman wouldn’t like to be liberated when she had no evidence or statistics. (TheHtownusa, 2011). Strategies Against Fallacies 4 Fallacy The fallacy I will be reviewing is the Red Herring. In the Nikor Project it states that, “A Red Herring is a fallacy in which an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. The basic idea is to "win" an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic.” (Project, 2012). I saw evidence in this in the video when they were talking about John McCain. That advertisement was just “dumb,” meaning it made no sense. It did not stick to the main point and focused on how many houses he has. In my opinion I rather hear his views on the economy, I could care less about the amount of houses he has. It makes me think about what the point of this campaign commercial was for. Was it to make us jealous that he has so many houses. Or was it to make us think, “Woh, he has way to may houses for one guy, how does he know about the economy. I know that they committed a fallacy because the reasons offered do not support the conclusion, like you said in the PowerPoint for this week. The conclusion was one that was other than the one given and like I said it was to persuade use to make a conclusion about this person. (LaMotta, 2016). Solutions To avoid this fallacy, I would pay attention. I know this sounds like a simple solution but if you actually listen to the words that are being said you can catch such a lie. Another way would be to analyze what is being said. Really think about what their point is and think about what is being said. Strategies Against Fallacies 5 References LaMotta, T. (2016, 3 25). Week Three Faulty Reasoning. Introduction to logic. Power Point. Project, N. (2012). Fallacies. Retrieved from Nikor.org: http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/index.html#index TheHtownusa. (2011, March 31). The Fallacy Project: Examples of fallacies from advertising, politics, and popular culture. Retrieved from Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXLTQi7vVsI Slide 5 Notes 5 How Emotions Effect the Work Place Very often we use our emotions to help us make a decision. How we feel about something can determine what kind of choices we make. We use our senses to look for the information that we need. Common sense guides us and we often use our intuition to make a conclusion. Sometimes when we think of the answer we are concerned about the idea if it conflicts with our feelings. Finding a balance between the two can help with things we don’t understand. Before making a final acclimation I would evaluate my facts and feelings to make sure that one does not over weigh the other. Matching up logic Just because a statement is made doesn’t make it true. When something comes in question to you, don’t be afraid to ask about the integrity of information provided. The information in order to be logical needs to be make sences and backed up by someone with knowledge of the subject. If you hear something that seems off and does not make sense it is logical for you to find the correct answer. Fallacy A fallacy according to Google is: a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound argument. (Google, Fallacy Definition, 2016). Fallacies can confuse and lie to us about the information being provided or even the information that we are providing. Now this example in provided by the Nizkor Project that specializes in explaining fallacies. o Bill and Jane are arguing about the morality of abortion: o Bill: "I believe that abortion is morally acceptable. After all, a woman should have a right to her own body." o Jane: "I disagree completely. Dr. Johan Skarn says that abortion is always morally wrong, regardless of the situation. He has to be right, after all, he is a respected expert in his field." o Bill: "I've never heard of Dr. Skarn. Who is he?" o Jane: "He's the guy that won the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on cold fusion." o Bill: "I see. Does he have any expertise in morality or ethics?" o Jane: "I don't know. But he's a world famous expert, so I believe him." Avoiding Fallacies Analyze the topic at hand Stay focused on what is being discussed Don’t let your emotions control what you are saying Recognize that fraud can occur, someone telling you lies cannot be taken lightly in the work place. Your integrity and trustworthiness apply to your job no matter what it is. Recognize when fraud is occurring and report to the correct authorities. References Google. (2016). Fallacy Definition. Retrieved from Google: https://www.google.com/#q=Fallacy+definition Google. (2016). Opinion Definition. Retrieved from Google: https://www.google.com/#q=opinion+definition LaMotta, T. (2016, 3 25). Week one Intro to Logic. Introduction to logic. Power Point. Learning, C. (2016). Qualities Of A Critical Thinker . Retrieved from Cengage Learning: http://college.cengage.com/masterstudent/shared/content/articles/qualities_c ritical_thinker.html Paul, L. E. (2013). Critical Thinking Development: A Stage Theory. Retrieved from Foundation for critical thinking: https://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/critical- thinking-development-a-stage-theory/483 Project, N. (2012). Fallacies. Retrieved from Nikor.org: http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/index.html#index
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