Sociology Study Guide
Sociology Study Guide SOCI 1020-002
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SOCI-1020 Test 1: Chapters 1 - 2 Review Hanging indents are used on this review; whatever something is indented under is where it relates. Chapter 1 Social- (lecture) having to do with the interrelationships between individuals or groups Sociology- text: the systematic study of human society Lecture: scientific study of human social behavior What is the essential wisdom of sociology? (Lecture) Our social world guides our actions and life choices What does the Sociological Perspective’s: Seeing the general in the particular help us to see? Helps see general social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals (P. Berger 1963) The general categories into which we fall shape our particular life experiences and each individual’s behavior Ex. The social world guides people to select marriage partners from within their own social categories (similar educational backgrounds, cultures, ages) (seeing strange in familiar) ex. Changing last names in marriage st Who is consider to be the 1 academic sociologist? What did he study? What did he find? Emile Durkheim Studied the effect of larger society (general sociological patterns) on personal choice from the aspect of suicide Found that men, Protestants, wealthy people, and the unmarried each had much higher suicide rates than women, Catholics and Jews, the poor, and married people. Explained these differences in terms of social integration: how close an individual is in a group or organization (categories of people with strong social ties had low suicide rates, and more individualistic people had high suicide rates) List the three different types of nations/countries in the world. Global Perspective: the study of a larger world and our society’s place in it 1 High-income countries: nations with the highest overall standards of living (United, States and Canada, Argentina, the nations of Western Europe, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Japan, and Australia) Middle-income countries: nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole (72 nations, many countries of Eastern Europe, South Africa and some other African nations, and almost all of Latin America and Asia); as likely to live in rural villages as in cities; considerable social inequality Low-income countries: nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor (most in Africa and few in Asia) List the three major social changes/revolutions that led to the development of sociology Industrial Revolution (New Industrial Econonmy): end of 18 century (1700s) workers now used new sources of energy (power of moving water and then steam) to operate machines in mills - Workers became part of labor force under control of those who owned factories - Factories were built in the middle of cities - Took people from homes, weakening traditions that had guided community - Rural quality Urban quantity Urban Revolution (Growth of Cities): enclosure movement where the landowners fenced off area for the sheep, which in turn meant more wool for the textile mills - Decrease in land availability made farmers move to the cities to find work in the factories - Population went up, as well as pollution, crime, and homelessness Political Revolution (Political Change): people such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Adam Smith shifted the focus from people’s moral duties to God and king to the pursuit of self-interest - Personal liberty; individual rights (“life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”) - French Revolution (1789) caused huge change in society; people were now more aware of their surroundings Where did these changes/revolutions mainly occur? - Sociology was born in England, France, and Germany where the most change occurred (Europe) In which centuriethdid they occur? - 18th and 19 centuries (1700s and 1800s) 2 Why is Comte considered to be the father of sociology? - Proposed separate discipline to study society - Said that discipline should study society as it actually exists - Coined the term “sociology” in 1838 - Believed in positivism: a way of understanding from a scientific approach (on “positive” facts) List the three stages in Comte’s “Law of 3 Stages” 1) Theological Stage: society controlled by religious principles (the Church in the Middle Ages) 2) Metaphysical Stage: period of questioning; came to see society as a natural rather than a supernatural phenomenon (the Enlightenment and the ideas of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) 3) Scientific Stage: knowledge is based on positive facts; math is a base that science is developed from (modern physics, chemistry, sociology) Theory: statement of how and why specific facts are related (end result of scientific study) What is the goal/job of sociological theory? - To explain social behavior in the real world Theories are based on theoretical approaches/perspectives/paradigms Theoretical approach: basic image of society that guides thinking and research Three theoretical approaches in sociology: Be able to list, define (text), and identify the level of analysis/orientation for each theoretical approach. Structural-Functional Approach: framework for building theory that sees society as a whole is seen as a system of interrelated parts called structures (a regularly occurring pattern of behavior) that work together to maintain society as a whole (Auguse Comte, Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer); solidarity and stability (MACRO-LEVEL) - Each part works to keep society operating in an orderly way - Members generally agree about what is morally right and wrong - (List and define) 3 types of functions identified by Merton (any social structure has many functions): Manifest functions- the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern Latent functions- the unrecognized and unintended consequences Social dysfunctions- any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society 3 - Functional consequences: beneficial consequence to the maintenance of society Social-Conflict Approach: framework that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change (MACRO-LEVEL) - Highlights how factors such as class (Marx), race, ethnicity, gender, and age are linked to inequality in terms of money, power, education, and social status - Focuses on how any social pattern benefits some people while harming others - Social inequality causes conflict that leads to social change - Gender-conflict theory: the study of society that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men - Race-conflict theory: the study of society that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories Symbolic-Interaction Approach: framework that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals (MICRO-LEVEL) - Society is an ongoing process - People interact in countless settings using symbolic communications - The reality people experience is variable and changing Macro-level analysis/orientation- attempting to explain human social behavior on a large scale (text: broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole) Micro-level analysis/orientation- explaining social behavior on an individual level (text: a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations Social structures- any relatively stable pattern of social behavior Social functions- the consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society List the three purposes of science (Lecture) - Describe, explain, predict Variables- a concept whose value changes from case to case What does it mean to operationalize a variable? - Specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable Give an original example of a variable and operationalize it. (Bonus) Mean- the average of a set of numbers Median- the middle number Mode- the most occurring 4 Reliability- degree in which an experiment can be repeated and yield the same result (text: consistency in a measurement) Validity- degree in which a study measures what it intended to measure Cause and effect- change in one variable causes the other to change List and define the two variables in cause and effect relationships - Independent variable: the variable that causes the change in the dependent - Dependent variable: the variable that changes Correlation- a regularly occurring relationship between two or more variables (text: a relationship in which two variables change together) If you have a correlation do you always have cause and effect/causation? - CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION Spurious correlation- an apparent but false relationship between two or more variables that is caused by some other variable List the three steps to establish a cause and effect/causal relationship (p.25). 1. Variables are correlated 2. The independent (causal) variable always occurs before the dependent variable 3. There is no evidence that a third variable has been overlooked, causing a spurious correlation Who developed the concept of value free sociology? - Max Weber; people usually choose value-relevant topics, but once their work is under way, researchers should try to be value-free (we must be dedicated to finding the truth and it is rather than as we think it should be Gender- the social definitions of male/female (men are supposed to be masculine) (text: the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being male or female) List the five ways gender can affect research 1. Androcentricity: only approaching research from the male point of view (ex. Males should be the main breadwinners); gynocentricity: only seeing from female view 2. Overgeneralizing: studying one sex but drawing conclusions about both sexes (ex. Speaking to a few male public officials and making conclusions about a whole community) 3. Gender blindness: failing to consider gender at all 5 4. Double standards: judging men and women by different standards 5. Interference: if a subject reacts to the sex of the researcher, interfering with the research operation Experiments- research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions - Identify independent; measure dependent; expose dependent to independent; re-measure dependent Hypothesis- how and why; the untested relationship we think exists (text: a statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables) List the 2 groups in an experiment - Control group: does not receive independent variable (“cause” of the change) - Experimental group: receives the independent variable (“effect,” the thing that is changed) Hawthorne Effect- when subjects are aware that they are being researched, they will change their behavior to do what they think the researcher wants them to do Surveys (no definition) - subjects respond to series of statements or questions; MOST FREQUENT Population- all the people you want to study Sample- portion of the population of interest Representative sample- sample that represents the population proportionally Why is it important that a sample be a representative sample? - A representative sample allows the results to be drawn and applied to the population List, define, and be able to give original examples of the two types of questions: Open-ended questions- subjects answers are narrative (writing out a response) Closed-ended questions- subjects respond to a set of provided answers (checking a box) Observations (no definition) List and define the 2 types of Observations: - Participant observations: researchers observe while joining in the study - Nonparticipant observations: observing on the outside of the study What is the major difference in the two types of observations? - the major difference is the role that the researcher plays Be able to list 3 of the 10 steps in sociological research. (Bonus) 1. What is your topic? 6 2. What have others already learned? 3. What, exactly, are your questions? 4. What will you need to carry out research? 5. Are there any ethical concerns? 6. What method will you use? 7. How will you record the data? 8. What do the data tell you? 9. What are your conclusions? 10. How can you share what you’ve learned? Chapter 2 Culture- the ways of thinking, acting, and material objects that together form a people’s way of life Society- people who share a culture and geographic territory Are culture and society synonymous? No! Culture focuses on the way of life; society focuses on the people Culture Shock- personal disorientation when you encounter a different way of life Only humans depend on culture rather than instincts for their survival. List, define, and give original examples of the 5 basic elements of culture. 1. Symbols- anything that can meaningly represent more than itself (text: anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by the people who share a culture) 2. Language- set of symbols that allows people to communicate Cultural transmission- process by which one generation passes culture to the next - Throughout most of human history, cultural transmission has been accomplished through oral tradition. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis- people perceive the world through the cultural lens of language 3. Values & Beliefs o Values: reflect how behavior “should be” in the everyday situation 7 - Values can vary within one society, be inconsistent, change over time, and vary cross-culturally. o Beliefs: statements that reflect reality, truth, or fact (text: specific thoughts or ideas that people hold to be true) - Beliefs are created from values - Values and Beliefs do not represent actual behavior. Lower-income nations develop cultures that value survival. Higher-income nations develop cultures that value individualism and self- expression. 4. Norms- rules by which society guides behavior (laws) - Are derived from values - Do not represent actual behavior List, define, and give examples of the 2 types of norms developed by Sumner. - Folkways: customary rules for behavior; can vary (text: norms for routine of casual reaction) text ex. Appropriate greetings, proper dress, manners - Mores: moral norms, rules that reflect moral standards (text: norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance) text ex. Death penalty Sanctions- rewards or punishments that encourage conformity to cultural norms Social Control- attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior 5. Material Culture- tangible creations of a people that reflect the way they live - Reflects a culture’s values and technology. Ideal Culture and Real Culture - Ideal culture: standards of behavior we should go by - Real culture: behavior that actually occurs in everyday life - ALWAYS DIFFER Technology- knowledge applied to the task of living (not artifacts) Lenski: Socio-cultural evolution: the historical changes in culture brought about by new technology 4 levels of major levels of development/societies: 1. Hunting and Gathering- the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food o 3 million – 10,000 or 12,000 yrs. Ago 8 o Small family bands (nomadic groups) o Everyone was involved in the food production process o Survival = #1 goal (infrequent war) o Everyone was fairly equal (no / low inequality) o No formal leader o Human body was the only energy for work 2. Horticultural and Pastoral- the use of hand tools to raise crops (horticulture) and the domestication of animals (pastoralism) o 10,000 years ago o Mainly nomadic, with the early development of a few small permanent settlements o Occurred in the Middle East o Inequality increases 3. Agricultural- large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources o 5,000 years ago o Plow was developed, as well as the wheel, numbers, writing, new metals, money, irrigation, constant warfare, and slavery o Can be called the “Dawn of Civilization” (people were now able to do other jobs instead of everyone being involved in food production) o Large permanent settlements developed o Inequality dramatically increases and is fully established as a part of social structure 4. Industrial- based on the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery o Industrial Revolution = 1760 – 1775 o Inequality peaks, levels off, decreases, then increases o More complex cultures o Education was a necessity Post-Industrial Societies- based on technology that supports information based on the economy (postindustrialism: the production of information using computer technology) - Was not included in the Lenskis theory of Socio-cultural Evolution - Main product = information and ideas 9 - Inequality continues to increase - Society now has capability to create symbolic culture on unprecedented scale as people work with computers to generate new words, music, and images Subculture- cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population; differ from the overall culture (ex. Amish) Multiculturalism- a perspective recognizing cultural diversity and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions (correcting omissions from history) Eurocentrism- the dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns Afrocentrism- emphasizing and promoting African cultural patterns - Centrism: dominated by prefix Counterculture- cultural patterns that strongly oppose and want to change those widely accepted within a society (ex. Hippies, Malcom X, anti-war movement) Cultural Integration- the close relationship among the various elements of a cultural system Cultural Lag- the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system (William Ogbern) List the 3 factors that can cause cultural change. 1. Invention: process of creating new cultural elements (ex. Telephone, airplane, minimum wage) 2. Discovery: recognizing and understanding more fully something that is already in existence; seeing new possibilities (ex. A distant star, women’s athletic ability) 3. Diffusion: the spread of cultural traits from one society to another Ethnocentrism- practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture Xenocentrism- using another culture’s standards to judge your own culture Cultural Relativism- the practice of judging a culture by its own standards List the 3 key factors that promoting the trend of a global culture. 1. The global economy: The flow of goods 2. Global communications: the flow of information 3. Global migration: the flow of people 10 List the 3 limitations of the global culture thesis. 1. The global flow of goods, information, and people is uneven in the different parts of the world. (Urban areas have stronger ties to one another and greater influence) 2. The global culture thesis assumes that people everywhere are able to afford various new goods and services. 3. Although many cultural practices are now found in countries throughout the world, people everywhere do not attach the same meanings to them. Structural Functional approach: sees culture as a complex strategy for meeting human needs. Cultural Universals- traits that are part of every known culture (ex. Marriage, humor, dance, burials) Social-Conflict approach: stresses the link between culture and inequality; says that any cultural trait benefits some people at the expense of others. 11 SOCI-1020 Test 2 Review: Chapters 3-4 Sociology – text: the systematic study of human society Lecture: scientific study of human social behavior Chapter 3: Socialization Socialization- the lifelong social experience in which people develop their human potential and learn culture (lecture: learning how to react with others through every interaction); from birth death Personality- a person’s fairly consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Human development is affected by both nature and nurture. -nature: biological predispositions (BIOLOGY IS NOT DESTINY) -nurture: social human development (environment) Social isolation disturbs human development. Freud: Elements of Personality Id: basic drives (pleasure seeking; unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction); present at birth Ego: conscious balance between id and superego (pleasure seeking demands v. demands of society) Superego: cultural values and demands of society internalized by the individual (ex. Popularity) - People are in a constant battle between these elements of personality. Piaget: 4 Stages of Cognitive Development - Said there is a link between age, social experience, and complex mental development. 1. Sensorimotor Stage: from birth to 2 years old; the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses (touching, tasting, smelling, looking, listening) 2. Preoperational Stage: from 2 to 7 years; individual first uses language and other symbols; imagination 3. Concrete Operational Stage: from 7 to 11 years; individual first perceives causal connections to their surroundings (how/why); attach more than one symbol to a particular event or object 4. Formal Operational Stage: ~ 12 years; individual learns to think abstractly and critically; understand metaphors 30% of the population never reaches formal operational Kohlberg: 3 Stages of Moral Development of Boys 1. Preconventional: “right” and “wrong” are based on feelings (what feels good/bad to me) 2. Conventional: appears by teen years; people lose some selfishness and define right and wrong in terms of what pleases parents and conforms to cultural norms; assess intentions in reaching moral judgements 3. Postconventional: right and wrong judged by abstract ethical principles; liberty, freedom, justice What does it mean to say that Kohlberg committed overgeneralization? - Kohlberg only studied boys and generalized it to girls as well Gilligan: Gender and Moral Development Boys have a justice perspective, relying on formal rules to define right and wrong Girls have a care and responsibility perspective, judging a situation with an eye toward personal relationships and royalties Do Gilligan's findings show differences in moral development related to sex or gender? GENDER (cultural conditioning) G. Mead: Taking the Role of the Other - Mead's basic premise is that the self develops through social interaction. Self- the part of the individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image (lecture: who we think we are) 6 key points on the self 1. The self is absent at birth; it develops 2. The self develops only with social experience/interactions with others 3. Social experience is based on the exchange of symbols (language) 4. Seeking meaning leads people to imagine other people’s intentions; we draw conclusions from their actions, imagining their underlying intentions 5. Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other’s point of view; all social interaction involves seeing ourselves as others see us (taking the role of the other) 6. By taking the role of the other, we become self-aware 2 parts of the self 1. “I”: subject, active and spontaneous; the subjective form of the personal pronoun 2. “Me”: object, evaluator. The way we imagine others see us; the objective form of the personal pronoun - We initiate with the “I” and continue the action based on how others respond to us with “me” 2 types of others 1. Significant others: people, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization (lecture: people who have special importance in our socialization process) 2. Generalized others: people, such as teachers, who teach us widespread cultural norms and values we use as references in evaluation ourselves Bonus: 4 stages in the development of the self 1. Imitation: no sense of self; behaviors based on what we see; no ability to take role of other 2. Play: children take roles of significant others; one “other” in one situation at a time 3. Games: children take role of several others at the same time 4. Acquisition/Recognition of the generalized other: we can reflect on widespread values and norms to evaluate ourselves; many others in many situations We are self-aware; have a conception of who we are; changes over time Cooley: Looking-glass self What is Cooley's basic premise on self-image? - Self-image is based on how others respond to us (how we think others see us) - Society is seen as a mirror; has influence on who we think we are Ex. If others see us as funny, we see ourselves as funny Flow of Socialization Social characteristics (race, social class, gender, and others), Affect all agents of socialization (family, school, peers, mass media, and others), Which Affect How and What we learn, Which Becomes part of our self-concepts Agents of Socialization- settings where socialization occurs Family Functions as the basic agent/unit of socialization (MOST CRUCIAL) Not all socialization that occurs in the family is overt or intentional, some is subtle or unintentional. Socialization in the family is affected by the social and physical environment that parents create. Provides children a social identity. School Functions to introduce children to: Knowledge and skills, in addition to the hidden curriculum Hidden curriculum- informal teaching of cultural norms; how schools pass on important cultural values and norms (raising hand, competition) Being evaluated by universal standards (grades) Their first experience with bureaucracy (social structure/hierarchy) Reinforcement of gender roles The larger social world beyond their family Peer Groups/ Peers Peer group: a social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common -importance of peer groups peaks at adolescence when children break away from their families and think of themselves as adults Function to provide anticipatory socialization Anticipatory socialization- learning that helps a person achieve a desired position Book ex. Copying style and slang of group in hopes of acceptance Mass Media- Mass media: means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience (ex. News, t.v., internet) Affects attitudes and attitudes are basis of behavior Attitudes- positive or negative evaluations of people, objects or situations Bonus: Select 1 of the 4 agents of socialization (family, school, peers, or mass media) and provide an original, personal example of socialization provide to you by that agent. Be specific and make sure it is an original and personal example that includes: 1. Who (the Agent) 2. What (What the agent socialized you to) 3. How (How the agent socialized you to what you said they did) Socialization & the Life Course Even though the stages of the life course are linked to biological age, the essential characteristics of each stage are socially constructed or socially defined. Note: The socially defined characteristics for each stage vary by social characteristics like race, social class, gender, and others. Be able to list the 4 stages in the life course and know the information listed with each. Childhood Roughly the first 12 years of life Became a separate stage of development with industrialization; before, children had labored to help support the family Is currently becoming shorter because children are expected to do more (clubs,sports) in order to be high-achievers child anxiety Adolescence Equals a time of social contradictions; not a child, but not an adult Society reinforces that if we look a certain age, we can act that age Emphasis on achievement in younger years for benefits in later life Adulthood EARLY ADULTHOOD: 18-24 years - working toward achieving goals; juggling conflicting priorities MIDDLE ADULTHOOD: 25-65 - assessing where you are in life/career; finding things you may want to change *40’s is the most economically productive years Old Age Culture shapes how a society understands growing old. Begins around mid 60’s Gerontology- the study of aging and the elderly Ageism- discrimination based on age Cohort- a category of people with something in common, usually their age Kubler-Ross: Death and Dying List the 5 stages in coming to accept death 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Negotiation 4. Resignation 5. Acceptance Chapter 4: Social Interaction in Everyday Life Social interaction- the process by which people act and react in relation to others Social structure- regularly occurring patterns of behavior Members of every society rely on social structure to make sense out of daily situations Social structure makes social interaction predictable Status- POSITION a person occupies in the social structure Status set- all the statuses a person holds at a given time (ex. Sister, student, daughter); can change Ascribed status- a social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life (ex. Royal family) Achieved status- a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort Master status- status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life (ex. Race, sex, employment on a macro or micro-level) Role- BEHAVIOR expected of someone who holds a particular status (roles are active: ex. “to have compassion”) Role set- a number of roles attached to a single status (every status set has a role set) Role strain- tension among the roles connected to a single status (when role set attached to one status is problematic); ex. Trouble to do everything in the single status Role conflict- conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses Bonus: From your personal status set: Be able to give an example of 3 statuses Select 1 of your statuses and provide 3 roles from its role set Bonus: From your personal status set: Be able to give a specific example of role conflict or role strain. Be sure to identify: If it is role conflict or role strain, The status/statuses involved, The roles involved and the specific statuses to which they are attached. The Social Construction of Reality- the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction The Thomas Theorem- situations that are defined as “real” are real in their consequences People in different cultures experience reality very differently (could be self-fulfilling prophesy) Garfinkle: Ethnomethodology- the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings Violating norms helps us uncover the actual cultural norms that are held Social Media- technology that links people in social activity Goffman: Dramaturgical Analysis- the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance Presentation of self- a person’s efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others Presentation of self is the central focus of Dramaturgical Analysis Non-verbal communication can give clues as to whether a person is being truthful; tends to be culture specific (definition: inconsistencies in speech and body language) Gender affects personal performances (demeanor: the way we act and carry ourselves is different between the genders; personal space: men are more likely to invade the personal space of a woman or be more physical with them than the other way around; affects staring, smiling, and touching) Performances usually idealize our intentions o Idealization- behaviors match social values and norms rather than selfish motives o Embarrassment- discomfort following a spoiled performance o Tact- helping someone “save face” Emotions: The Social Construction of Feeling What we do often makes less than how we feel about it. Ekman: Be able to list the 3 ways culture guides human emotions. 1. Culture defines what triggers emotions 2. Culture supplies rules for display of emotions 3. Culture guides how we value emotions In the US, most people feel freer to express their feelings at home than on the job Language: The Social Construction of Gender List the 2 ways that the text says language defines men and women differently. 1. Power: powerful terms are usually associated/given to men over women 2. Value: terms that are given to jobs a female holds are negative SOCI-1020 Test 3 Review: Chapters 5 & 7 Sociology scientific study of human social behavior Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations Social group/group text: two or more people who identify and interact with one another Primary group a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships Usually longterm, broad breadth of relationships involving many activities Ends in themselves focus is welfare of the individual members (ex. Family, circle of friends) Secondary group a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity variable; often shortterm; narrow breadth involving few activities Means to an end focus is during a specific amount of time, not the group itself (ex. Coworkers, political organizations) Be able to list and define the 2 types of leadership roles 1. Instrumental Leadership: group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks 2. Expressive Leadership: group leadership that focuses on the group’s wellbeing Be able to match these 2 leadership roles to traditional gender roles for males and females. Instrumental Formal secondary relationships with other members; rewards and punishments Enjoy more respect Expressive Personal primary ties; offer sympathy to a member Receive more personal affection Be able to list and define the 3 leadership styles 1. Authoritarian: focuses on instrumental concerns; take personal charge of decision making, and demands strict compliance; used in crisis situation 2. Democratic: more expressive; makes a point of including everyone in the decisionmaking process; draw on the ideas of all members to develop creative solutions to problems 3. Laissezfaire: “leave it alone”; allows group to function more or less on its own; least effective in promoting group goals Know the conclusions from the 3 researchers on group conformity: Asch many of us are willing to compromise our own judgement to avoid the discomfort of being seen as different, even by the people we don’t know; “standard line” experiment, 1/3 chose to conform Milgram people are likely to follow the lead of not only legitimate authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals, even when it means harming another person; “electrical shock” studies Janis group members often seek agreement that closes off other points of view Groupthink: the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue; Groups often seek consensus, which lessens discussion and brainstorming and focuses on getting to an end Reference Groups a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions Lecture: groups that we obtain information from to make evaluations or decisions Do you have to be a member of a group for it to function as a reference group? No; conforming to groups we do not belong to is a strategy to win acceptance by others and illustrates the process of anticipatory socialization What were Stouffer’s findings/conclusions on reference groups? Soldiers in army units with low promotion rates were more positive about their chances to move ahead We do not make judgements about ourselves in isolation and do not compare ourselves with just anyone; we form a subjective sense of our wellbeing by looking at ourselves relative to specific reference groups Ingroup a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty; members held in high esteem Outgroup a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition Dyad (2 members) and Triad (3 members) Which is typically more stable, a dyad or triad? Triad; one member can act as a mediator should the relationship between two become strained Which is typically more intense, a dyad or triad? Dyad; neither member shares the other’s attention with anyone else What 2 types of relationships can occur in a triad that can’t occur in a dyad? One can be a mediator Two of three can pair up to press views on the third or two may be closer and leave the other out Be very familiar with the information in the last paragraph on triads; p. 146 As groups grow larger than 3, they become more stable and capable of withstanding loss of one or more members Increases in group size reduce the intense personal interaction possible only in the smallest groups Large groups are based less on personal attachment and more formal rules and regulations How many possible relationships exist in the following groups: a dyad: one relationship a triad: three relationships a four person group: six relationships a five person group: ten relationships a six person group: fifteen relationships seven person group: twentyone relationships As group size increases arithmetically, the number of potential relationships increases geometrically, or exponentially. List Blau’s 3 ways that social diversity influences intergroup contact p. 146. 1. Large groups turn inward The larger a group is, the more likely the members are to have relationships just among themselves 2. Heterogeneous groups turn outward The more internally diverse a group is, the more likely its members are to interact with outsiders 3. Physical boundaries create social boundaries People tend to interact with those they are physically around Social diversity affects group contact!!!!!!! List and define the 3 types of formal organizations that Etzioni identified. Formal organization: large, secondary groups organized to achieve goals efficiently 1. Utilitarian: organizations joined to pursue material rewards (pay people for their effort) 2. Normative: voluntary organizations to pursue goals we deem are morally worthwhile (community service groups, political parties, religious organizations) 3. Coercive: involuntary organization; people are forced to join these as form of punishment (prisons) or treatment (psychiatric hospitals) List the 2 limitations of the efficiency of early organizations that Weber identified p. 150. 1. They lacked technology to travel over large distances, to communicate quickly, and gather and store information. 2. The preindustrial societies they were trying to rule had traditional cultures. Tradition behavior, values, and beliefs passed from generation to generation (focus is PAST) Rationality a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matteroffact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task Rationalization of society the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought Bureaucracy an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently List 3 of the 6 key elements of ideal bureaucracies that Weber identified. (Bonus) 1. Specialization of duties 2. Hierarchy of positions 3. Rules and regulations 4. Technical competence 5. Impersonality 6. Formal, written communications List and define the 4 problems of bureaucracies 1. Weber: Bureaucratic Alienation Potential for bureaucracies to dehumanize the people it is supposed to serve and those who work for them; focus is on the system, not the people 2. Merton: Bureaucratic Inefficiency and Ritualism Focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization’s goals Rules become ends in themselves that take away from the goals 3. Weber: Bureaucratic Inertia Tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves Formal organizations tend to take on a life of their own beyond their formal objectives or goals 4. Michels: Oligarchy The rule of the many by the few “Iron law of oligarchy”: the pyramid shape of bureaucracy places a few leaders in charge of the resources of the entire organization Decrease in democracy decrease in accountability of leaders Scientific Management Frederick Taylor’s term for the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization Be able to list the 3 steps in scientific management. (Bonus) 1. Managers carefully observe the task performed by each worker 2. Managers analyze their data, trying to discover ways for workers to perform each job more efficiently 3. Management provides guidance and incentives for workers to do their jobs more quickly Ritzer: McDonaldization of Society: What is this? How the underlying principles of McDonalds are coming co dominate our entire society Be able to list the 4 principles involved. 1. Efficiency 2. Predictability 3. Uniformity 4. Control Chapter 7: Deviance Norms rules for social behavior (include folkways and mores) Conformity adhering to norms Deviance recognized violations of norms (folkways AND mores) Socially created; related to social construction of reality When norms change, things considered deviant change Crime the violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law Becker identified that all deviant actions or attitudes have in common some element of difference that causes people to regard another person as an outsider. Not all deviance involves action or even choice. Some categories of people are seen as deviant by others. Social control attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior; function to prevent chaos and anarchy Sanctions reactions to norms; can be rewards or punishment Deviance and conformity are shaped by society. Be able to list the 3 social foundations of deviance 1. Deviance varies according to cultural norms. 2. People become deviant as others define them that way. 3. How societies set norms and how they define rule breaking both involve social power. Know the key insight/focus on deviance for each of the 3 main theoretical approaches: (This is what is listed below following each of the three main theoretical approaches and is in the text in the first few sentences following each of the theoretical perspectives.) StructuralFunctionalism & Deviance: says deviance is a necessary element of social organization. Macro level By defining deviance, society sets its moral boundaries Deviance is universal: it exists in all societies Durkheim: Functions of Deviance Said there’s nothing abnormal about deviance. Be able to list Durkheim’s 4 functions of deviance. 1. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms 2. Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries 3. Responding to deviance brings people together 4. Deviance encourages social change Change in itself is not positive or negative, it is the effects that are Merton: Strain Theory The extent and kind of deviance depend on whether a society provides the means to achieve cultural goals. Be able to complete this chart for the 5 responses and how they relate to Goals and Means Response Conventional Culturally Approved Goals Means Conformity + + pursuing cultural goals through approved means Innovation + using unconventional means rather than hard work for a goal Ritualism + means become the goal; rigid rule follower Retreatism reject goals and means (isolation) Rebellion (create new) (create new) reject both, but form countercultures with new ones Note: + = accepts & – = rejects. Do not just memorize these in order as listed above; I usually change the order on the test, Opportunity Structure Theories (what the text has labeled as “Deviant Subcultures”) explain deviance by focusing on a person’s access to illegitimate and legitimate opportunities in life. deviance SymbolicInteraction & Deviance: explains how people define deviance in everyday situations. Micro level Deviance is part of socially constructed reality that emerges into interaction Deviance comes into being as individuals label something as deviant Deviance is variable: Any act or person may or may not be labeled deviant Labeling Theory explains deviance by saying that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do, but how others respond to those actions. Lemert: Primary Deviance o First passing episodes of norm violations that provoke slight reaction from others and have little effect on a person’s selfconcept o Self or others do not see them as deviant Secondary Deviance o Individual repeatedly violates a norm and takes on deviant behavior o May label themselves as deviant or other’s responses label them Goffman: Stigma Powerful, negative social label that radically changes a person’s selfconcept, social identity, and operates as a master status People react to the label, whether or not it is true (excon, murderer, abuser) Retrospective Labeling and Projective Labeling Retrospective labeling: interpreting someone’s past in the light of some present deviance Projective labeling: using the person’s deviant identity to predict future actions (“once a deviant, always a deviant”) Sometimes just being different can cause an individual to be labeled a deviant. Medicalization of deviance Transformation of moral or legal issues into medical conditions List the 3 consequences of whether deviance is defined as a medical or moral issue. 1. It affects who responds 2. How people respond to deviance 3. Personal competence of the deviant person Sutherland: Differential Association Theory A person’s tendency toward conformity or deviance depends on the amount of contact with others who encourage or reject conventional behavior. Deviance, like all social patterns, is learned in groups. If you associate with people who accept deviance, you are more likely to deviate. Hirschi: Control Theory Social control depends on imagining/anticipating the consequences of one’s behavior. Be able to list the 4 types of social controls conformity (Bonus) 1. Attachment 2. Opportunity 3. Involvement 4. Belief Social Conflict approach: links deviance to social inequality: who or what is labeled “deviant” depends on which categories of people hold power in a society. Macrolevel Deviance reflects racial and gender inequality Deviant labels are more readily applied to women and other minorities Deviance is a means of control: Dominant categories of people discredit others as a means to dominate them Deviance and Power o All deviants share powerlessness. Conflict theory explains the relationship of deviance and power in 3 ways: 1. All norms especially the laws of society generally reflect the interests of the rich and powerful 2. Even if their behavior is called into question, the powerful have the resources to resist deviant labels 3. The widespread belief that norms and laws are natural an good masks their political character The norms of any society generally reflect the interests of the rich and powerful The powerful have the resources to resist deviant labeling. Believing that laws and norms are “just” and “good” can mask their political character, because laws may be inherently unfair Deviance and Capitalism: o Spitzer says that deviant labels are applied to those who impede the operation of capitalism. Be able to list the 4 key points on capitalism (BONUS) 1. Capitalism is based on the private control of property, 2. Capitalism depends on productive labor, 3. Capitalism depends on respect for authority, 4. Anyone who directly challenges the capitalist status quo is likely to be defined as deviant. WhiteCollar Crime crimes committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupation White collar crimes are usually controlled by civil law Civil law regulates business dealing between private parties Criminal law defines a person’s moral responsibilities to society Corporate Crime illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf Organized Crime – a business supplying illegal goods and services Know the information in the Applying Theory box for each of the three theoretical approaches discussed in class, p. 209. Any of this information on the three theoretical approaches we discussed could be a potential question. (under each section in italics) Hate Crime a criminal act against a person or person’s property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias List the 2 distinct elements of a crime: 1. the act itself (actus reus) 2. the criminal intent (mens rea guilty mind) List the 3 types of crime: 1. crimes against the person (violent crimes): crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others 2. crimes against property (property crimes): crimes that involve theft of property belonging to others 3. victimless crimes: violation of law in which there are no obvious victims SOCI-1020 FINAL REVIEW: Chapters 8-11 Sociology- scientific study of human social behavior CHAPTER 8: Social Stratification Social Structure- regularly occurring patterns of behavior List and define the 3 types of social rewards: Wealth- family’s total accumulated assets held in reserve Income- earnings from work or investment Power- possibility of imposing one’s will upon the will of others Authority- power is legitimately distributed to a status by norms Prestige- respect associated with a status Social Inequality- access to social rewards is unequal Social Stratification- system by which society ranks people in a social hierarchy (text) - Lecture: when social inequality is built into the structure of society, entire categories of people’s access to rewards is affected by their placement in the hierarchy (unequal social rewards are used to sort people hierarchy is developed) Social Class/Class Systems- stratification based on birth and achievement (text); groupings of individuals with similar levels of access to social rewards Caste System- social stratification based on ascription (birth) Status Consistency- the degree of uniformity in a person’s social standing across various dimensions of social inequality Social Mobility- a change in position within the social hierarchy Structural Social Mobility- a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts Ideology- cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements - Stratification persists because it’s backed up by ideology. - Ideology changes as a society’s economy and technology change. List the 4 principles involved in social stratification. 1. Social stratification is a trait of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences 2. “carries over from generation to generation 3. “is universal but variable 4. “involves not just inequality but beliefs as well Know the following chart from lecture that summarizes information on the 2 stratification systems: Stratification Boundaries/ Placement Status System Mobility Basis Consistency Caste Closed Ascribed Status High Class Open Ascribed Status Variable/ & Low Achieved Status Marx- List his 2 classes (book & lecture) 1. Bourgeoisie, Capitalists, Owners, Haves: people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits 2. Proletariat, Workers, Have Nots: people who sell their labor for wages What did Marx believe determined a person’s class? - People’s relationship to the means of production - Believed there would always be conflict over limited resources, especially economics. Alienation- the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness - Believed workers would always be alienated under capitalism. - Believed that revolution was the only mode for social change; then everyone would share equally. Weber- had a multidimensional view of stratification and inequality - Said stratification was a Socio-economic status (SES): a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality; where accesses to social rewards (wealth, power, and prestige) intersect. Most sociologists use Weber’s ideas on social class/stratification. Conspicuous consumption- buying and using products because of the “statement” they make about social position Social Stratification and Technology: A Global Perspective (p. 250 – 252) - Structured inequality is minimal (everyone is fairly equal) in Hunting and Gathering societies. - A small elite controls most of the resources in Horticultural and Pastoral, and Agricultural (agrarian) societies. - Industrialization initially increases inequality, but over time social inequality declines; currently inequality is on the increase again in industrial societies. Kuznets Curve: greater technological sophistication generally is accompanied by more pronounced social stratification. The Global Map 8-1 (p. 252): Income Inequality in Global Perspective shows: High-income nations have less income inequality than low-income countries. Countries that have had centralized, social
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