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Chemistry 1061 Notes ch 5-7 for Exam 2

by: mandygh926

Chemistry 1061 Notes ch 5-7 for Exam 2 chem 1061

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These notes include the main topics for exam 2: Ideal Gas Law, Effusion and Diffusion, Enthalpy, Heat Capacity, Hess’s Law, The Rydberg Equation, Absorption and Emission, De Broglie Wavelength, Hei...
Chemical Principles I
Debra Salmon
Enthalpy, absorption, emission, Energy, quantum
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by mandygh926 on Tuesday July 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to chem 1061 at University of Minnesota taught by Debra Salmon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles I in Chemistry at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 07/19/16
Chemistry Notes for Exam 2: Ch. 5­7 on 10­27­16 Corresponding Textbook: Chemistry; The Molecular Nature of Matter and  Change Includes: Ideal Gas Law, Effusion and Diffusion, Enthalpy, Heat Capacity, Hess’s Law, The  Rydberg Equation, Absorption and Emission, De Broglie Wavelength, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty  Principle, Energy Levels of an Atom, and Quantum Numbers.  Chapter 5: Gases and the Kinetic­Molecular Theory   Barometer: measures atmospheric pressurgas  atm ∆H where H is the height change  of the liquid in the barom5 er in meters.  SI Pressure Units: 1 bar = 1 e Pa (where Pa is Pascals), 1 atm= 760 torr, 1 torr= 1mmHg  Standard Temperature & Pressure (STP): occurs at 0°C (273.15 K), 1 atm (760 torr),  volume = 22.4 L  Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRT; For P=pressure in atm, V= volume in Liters, n is the number of moles, T is the temperature in kelvins, and R is the universal gas constant (8.314  J/mol*K). This law does not work at extremely low temperatures and high pressures.  Partial PressureA P  A X total e X A  the mole fraction for element A. The mole  fraction is calculated by: molof A X A  totalamount(mol)  Vapor Pressure: the portion of the total pressure that is dependent only on the water  temperature.   Root­ Mean­ Square­ Speed: where M is the molar mass, R is the universal gas constant  (8.314 J/mol*K), and T is the temperature in Kelvins. 3RT U rms  M   √  Effusion vs. Diffusion: Effusion is the process of gas escaping through holes in the  container into evacuated space. Diffusion is the movement of one gas through another.  Diffusion rates are much lower than effusion rates.  o Graham’s Law of Effusion found that the rate of effusion was inversely  proportional to the square root of the molar mass.  o At constant Temp., the effusion rates of two gases are:  Rate U M A= rms= B RateB U rmsB √M A m MostProbableSpeed( s)  Collision Frequency:   where the mean free path is the  MeanFreePath( M ) collision average distance a particle travels between collisions given a temp and pressure. This is  determined using the particle’s diameter.  **Note: for Chemistry 1 we didn’t have any calculations for collision frequency, just concepts.  Chapter 6: Thermochemistry: Energy Flow and Chemical Change  Internal Energy: the sum of all the energy in a system. The change in energy is the final  energy minus the initial energy which shows if energy was released to the surroundings  or absorbed from the surroundings. Change in energy is given by: ∆E = q + W; where q is heat and w is work.   Thermal Energy (Heat): flowing out from a system is a negative change in energy;  flowing into a system is a positive change in energy.   Work: Done by a system is negative change in energy; done on a system is positive  change in energy.   Pressure­volume work (PV work): The work done when the volume of the system  changes in the presence of an external pressure is given by: W = ­P∆V (negative change  in volume times the pressure).  Enthalpy: (H) thermodynamic variable that eliminates the need to measure PV work.    ∆H = ∆E + P∆V = qP (if pressure is constant) o Exothermic process: heat is released as a product to decrease the enthalpy of the  system. o Endothermic process: heat is absorbed as a reactant to increase the enthalpy of the system.  Hess’s Law: states that the change in enthalpy of an overall process is the sum of the  enthalpy changes in each individual step of the reaction.  Standard Enthalpy of reaction: found by formation equations where fractional  coefficients are often used. The variable has been measured with all substances in their  standard states given by:  ∆H° = ∑m ∆H° ­ ∑n ∆H° rxn  f (reactants)  f (products) The standard enthalpy of the reaction equals the summation of the enthalpy required to  break the bonds of the reactants minus the enthalpy required to form the bonds of the  products. Standard Enthalpy of Reaction= BREAK ­ MAKE  Standard States: {gas} 1 atm and ideal behavior, {aq. sol} ­ 1M (molar concentration),  {pure substance (element/compound)} ­ most stable form @ 1 atm and 25°C  Heat Capacity (q): where c is the specific heat capacity (usually given in a textbook  table), q is the heat capacity measured in J, and the mass is measured in GRAMS.  q = c x mass x ∆T Chapter 7: Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure  Radiation waves: all travel at the same speed through vacuums, but differ in λ  (wavelength) and ν (frequency).  Refraction vs Diffraction: Refraction is the change in a wave’s speed when entering a  different medium. Diffraction is the bend of a wave around an edge of an object.  Rydberg Equation: predicts the position and wavelength of any line in a series; where R  is the Rydberg constant and n > n Fo2 Ult1 . iolet light: n  =1, Visible1light: n  = 2,  1 Infrared light: n  1 3.  2  2 1/λ = R (1/n – 1/n ) 2  Absorption vs. Emission: Absorption occurs when energy and e (electrons) move away  ­  from the nucleus, ∆E is positive. Emission occurs when energy and e move closer to the  nucleus, adds line to atom’s spectrum, ∆E is negative. ­18  2  2  Energy Levels: E= ­2.18e  J (Z / n ) where z is the nucleus charge (for Hydrogen: Z=1,  He  Z=2, Li   Z=3) the change in energy is given by:     ­18  2  2 – 2  2) ∆E= ­2.18e J (Z / n  Z / nf i  Ionization Energy: the energy required to remove e completely from the atom. Use the  transition from n=1 io n=∞ infthe change in energy equation above.  De Broglie Wavelength: where lambda (λ) is the wavelength in meters, h is Planck’s  constant in Js, m is the mass in kg, and u is the speed of the particle in m/s. λ = h / mu  Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle: where delta x is the uncertainty in position, delta u is the uncertainty in speed. A smaller delta x means is more accurate position, but it’s  impossible to know both position and momentum simultaneously.  ∆x*m∆u ≥ h/ 4ᴨ Quantum Numbers:  Principle Quantum Number­ (n) specifies energy level. n ≥1 (ground state)  Angular Momentum Quantum Number­ (Ɩ) gives the shape of the orbital, ranges from 0  to n­1, Possible number of l values is given by n. Ɩ=0 s orbital Ɩ=1 p orbital Ɩ=2 d orbital  Ɩ=3 f orbital  Magnetic Quantum Number­ (m ) gives theƖ3D orientation of the orbital in space, ranges  2 from –Ɩ to Ɩ, Possible number of m values Ɩ  2Ɩ+1 or n .  Spin Quantum Number­ (m ) gives tse direction of the electron’s field, ±1/2


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