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Course Notes Ch. 1-17 including Readings

by: Nakia Moore

Course Notes Ch. 1-17 including Readings HY 102

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > History > HY 102 > Course Notes Ch 1 17 including Readings
Nakia Moore
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These notes cover all of the class from Ch. 1 to 17 including class readings.
Western Civilization Since 1648
Charles Clark
history, HY102
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This 316 page Bundle was uploaded by Nakia Moore on Wednesday July 20, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HY 102 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Charles Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization Since 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 07/20/16
OneNote: one place for all of your notes Watch the 2 minute video 1. Take notes anywhere on the page Write your name here 2. Get organized You start with "My Notebook" - everything lives in here Add sections for activities like: Add pages inside of each section: (Pages are over there) 3. For more tips, check out 30 second videos Clip from Plan a trip Search notes Write notes the web with others instantly on slides 4. Create your first page You're in the Quick Notes section - use it for random notes OneNote Basics Remember everything ▹Add Tags to any notes ▹Make checklists and to-do lists ▹Create your own custom tags Collaborate with others ▹Keep your notebooks on OneDrive ▹Share with friends and family ▹Anyone can edit in a browser Keep everything in sync ▹People can edit pages at the same time ▹Real-Time Sync on the same page ▹Everything stored in the cloud ▹Accessible from any device Clip from the web Clip from the web ▹Quickly clip anything on your screen ▹Take screenshots of products online ▹Save important news articles Organize with tables ▹Type, then press TAB to create a table ▹Quickly sort and shade tables ▹Convert tables to Excel spreadsheets Write notes on slides ▹Send PowerPoint or Word docs to OneNote ▹Annotate with a stylus on your tablet ▹Highlight and finger-paint Integrate with Outlook Integrate with Outlook ▹Take notes on Outlook or Lync meetings ▹Insert meeting details ▹Add Outlook tasks from OneNote From Outlook: Add Excel spreadsheets ▹Track finances, budgets, & more ▹Preview updates on the page Brainstorm without clutter ▹Hide everything but the essentials ▹Extra space to focus on your notes Take quick notes Take quick notes ▹Quickly jot down thoughts and ideas ▹They go into your Quick Notes section Ehrman Guided Reading Monday, September 22, 2014 9:53 PM A Reader’s Guide for Ehrman (pp. 1-84)  What in this book can you discern of the author’s personal journey? How has it evolved? How does his personal history intersect with the questions he asks as an academic? Does his personal view weaken or strengthen his position of authority? Or is there another way of looking at the issue entirely? What about Ehrman? • Attended Moody Bible Institute ○ And Wheaton • Doing research, discovering inaccuracies in the Bible ○ Sees contradictions in the text  The Bible cannot actually be the 'inspired work of God' • In his youth, raised as a Christian, used to wonder how "god became man" ○ Now, in his middle age, wonders how a "man became god" • Claims he "(has) tried to approach (the) question in a way that will be useful not only for secular historians of religion like (himself, but also for believers like (his) friend who continue(s) to think that Jesus is, in fact, God. " (p.3, L 3-6) Is he biased? • Because he has been on both sides of the fence, both as a believer and as a secular historian, he should be able to present the historical facts without bias because he understands both the theological draw of Jesus, as well as the historical.  What does Ehrman mean when he describes the field of “Christology” (“Christ-ology”)? Why is that field important as a subject of history? • "the term Christology literally means "understanding of Christ" (p.4, L 15-16) • High vs. Low Christology • Where did Jesus originate, is he divine or human ○ Balanced on the idea that the divine and human realms are black and white, incredibly distinct  "most ancient people---whether Christian, Jewish, or pagan---did not have this paradigm. For them, the human realm was not an absolute category separated from the divine realm by an enormous and unbridgeable crevasse. On the contrary, the human and divine were two continuums that could, and did, overlap." (p.4, L 26-30)  What are Ehrman’s general framing points about divine and human beings in the ancient world? What are some of the key ancient texts he cites (excerpts are provided below) and what lessons does he draw from them? • Two ways a human could be divine • "By adoption or exaltation. A human being (say, a great ruler or warrior or holy person) could be made divine by an act o fGod or a god, by being elevated to a level of divinity that she or he did not previously have." (p.5, L 1-4) ○ "One of my theses will be that a Christian text such as the Gospel of Mark understands Jesus in the first way, as a human who came to be made divine." (p.5, L 8-10) • "By nature or incarnation. A divine being (say, an angel or one of the gods) could become human, either permanently or, more commonly, temporarily." (p.5, L 5-7) ○ "The Gospel of John understands him in the second way, as a divine being who became human." (p.5, L 10-11)  "Both of them see Jesus as divine, but in different ways" (p.5, L 12) • Metamorphoses: Philemon and Baucis • Gods became temporarily human, walked among us; humans could then be elevated into divinity ○ Divinity came in different depths; humans deified weren't on the same level as actual gods  On pp. 44-45, Ehrman poses the central problems his book aims to address. What is that problem in your own words? • "Did Christians think of Jesus as God?" (p.44) ○ "In what sense did Christians think of Jesus as God?" (p.44)  "People saw Jesus as a teacher, a rabbi, and even a prophet. Some people thought of him as the (very human) messiah. But he was born like everyone else and he was "like" everyone else." (p.44) • How did the Christian 'idea of Jesus' develop over time, from prophet to divine human, to deity on par with the most high?  On pp. 47-50 Ehrman summarizes a bit about his academic career and the process that led him to begin this book. What was the central moment? And how does the story he tells here reflect the lesson we have begun to learn about history as a “relationship” (personal and professional) with the past? • Central moment was, he was in Priene with a friend, he saw a Greek inscription, concerning the God (Caesar) Augustus. ○ Hit him, "the time when Christianity arose, with its exalted claims about Jesus, was the same time when the emperor cult had started to move into full swing, with its exalted claims about the emperor." (p.49)  "These were not simply parallel developments. This was a competition." (p.49) • The story he tells reflects the lessons we have learned about history as a relationship with the past by showing us how his personal present, taking a fun trip with a friend around Ancient Priene, connects to his professional past working in a long-term database project.  You may be surprised to find that ancient Judaism made a place for complex divine-human intersections. What are some of the main ones he outlines in chapter two? • Angels! ○ Angels having sex with humans ○ Humans becoming angels  On pp. 69-75, the discussion wanders into some complex Greek terms. What is your understanding of what is meant here by “hypostasis?” By “logos”? What difference does it make that thinkers began to use Greek words and concepts to think and write about what was originally expressed in Hebrew and Aramaic? How does the language we use shape how we think and believe? • Hypostasis: a specific attribute of God, say, Wisdom ○ God has Wisdom  Wisdom is a separate entity to be had  Because the Wisdom is God's, the Wisdom must be an equal of God's  Wisdom is a separate divinity, but near to pr with God A Reader’s Guide for Ehrmman (Part II) (pp. 85-210) • pp. 88 ff: How would you summarize the scholarly problems Ehrman presents at the opening of chapter three? The methods for approaching them? • pp. 98 ff: What does Ehrman mean by “Apocalypticism,” as essential to it? How does he marshal evidence to say that that Jesus was an “apocalypticist?” (talk about words you can use to impress your friends!) • pp. 118 ff: Who did Jesus think he was, according to Ehrman? Did he claim to be God? If not, what did he claim? If so, in what sense? Based on what evidence? • p. 129-133 ff. (and pp. 143 ff): How would you summarize here Ehrman’s presentation of the issue regarding history (as an academic discipline) and resurrection? How does his personal experience help illustrate the issue? Where does he himself stand? Does this issue matter for the purposes of his argument in this book? • pp. 133-43: How does Ehrman tackle the issue of the events surrounding the resurrection (as distinct from the resurrection itself)? • pp. 152-69: Why are the issues of burial and the tomb as Ehrman raises them here important? How does he answer the questions? • pp. 171 ff: Ehrman makes a distinction between things we can and cannot know about the resurrection. What in his view can we know, and how do we know it? • pp. 184 ff: Why are visions important to the discussion at hand? What terminology does Ehrman use to describe the kinds of visions he means to discuss? What kinds of modern examples does he use as context, and why? A READER’S GUIDE FOR EHRMMAN (PART III) (pp. 211-352) • What does Ehrman mean when he discusses “pre-literary” traditions (pp. 216 ff)? Do you find his method convincing? • What does Ehrman mean by “exaltation Christology”? How does that concept relate to Roman and other views of adoption? How does it relate to (and help answer) the question of “when” Jesus “became God”? • What does Ehrman mean by “incarnation Christology”? (pp. 247 ff.) How again does that issue relate to earlier discussions of “angels?” What is the evidence (e.g. “pre-literary” evidence) especially in Paul? The Gospel of John? • What are some of the “dead ends” that Ehrman traces in chapter 8? Be sure you are able to identify briefly all of the positions he outlines here: Adptionist, docetist, gnostic, modalist, etc. Which of these “paths” that he traces do you think that you might have found most appealing if you had first encountered it in the ancient world? Why? • Why do you think it mattered so much for Christians to argue over these issues and to “get it right,” i.e. hammer out what would become an “orthodox” position? • What does Ehrman mean by an “ortho-paradox” in chapter 9? What happened at Nicaea in that context and why was it so important? Ehrman Chapter Notes Tuesday, September 30, 2014 3:10 PM All About The Chapters Ch.1 Divine Humans in Ancient Greece and Rome • Views held in the Greek and Roman Worlds  "a kind of continuum within the divine realm allowed some overlap between divine beings and humans" (p.5, L 18-20) • Apollonius  Philostratus wrote 8 volumes, around 220-230 CE □ Based on research on eyewitness accounts and personal companions of Apollonius  Generally agreed that he was a Pythagoreanphilosopher who lived during the second half of the first century □ A century after his death, he was awarded a shrine in Tyana (home city)  Hierocles wrote The Lover of Truth in the early 4th century CE □ Compared Jesus and Apollonius, celebrated Apollonius □ Refuted by Eusebius • Three Models of the Divine Human  Gods Who Temporarily Become Human (p. 19) □ Described in Ovid's Metamorphoses(15 volumes)  "celebrates changes or transformations described in ancient mythology."(p.19) ◊ Philemon and Baucis of Phrygia  Grant hospitality to Jupiter and Mercury, are made priests and allowed to die together when their time comes – "That I my consort's tomb may never see,/Nor may it fall to her to bury me." (p.20)  When it is time for them two die, they are transformed into two trees growing out of one trunk – "They now are gods, who served the Gods;/To them who worship gave is worship given." (p.20)  "When Philemon and Baucis are worshiped as gods, it is not because they are now as mighty as great Jupiter and Mercury. They are thought of as very low-level divinities, mortals who have been elevatedto the divine plane." (p.20)  "Divinity came in many shapes and sizes; the divine realm had many levels." (p.20) □ "in the Roman world it was widely thought that gods could take on human guise, such that some of the people one might meet on occasionmay well indeed be divine." (p.22)  Divine Beings Born of a God and a Mortal (p.22) □ "By far the more commonview was that a divine being came into the world---not having existed before birth---because a god had sex with a human, and the offspring then was in some sense divine." (p.22)  Alexander the Great, discussed by Plutarch, was the son of Zeus and Olympias  Hercules, was the son of Jupiter and Alcmena ◊ "In none of the stories of the divine humans born from the union of a god and a mortalis the mortal a virgin." (p.24)  A Human Who Becomes Divine (p.25) □ "The third model of understanding divine humans in Greek and Roman circles provided the most important conceptual framework that the earliest Christians had for conceiving how Jesus could be both human and divine." (p.25)  Romulus ◊ Written about by Livy (History of Rome) "Romulus was a 'god born of a god'"(p.25) ◊ Mother was a Vestal Virgin, claimed the baby was by Mars  He "'had been caught up on high in the blast.'" (p.26)  Julius Caesar ◊ Written about by Suetonius in Lives of the Caesars in 115 CE  Ides of March, 44 BCE (assassinated)  During his life, during a funeral oration, claimed a divine heritage – One side descended through Marcus Ancius, the fourth king of Rome – One side traced back to Venus  At his death, Marc Antony "had a herald cry out the Senate's decision 'to render At his death, Marc Antony "had a herald cry out the Senate's decision 'to render  Caesar all honors, both human and divine'". (p.28) – "This is a process known as deification---the recognition that, in this instance, a person had been so great that he had been taken up at death into the ranks of the gods." (p.28)  Caesar Augustus ◊ Written about by Suetonius in Lives of the Caesars in 115 CE  Julius Caesar's adopted son, born with the name Octavian, took on the name Augustus later  His mom, Atia, supposedly fell asleep in a temple of Apollo, where the god visited her, 10 months later she gave birth to Octavian  "despite his reluctance, Octavian was hailed as the 'Son of God' as early as 40 BCE--- years before he was emperor" (p.30)  "Julius Caesar may have been considered a god after he died, but his adopted son Octavian (emperor from 27 BCE to 14 CE) was sometimes considered a god while he was still alive." (p.29)  "But this was not done in the Roman world until the beginning of the worship of the emperor." □ The Emperor Cult (p.30)  "The Roman Cult of the emperorstarted with Augustus and continued through the emperors who followed him, many of whom lacked his reticence in being considered a manifestationof the divine on earth." (p.30-31) ◊ Quintillian, Institutes of Oratory, "'Some [gods]…may be praised because they were born immortal,others because they won immortalityby their valour" (p.31)  "Unlike Christianity, Roman religions did not stress belief or the 'intellectual content' of religion. Instead, religion was all about action---what one did in relation to the gods, rather than what one happened to think or believe about them." (p.33) □ A Nonruler: The Passing of Peregrinus  A satire written by Lucian of Samosate, about Peregrinus, a Cynic Philosopher ◊ Wanted to be thought of as a god, Proteus,died as a Cynic should live, painfully and by fire  Later, lies about his death became the truth – A vulture rose above the flames  Divine Humans in the Greek and Roman Worlds □ "When ancient people imagined the emperor---or any individual---as a god, it did not mean that the emperor was Zeus or one of the other gods of Mount Olympus. He was a divine being on a much lower level." (p.40)  The Divine Pyramid □ "at the very pinnacle of the divine realm was one ultimate deity, a god who was over all things, who was infinitely, or virtually infinitely, powerful and who was sometimes thought to be the source of all things." (p.40)  Next was the Pantheon, the gods of Olympus ◊ Then local gods  "This is why it made no sense to ancient people---apart from Jews---to worship only one God. Why would you worship one god? There were lots of gods, and all of them deserved to be worshiped." (p.41) – Daimones: "The were spiritual beings far more powerful than humans. But being closer in power to humans, they had more to do with humans than the more remote great gods and could often help people through their lives" (p.42)  Divine humans  "In fact, it was relatively rare to run across people who were so mighty, wise, or gorgeous that they must in some sense be divine." (p.42)  Jesus and the Divine Realm □ "How could Jesus be God and God be God and yet there be only one God? That, in part, is the question that drives this book." (p.43)  "How did Jesus move from being a human to being God---in any sense?" (p.43) □ "Did Christians think of Jesus as God?" (p.44) ○ "In what sense did Christians think of Jesus as God?" (p.44)  "People saw Jesus as a teacher, a rabbi, and even a prophet. Some people thought of him as the (very human) messiah. But he was born like everyoneelse and he was "like" everyone else." (p.44) □ "Jews also believed that divinities could become human and humans could become divine." (p.45) ○ "The view of the divine realm did not change significantly until later Christians changed it." (p.43) Ch.2 Divine Humans in Ancient Judaism, known as the "father of church history" • "many ancient Jews, too, believed not only that divine beings (such as angels) could become human, but that human beings could become divine. Some humans were actually called God." (p.5, L 27-30)  Judaism in the Ancient World □ "Saying what Jews thought is itself highly problematic, since lots of different Jews thought lots of different things." (p.50) ○ "It's like what some Episcopalians say about themselves today: get four in a room and you'll find five opinions. So too with ancient Jews." (p.51)  Widespread Jewish Beliefs □ "Jews on the whole were monotheists."(p.51) ○ "They knew that the pagans had lots of gods, but for them there was only one God." (p.51)  "Being his people meant following the law he had given them" (p.51)  Can There Be a Spectrum of Divinity in Judaism? □ "Monotheismis the view that there is, in fact, only one God. Henotheism is the view that there are other gods, but there is only one God who is to be worshiped." (p.53) ○ "'You shall have no other gods before me." (p.53  "The Ten Commandmentsexpress a henotheistic view, as does the majority of the Hebrew Bible. The book of Isaiah, with its insistence that 'I alone am God, there is no other,' is monotheistic.It represents the minority view in the Hebrew Bible." (p.53) ○ "there were beings who lived not on earth but in the heavenly realm and who had godlike, superhuman powers, even if they were not the equals of the ultimate God himself." (p.54)  Hebrew Bible: angels, cherubim, seraphim ○ "We know that some Jews thought it was right to worship angels in no small part because a number of our surviving texts insist that it not be done." (p.54-55)  Divine Beings Who Temporarily Become Human □ The Angel of the Lord as God and Human ○ Hagar, Sarah, and Abraham  Sarah can't have a child, Abraham attempts with Hagar, Hagar runs away  The Angel of the Lord speaks to Hagar in human guise, but is revealed to also be the lord ○ Abraham  "'the Lord appeared to Abraham by the oaks of Mamre'"(p.56)  Three men sit to eat with him, one is God and two are angels – Two angels and the lord have assumed human form ○ Moses and the burning bush  "Or as New Testamentscholar Charles Gieschen has expressed it, this 'Angel of the Lord' is 'either indistinguishable from God as his visible manifestation' or he is a distinct figure, separate from God, who is bestowed with God's own authority." (p.57) □ Other Angels as God and Human ○ "Here then is a mighty angel, who temporarily becomes incarnate, in order to effect God's will on earth" (p.59) ○ God has a divine council of Elohim (plural, gods) who are angels  Some of these angels were made mortal when they failed to have concern for the weak □ Humans Who Became Angels ○ Enoch  "'Enoch walked with God; then he was no more, because God took him'"(p.60) "'Let Enoch join in and stand in front of my face forever'"(p.60)  "'Let Enoch join in and stand in front of my face forever'"(p.60)  ○ Moses  Originally believed to have died alone, his grave of an unknown location  Later Jewish writers determined that, obviously, he must be an angel ○ "In other words, if humans could be angels (and angels humans), and if angels could be gods, and if in fact the chief angel could be the Lord himself---then to make Jesus divine, one simply needs to think of him as an angel in human form." (p.61)  "provided the earliest Christians with a basic scheme for accommodatingthe resurrected Christ next to God without having to depart from their monotheistic tradition." (p.61) □ Divine Beings Who Beget Semidivine Beings ○ Angels came down to earth, had sex with humans, had children who were giants  Led to the flood ○ Giants had ravenous appetites, began eating humans, banished to the desert and then fire  "'now the giants who are born from the union of the spirits and the flesh shall be called evil spirits upon the earth…Evil spirits have come out of their bodies'" (p.64)  Giants became demons – Mimics pagan myths where offspring off humans and the divine create more divine beings □ Other Nonhuman Divine Figures ○ The Son of Man  A fifth kingdom, after four 'beastly' ones  Supposedly Babylonia, Media, Persia, Greece, and finally Israel  Or, as a divine being, come to wreak cosmic judgment – "Before the creation he was concealed in the presence of God himself; but he was always God's chosen one, and it is he who has revealed God's wisdom to the righteous and holy, who will be 'saved in his name,' since 'it is his good pleasure that they have life'"(p.66)  At one point, called the messiah (meaning anointed) ○ The Two Powers in Heaven  A supposed second power  Responsible for the plural 'us' and 'our' as God created the Earth – "one obvious target for such views were the Christians, who elevatedChrist---as we will see---to the level of God." (p.69) ○ Divine Hypostases  Wisdom  Either an angel, even a highly exalted angel, or an aspect of God, deserving of the honor and esteem accorded to God himself  The Word  "We need to transcend matter if we are to find true meaning and fulfillment, and this means accessing the Logos of the universe with that part of the Logos that is within us." (p.74)  "God does not have direct contact with the world of matter; his contact with the world is by means of his Logos. God does not speak directly to us; he speaks to us through his Logos." (p.75) □ Humans Who Become Divine ○ The King of Israel  "there are passages in which the king of Israel is referred to as divine, as God." (p.77)  Ultimately derived from the Egyptians, who thought of their Pharaoh as a divine being ○ Moses as God  Moses is allowed to take his brother, Aaron, when he needs to speak with the pharaoh  "he shall serve as a mouth for you, and you shall serve as God for him" (p. 80-81) – Later Jews took this message to claim Moses as divine  At his death: "'When he was about to depart from hence to heaven, to take up his abode there, and leaving this moral life to become immortal,having been summoned by the Father, who now changed him, having previously been a double being composedof soul and body, into the nature of a single body, transforming him wholly and entirely into a most sun-like mind'" (p.82) □ Jewish Divine Men □ Jewish Divine Men ○ Jesus! Ch.3 Did Jesus Think He Was God? • Begins with the problems that our sources pose, historically • "I will argue that he did not." (p.6, L 19)  Did Jesus claim to be God, or did his followersdo so later, after his death. • The Historical Jesus: Problems and Methods  "But one thing they all agree on: Jesus did not spend his ministry declaring himself to be divine." (p.88)  Cannot take the Gospels at face value, they must be interpreted to reveal historical facts • Problems with the Gospels  Our ancient sources still aren't ancient enough □ The Apostle Paul, who began writing 20-30 years after Jesus's death. ○ Didn't know Jesus personally, doesn't tell much about what Jesus did, taught, experienced □ Gospels of the New Testament ○ Earliest narratives of Jesus's life to survive  However,they weren't written by eyewitnesses  Written anonymously, only named after disciples, friends  We know they weren't written by the Apostles because  "the followersof Jesus, as we learn from the New Testament itself, were uneducated lower-class Aramaic-speaking Jews from Palestine. These books are not written by people like that. Their authors were highly educated, Greek-speaking Christians of a later generation." (p.90) ○ "Scholars for three hundred years and more have studied them in minute detail, and one of the assured results of this intensive investigation is the certainty that the Gospels have numerous discrepancies, contradictions, and historical problems." (p.92) ○ Gospel means "good news"  Gospels weren't meant to withstand modern standards of writing history  They were meant to preach and share the lives of Jesus – "we need to have rigorous historical methods to help us examine books that were written for one purpose---to proclaim the 'good news' of Jesus---to achieve a different purpose: to know what Jesus really said and did." (p.93) □ Methods ○ The Gospels are virtually the only sources we have concerning Jesus  These sources are highly problematic,but related  Gospels are Matthew, Mark, Luke and John Matthew, Mark, and Luke are the Synoptic Gospels because they are so much – alike  Almost certainly because Matthew and Luke copied Mark  But Matthew and Luke also share passages not found in Mark This source is Q   Matthew has stories not found in any other Gospels, this source is M  Luke's unique stories are L  Criterions:  Criterion of Independent Attestation: if a story is found in several sources, it is more likely to be true – John the Baptist  Criterion of Dissimilarity: if a story about Jesus isn't something that early Christians would have wanted to say, it is likely to be historically accurate – Jesus grew up in Nazareth  Criterion of Contextual Credibility: must understand Jesus's historical context if we want to understand what he said and did during his life – Later Gospels portray Jesus teaching things adverse to his ideals as a first- century Palestinian Jew □ Jesus's Historical and Cultural Context ○ "he was probably like most Jews" (p.99)  Didn't adhere to all of the additional rules of Sabbath, like other Jews (non-Pharisees)  Apocalypticism: "they were convinced that God was very soon to intervene in this world of pain and suffering to overthrow the forces of evil that were in control of this age, and to pain and suffering to overthrow the forces of evil that were in control of this age, and to bring in a good kingdom where there would be no more misery or injustice." (p.99)  A view widely held throughout Jesus's world ○ Four Major Tenets of Apocalypticism  Dualism: two fundamental components of reality, good and evil, engaged in a cosmic battle in which there was no neutral territory  God and his angels, gave life and bestowed righteousness  The devil and his demons, dispensed death and promoted sin  Pessimism:"The powers of evil were far more powerful than we mortals, and even though people could resist them, they could not overcome them. No one could make this world, ultimately, a better place" (p.100)  Judgment: "He would send a savior from heaven, and a new kingdom would arrive to replace the wicked kingdoms of this age." (p.101)  At the end of the age, the dead would also be resurrected – "All people would be brought back into their bodies to face judgment, either punishment or reward." (p.101)  Imminence: "Jewish apocalypticists believed that the world had gotten just about as bad as it could get." (p.102) "But they were very near the end." (p.102) □ Jesus as an Apocalypticist ○ The Independent Attestation of Jesus's Apocalyptic Message  Mark, Q, M, and L all contain "apocalyptic proclamations of Jesus" (p.105) ○ Dissimilarity and the Message of Jesus  Jesus refers to the "Son of Man" (the cosmic judge of the universe) as someoneother than himself  This isn't a view that early Christians would have wanted attributed to Jesus, so the dissimilarity speaks for the views' basis in fact  Ex. 1 When Jesus talks about the Son of Man in Mark 8:38, nothing he says is Jesus talking about himself, instead he is talking about another man  "A reader who thinks Jesus is talking about himself as the Son of Man has brought that understanding to the text, not taken it from the text." (p.107)  Ex.2 Matthew 25:31-46,the story of the last judgment of the sheep and the goats  Not at all what the early Christians thought about admittance to eternal life – "The early Christian church taught that a person is rewarded with salvation by believing in the death and resurrection of Jesus" (p.108) – "In this saying of Jesus, however, people gain eternal life not because they have believed in Christ (they have never even seen or heard of the Son of Man), but because they have done good things for people in need."(p.109)  This embodies Jesus's personal views  Ex.3 Matt 19:28 and Luke 22:30, Jesus tells his 12 disciples that they will be kings in the Kingdom of Heaven, this includes Judas, who later betrayed Jesus  Can definitely be dated back to Jesus because no later Christian would include Judas in the ruling 12, after what he'd done ○ The Beginning and End as Keys to the Middle  "Since Jesus associatedwith the Baptist at the beginning of his ministry and since apocalyptic communities sprang up in the wake of his ministry, the ministry itself must have been characterized by an apocalyptic proclamationof the imminent arrival of the Son of Man, who would judge the earth and bring in God's good kingdom. □ Who Did Jesus Think He Was? ○ "The single most commondescriptive title that was applied to Jesus in the early years of the Christian movementwas the term Christ." (p.112)  Greek translation of the Hebrew word for messiah. ○ The Jewish Messiah  Messiah in Hebrew means "anointed one", someonewho is honored and chosen by God  In 1 Enoch, used to describe the Son of Man  In the Dead Sea Scrolls, describes a priestly ruler  Most commonlyreferred to the kings of Israel – After Babylon destroyedJerusalem in 586 BCE, the messiah was thought of as "a future king like David, one of his descendants, who would reestablish the future king like David, one of his descendants, who would reestablish the Davidic kingdom and make Israel once more a great and glorious independent state, the envy of all the other nations." (p.115) ○ Jesus as the Messiah  "Whatever specific idea any Jew had about the messiah (as cosmic judge, mighty priest, powerful warrior), what they all thought was that he would be a figure of grandeur and power who would be a mighty ruler of Israel. And Jesus was certainly not that." (p.116)  To Jews, the Messiah was supposed to be powerful, which Jesus wasn't, so to most Jews Jesus isn't the Messiah  Christians called Jesus Messiah after his death, despite his death not matching the description of Messiah, because they'd also been calling Jesus 'messiah' before his death. – "The messiah was not supposed to die or rise again." (p.118) □ Jesus's Messianic Self-Understanding ○ When Jesus tells his disciples that they will be the twelve rulers over the twelve tribes of Israel, it is inferred that Jesus, being their master then, would also be their master later. He would be the 'chief' king among their kingdom, making him the king of Israel/heaven,which fits the definition for Messiah ○ Jesus was arrested in Judea, crucified under orders of Pontius Pilate, because he had proclaimed himself the king of the Jews  But he never did this in public context  So Judas betrayed him by telling officials about Jesus's ideas about himself one day being the chief king in the Kingdom of Heaven □ Did Jesus Claim to Be God? ○ "Jesus did not declare himself to be God. He believed and taught that he was the future king of the coming kingdom of God, the messiah of God yet to be revealed." (p.128) Ch.4 The Resurrectionof Jesus: What We Cannot Know • "What is it that made Jesus so special? In fact, as we will see, it was not his message. That did not succeed much at all. Instead, it helped get him crucified---surely not a mark of spectacular success. No, what made Jesus different from all the others teaching a similar message was the claim that he had been raised from the dead." (p.131) • Why Historians Have Difficulty Discussing the Resurrection • The Resurrection Narratives of the Gospel  "the Gospels disagree on nearly every detail in their resurrectionnarratives." (p.133) □ Discrepancies include: who was the first person to go to the tomb? Was the stone already rolled away when they arrived at the tomb? Whom did they see there? What did they do after? Where did Jesus appear to his disciples? • The Writings of the Apostle Paul  Seven letters, first Christian writings from antiquity, some 15 years before the earliest Gospel, Mark □ Contains evidence of pre-Pauline traditions; creed that he 'received' from others, statements of the faith, possibly widely known in the church, possible coming directly from the Apostles themselves ○ Originally Creed, originally pre-Pauline Confession goes like:  "Christ died/For our Sins/In accordance with the scriptures/And he was buried.//Christ was raised/On the third day/In accordance with the scriptures/And he appeared to Cephas" (p.139)  'on the third day' references Jonah and Hosea, his death and resurrectionhappened according to a plan  Paul's credo lacks mention of an empty tomb, leading experts (such as New Testament expert Daniel Smith) to believe that "the stories of Jesus's resurrection were indeed being expanded, embellished, modified, and possibly even invented in the long process of their being told and retold over the years" (p.143) • The Resurrection and the Historian  Unlike in science, the past (experiments) cannot be repeated, so historians must proceed differently from the scientific method □ Instead, historians must search for evidence of what has happened before now ○ "it is possible to establish with degrees of probability what has happened in the past" (p. 145)  "What historians want, in short, are lots of witnesses, close to the time of the events, who are not biased toward their subject matter and who corroborateone another's points are not biased toward their subject matter and who corroborateone another's points without showing signs of collaboration." (p.146)  "The belief that a Christian miracle---any Christian miracle---happened in the past is rooted in a particular set of theological beliefs (the same is true of Jewish miracles, Muslim miracles, Hindu miracles, and so on). Without such beliefs, miracles cannot be established as having happened. Since historians cannot assume these beliefs, they cannot demonstrate historically that such miracles happened." (p.147) □ "What is not a plausible historical conclusion is that God raised Jesus into an immortal body and took him up to heaven where he sits on a throne at his right hand. That conclusion is rootedin all sorts of theological views that are not widely shared among historians, and so is a matter of faith, not historical knowledge." (p.150) • The Resurrection: What We Cannot Know  "we cannot know that Jesus received a decent burial and that his tomb was later discoveredto be empty" (p.151) □ "we cannot know on historical grounds whether Joseph of Arimathea buried Jesus, as the Gospels claim he did." (p. 151)  Did Jesus Receive a Decent Burial? □ According to the Gospel of Mark, Joseph of Arimathea asked Pontius Pilate for Jesus's body, wrapped it in linen, and placed it in a tomb before rolling a stone in front of the entrance  General Considerations □ Joseph of Arimathea is reported to have been a Sanhedrin (Jewish upper class), of the same group of people who fought for Jesus to be put to death ○ Why after Jesus's death is Joseph being merciful, asking for his body and arranging a proper burial?  The Creed cited by Paul was unbalanced by a lack of knowing who buried Jesus, having been written earlier, if it was really known who buried Jesus, the Creed would have included that information. ○ Opposing tradition found in Acts, where it is not a single Sanhedrin who buries Jesus but the council as a whole  Roman Practices of Crucifixion □ "The point of crucifixion was to torture and humiliate a person as fully as possible, ad to show any bystanders what happens to someone who is a troublemaker in the eyes of Rome. Part of the humiliation and degradation was the body being left on the cross after death to be subject to scavenging animals." (p.157) ○ Jesus's body may have been eaten by dogs, as suggested by John Dominic Crossan (p.157), as leaving the bodies of the crucified to be ravaged by wild beasts was the normal course of action  "In sum, the commonRoman practice was to allow the bodies of crucified people to decompose on the cross and be attacked by scavengers as part of the disincentive for crime." (p. 160)  An exception is recorded by Philo, but it refers to exceptions given for victims with well-connectedfamilies, whose corpses would be given leniencies during a Roman Governor's celebration of a past or present Roman Emperor  Greek and Roman Practices of Using CommonGraves for Criminals □ "anyone who was legally condemned and executed 'forfeited his estate and was debarred from burial' (Annals 6.29h)." (p.161)  The Policies of Pontius Pilate in Particular □ "he was a fierce, violent, mean-spirited ruler who displayed no interest at all in showing mercy and kindness to his subjects and showed no respect for Jewish sensitivities" (p.161) ○ "If the Romans followedtheir normal policies and customs, and if Pilate was the man whom all our sources indicate he was, then it is highly unlikely that Jesus was decently buried on the day of his execution in a tomb that anyone could later identify." (p.163-164)  Was There an Empty Tomb? □ "My point is that one could think of dozens of plausible scenarios for why a tomb would be empty, and any one of these scenarios is, strictly speaking, more probable than an act of God." (p.165) ○ "we don't know whether the tomb was discovered empty because we don't know whether there even was a tomb." (p.165) □ The discovery of the empty tomb appears first in Mark, but the earliest witness, (the letters of) Paul, don't mention it  Would Anyone Invent the Women at the Tomb? Would Anyone Invent the Women at the Tomb?  □ "womenwere widely thought of as untrustworthy" (p.166) ○ "if someonewanted to invent the notion of a discovered tomb, they would be sure to say that it was discovered by credible witnesses, namely, by the male disciples." (p.166)  But what if women were telling the story?  From the letters of Paul, we know that "women played crucial leadership roles in the churches" (p.166)  In the realities of history, "preparing bodies for burial was commonly the work of women, not men" (p.167)  So as the womenwent to perform their duties, it makes sense that they would be the first to discover an empty tomb  Earliest sources indicate that the disciples fled (presumably back to Galilee  Left the women,who did not fear arrest as the men did, to perform burial work  The Need for an Empty Tomb □ Debate as to whether the resurrection was a physical or spiritual affair Ch.5 The Resurrectionof Jesus: What We Can Know • "(1) some of Jesus's followers believed that he had been raised from the dead; (2) they believed this because some of them had visions of him after his crucifixion; (3) this belief led them to reevaluate who Jesus was, so that the Jewish apocalyptic preacher from rural Galilee came to be considered, in some sense, God." (p.174) • The Belief of the Disciples  Obviously, some of the disciple came to believe in the resurrection, but not all • The Raising of a Spiritual Body  In the writings of Paul, it is understood that "when Christ returns from heaven, that his followers will enjoy the full benefits of salvation when they are raised from these poor, lowly, weak, inferior, mortal bodies to be given amazing, spiritual, immortalbodies such as Jesus himself had at his resurrection. " (p.176) □ "When Paul speaks of a spiritual body, then, he means a body not made of this heavy, clunky stuff that now makes up our bodies, but of the highly refined spiritual stuff that is superior in every way and is not subject to mortality." (p.178)  The Raising of the Spirit □ According to the Coptic Apocalypse of Peter, a firsthand, Gnostic account of "the crucifixion of Jesus as observed by Peter himself" (p.179) ○ "what is killed is merely the physical shell of Jesus… rather than the true God. The real Jesus is the incorporeal spirit that inhabited that body for a time but then was released." (p.180)  The Raising of the Mortal Body □ The Gnostic views on the resurrection of Jesus being a spiritual affair was widespread in the 50s, as shown by later Gospel's attempts to counter it ○ In Luke, the disciple's fear Jesus as a ghost, and to counter their fear, he instructs them to feel him and feed him, proving that he is, or at least his body is, human ○ Paul: spiritual body, in 1 Corinthians, "that body is transformed into an immortalbeing" (p. 181)  Flesh and blood cannot enter the kingdom of heaven ○ Luke and John: Jesus's actual, physical body was reanimated, wounds and all  Since his body had already been superhuman in life (performing miracles, walking on water, etc.) it was only natural that a reanimation of his corpse would be supernatural as well • The Visions of Jesus  "the disciples' belief in the resurrection was based on visionary experiences" (p.184)  The Importance of Visions to the ResurrectionFaith □ The disciples came to believe not because of an empty tomb, but because they witnessed Jesus/had visions □ Not only Jesus appears to them do they come to believe in the resurrection ○ Resurrection referred to a bodily resurrectionfor the Apocalyptic Jews, as the apocalypse itself would include bodily resurrections of all people  Terminology:What Visions Are □ Veridical: seeing something that is really there □ Nonveridical: what a person sees is not really there (p.187) □ Hallucination, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordersof the American Psychiatric Association, is "a sensory perception that has the compelling sense of reality of a true perception but that occurs without external stimulationof the relevant sensory organ" (p.187) Whether one believes the visions of Jesus's followers were veridical or non-veridical, the results I ○ Whether one believes the visions of Jesus's followers were veridical or non-veridical, the results I think will be the same. The visions led followers of Jesus to believe he had been raised from the dead." (p.189)  Who had the Visions? Exploring the "Doubt Tradition" □ The eleven, along with the companions of Jesus (Mary Magdalene) ○ But they doubted, Luke 24:13-31, John 20:14-16 □ "People who have visions really believe them." (p.191-192) ○ Why did the disciples need proof?  Peter, Paul, and Mary had visions  "If historically only a few people had the visions, and not everyone believed them, this would explain many things." (p.192)  Visions from a Broader Perspective □ Source monitoring: the ability to distinguish between internally and externally generated sources  BereavementVisions □ People who experience Bereavement Visions almost always assume they are Veridical □ Typical aspects of these visions run a close parallel to the disciples' visions of Jesus ○ "a feeling that the lost loved one continues to be present, even in the same room, with the one mourning" (p.195) ○ Guilt makes these visions more commonplace  The disciples betrayed, denied, fled from Jesus in his time of need ○ "after the loved ones have died, the survivors idealize them" (p.195)  Visions of EsteemedReligious Figures □ The Blessed Virgin Mary ○ In modern times, as recorded by Rene Laurentin, people who "should 'know better'" (p.199) view the Virgin Mary several times at a waterfall □ Jesus's Appearances in the Modern World ○ Phillip H. Wiebe in Visions of Jesus: Direct Encounters from the New Testament to Today(1997)  Jesus appears to entire groups of people  Kenneth Logie, a preacher from California, Jesus walks into service, down the aisle, through the pulpit, and puts his hand on Logie's shoulder--- 50 witnesses  The Disciples' Visions of Jesus □ "Some of the disciples wholeheartedly believed that they had seen Jesus after he had died. They concluded that he had been raised from the dead. That changed everything, as we will see." (p.202) ○ Whether the disciples visions were veridical or not, they still worked to change Christian's view of Jesus • The Outcome of Faith  "Even though historians cannot prove or disprove the historicity of Jesus's resurrection, it is certain that some of the followers of Jesus came to believe in his resurrection. This is the turning point in Christology." (p.204) □ "The disciples, knowing both that Jesus was raised and that he was no longer among them, concluded that he had been exalted to heaven." (p.205) ○ Four exalted roles---"Jesus as messiah, as Lord, as Son of God, as Son of Man---imply, in one sense or another, that Jesus is God"(p.209)  God in what sense? Ch.6 The Beginning of Christology: Christ as Exalted to Heaven • The Beliefs of the Earliest Christians • Our Oldest Surviving Christian Sources  First Christian author is the Apostle Paul, but his writings aren't for a full twenty years after the death of Jesus □ "Paul changed from being an aggressive persecutor of the Christians to being one of their strongest proponents." (p.213) ○ Start up churches, communicate via letters  The undisputed Pauline Letters, the seven letters that Paul definitely authored  Luke later wrote, the book of Acts, about the time period right after Jesus's death, but he wrote them in 80-85 CE, 50-55 years after the fact • Detecting Sources "Behind" Our Sources: Preliterary Traditions  "preliterary means that the traditions were formulated and transmittedorally before they were written down by the authors whose works we still have" (p.216) □ "The value of being able to isolate preliterary traditions is that they give us access to what Christians were believing and how they were extolling god and Christ before our earliest surviving writings." were believing and how they were extolling god and Christ before our earliest surviving writings." (p.216) ○ "these traditions tend to be self-contained units" (p.217)  The language of the traditions is out of place among the author's body of work  The theological views also differ from the author's ○ "These particular preliterary traditions are consistent in their view: Christ is said to have been exalted to heaven at his resurrection and to have been made the Son of God at that stage of his existence." (p.218) • The Exaltation of Jesus • Romans 1:3-4  Paul wrote a letter to the church in Rome, seeking support for his mission trip to Spain □ Incredibly valuable as historical evidence because he sought to 'clear the air' of any misconceptionsthe church may have had about his ministry by fully explaining the Gospel he taught □ "Who was descended/fromthe seed of David/according to the flesh,/who was appointed/Son of God in power/accordingto the Spirit of holiness by his resurrectionfrom the dead." (220-221) ○ Creed found in Paul's letter, Romans, identified as coming from earlier, closer to the time of Jesus's death  Jesus was designated as the Son of God when he was raised from the dead  "he could certainly subscribe to the basic message of this creed, which affirmed that at the resurrectionsomething significant happened to Jesus" ○ "From this creed one can see that Jesus is not simply the human messiah, and he is not simply the Son of Almighty God. He is both things, in two phases: first he is the Davidic messiah predicted in scripture, and second he is the exalted divine Son." (221) □ "even though he had not conquered his political enemies-the way the messiah was supposed to do- God had showered his special favor on him by raising him from the dead. So he really was the messiah." (p.223) • Acts 13:32-33  "You are my Son, today I have begotten you" (225) □ Refers to the day of Jesus's resurrection □ "In this pre-Lukan tradition, Jesus was made the Son of God at the resurrection." (226)


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