History of the Americas IB HL History FULL COURSE NOTES! Very detailed
History of the Americas IB HL History FULL COURSE NOTES! Very detailed IB HL History
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Date Created: 07/22/16
The Antebellum South Friday, August 14, 2015 12:57 PM 1 Antebellum Southern Society a Characteristics of the Antebellum South i Primarily agrarian ii Economic power shifted from the upper south to lower south iii Cotton is king 1860 -> 57% of total US exports 1 Most valuable and most widely grown southern crop ii Very slow development of industrialization 1 North east industrial centers - textile mills and factories ii Rudimentary financial system 1 Less banking, all invested in slaves and cotton ii Inadequate transportation system 1 Didn't need the infrastructure b Southern Society i Feudal hierarchy ii "Slavocracy" - nobility, wealthy plantation owners, large political power iii The Plain Folk - white yeoman farmers 1 Not super rich, but had some means ii Black freemen 250,000 1 Some owned slaves ii Black Slaves 3,200,000 1 No power ii Total US population -> 23,000,000 with 40% in the south iii Southern Population - in some cotton producing states, slaves were the majority 1 Mississippi, South Carolina 2 Antebellum Southern Economy a Southern Agriculture i Cotton, Corn, Tobacco ii Rice etc iii Importance of the Cotton Gin increased cotton production iv Our slave population was due to hereditary and kids were being born into it and kept growing v More cotton we grew, the more reliance on slavery and greater the fear that the north would take slavery away 2 The South's Peculiar Institution a Slaves were chattel slavery bought, sold, owned at Auctions b The domestic slave trade was unregulated despite the international slave trade being banned c You could kill a slave in some states with no repercussions d Whipping, branding, muzzle 2 Antebellum Southern Plantation Life a Majority of southern whites didn't own slaves because they couldn't afford them, i They supported slavery despite this fact ii Slavery meant a person was beneath you iii The whole American Dream thing iv Of those who owned slaves, most had one or two v Child rearing was turned over to a slave nanny b The Culture Of Slavery i Black Christianity 1 Baptists or Methodist 2 More emotional worship services 3 Negro spirituals ii "Pidgin" or Gullah language iii Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible iv Importance of music 2 Slave Resistance and Uprising a Slave Resistance i Refusal to work ii Theft iii Isolated acts of sabotage iv Escape by the Underground Railroad v Slave revolts 1 Slave owners terrified because vastly out numbered 2 Brutal rules to prevent considered revolts b Runaway Slaves i Only real option was to escape the country ii Huge bounties on slaves - no hope and punishment b The Underground Railroad i Secret network of slave sympathizers ii Very dangerous iii Harriet Tubman b Slave Revolts i Nat Turner 1831 lead to harsh slave codes 1 Bloodiest , massacred masters, went to other plantations 2 Militia was formed and put down turner ii Amistad iii Stono Rebellion iv John Brown on Harpers Ferry b Slave Codes i Made it illegal to teach slaves to read and right ii No congregating in large numbers iii Further restricted movements and rights of slaves 2 Southern "apologist View" of slavery a More attacks on slavery b "Cruel and unjust" c Defended slavery by positive good i Christianized, taught the bible, blacks were unproductive if weren't monitored ii Life on the plantation was better than life on their own iii Textile mills weren't much better in the north Origins of the Civil War: Sectionalism Thursday, August 20, 2015 12:57 PM 1 Political Issues a Slavery in the US constitution i Very little mentioned in this doc ii Only explicit mention is the 3/5 compromise iii Agreement that the international slave trade would end by 1808 iv Founding fathers wanted to address slavery later b Missouri Compromise 1820 i Missouri would become a slave state ii Maine was a free state iii There would be no slavery above the 36, 30 parallel iv Compromise to make things even between slave and free states b Mass Democracy i 1800-1830 most states adopted universal male suffrage ii All white men could vote iii More common man values iv Previously only wealthy land owners could vote b Rise of Third Parties i Previously just democrats and Whigs ii Know - Nothing party 1 Anti- immigrant party 2 Nativists ii Free Soil Party 1 Didn't believe in abolition 2 Argued in favor of denying slavery into any new territory 3 We don't want to compete with slave labor -> drive down wages 4 Looking out for themselves b Gag Rule Debates 1836 i Issue of Slavery came up whenever new territory came to the Union ii Democrat party supported south and slavery iii Gag rule was anytime the issue of slavery came up in congress, it was tabled. 1 Couldn't discuss it in fear of Whigs putting a tax on slaves 2 States' Rights and the Nullification Crisis a Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798 - 1799) i Federalists and Democratic-Republicans against each other ii Federalist Alien and Sedition acts 1 can't criticize the government 2 made it so certain people could be silence or jailed in times of crisis ii In response, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison secretly wrote the resolutions 1 Said that states were the ultimate power and they can decide what laws are legal or not 2 Could nullify federal laws if they want ii No state actually nullified the sedition acts b Tariff of Abominations 1828 i President Jackson imposed a tariff to protect American business ii Benefited the north, because more people would by cheap American goods iii Southerners hated it because they sold a lot of goods and relied on imports 1 Destructive to their way of life ii John C Calhoun 1 Resurrected the idea of nullification in The South Carolina Exposition and Protest a First serious discussion of nullification and secession in US History 2 THESE United States --> The United States after the civil war b The Nullification Crisis 1832 i South Carolina threatening to secede if nothing is done with the Tariff of Abominations ii Jackson countered and threatened to lead the army into South Carolina and hang traders iii Proclamation to the People of South Carolina by Jackson 1 Nullification and disunion are treason I will have you hanged ii Compromise: 1 Tariff lowered slightly so everyone is happy 2 Modernization and Economic Differences a Northern Industrialization i More ports, more population, cities, waterways ii Industry center 1 Couldn't live my farming alone b South is agricultural i Why bother with industry, making more money on cotton ii Economy was 1 dimensional iii If cotton failed or demand lowered, entire economy would collapse b Immigration to the US 1820-60 i Immigrants went north mostly ii Ports were there, industrial jobs were there iii Agriculture jobs were hard to come by in the south because of slavery iv Europeans were impartial to slaves, because slaves were always on the bottom of the social ladder 2 Were the North and South independent economic entities? The US Civil War 1861-1865 Monday, August 31, 2015 12:57 PM 1 Preparing for war! a The Union and Confederacy 1861 i When did the war begin? 1 Did the war begin when session begins? 2 Shots fired at fort Sumter 3 First battle at bull run? ii Country was divided into Union - northern states California and Oregon iii Seceded states or confederate states in the south iv Boarder states remained in the union however they had slavery as well 1 Didn't have a choice but to stay. Lincoln broke the law 2 Suspended writ of habeas corpus, marshal law etc. 3 Didn't abolish slavery immediately or else they would flip 4 West Virginia was created out of the creation of boarder sttes. ii In the beginning, the sole goal wasn't entirely about slavery iii Cause of the war has to do with economic differences, nullification, states' rights, slavery iv Union's goal of the war was to preserve the Union b Union v. Confederacy i North 1 Advantages a Economics i Bank Deposits ii Factories iii Food Crops iv Horses - Calvary charges v Railroad b Population i 60% of the population lived in the north ii Immigration - eastern seaboard cities Boston, New York but didn't want to fight, didn't care about slavery b Railroad lines - intricate network c Resources i Factories, workers, value of goods produces, firearms (32/1) ratio b Troop numbers i Larger population=more combatants b Civil Leadership i Abraham Lincoln ii Nature of the Union - Marshall law, the president gives the orders' iii Federal government b Naval Power i Shipbuilding, industry 2 Disadvantages a Military Leadership i McClellan b Motivation to Fight i Fighting to preserve the Union, fighting treason, we should let them go ii South 1 Advantages a Economics i Cotton ii Donkey and Mules b Slavery i Do farming, bring up supplies crucial advantage b Win early on battles, put up a fight, more skilled soldiers, better equipped c Civil Leadership i Jefferson Davis ii States have the right to come and go as they please - southern states could secede from the confederacy b Military Leadership i Robert E. Lee - declined Union's offer b Motivation to Fight i Fighting for their freedom, independence, felt more passionate to the fight ii War wasn't fought on equal terms. War of northern aggression b Possibility of Foreign aid i England - need cotton ii Europe - split the union - easy to get a handle on America again iii No foreign power will aid, popular opinion didn't agree with slavery iv Trent affair 1861 - English diplomats to talk to confederacy, intercepted by a union warship, diplomats were detained, England not happy threatened navy, union back down b War Aims i All they had to do was to defend ii Up to the North to forcibly stop them 2 Disadvantages a Population i 40% of the people lived in south, 1/3 of that was slaves - couldn't fight b Railroad lines - at the end, north destroys many of the tracks c Resources, not as many resources as north d Less troops e Naval fights b Who was more likely to Win?? 2 The War Begins a Union Strategy i General Scott came up with the anaconda plan ii Blockade the south and cut off essential supplies from reaching the South (Anaconda plan) 1 Northern navy prevented European trade and shipping out cotton for profit ii Divide the confederacy in two by taking control of the Mississippi 1 Seizing Vicksburg ii Raise 500,000 and take Richmond b Confederate strategy i Hold on, drag the war out and make the north quit b First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) July 1861 i Not far from Washington DC ii Initially looked like the Union had the upper hand until the Confederate troops had a counterattack under "Stonewall" Jackson. iii Drive Union in full scale retreat iv Significant victory for confederacy v North realized this wasn't going to a short war, vi South victory boosted morale b Lincoln's Generals i Winfield Scott ii George McClellan 1 Young, upcoming, unwillingness to take risks, indecisive, timid 2 Lots of experience in war 3 Tries to unseat Lincoln in 1864 ii Ulysses S. Grant 1 Emerges as the general to the Civil War 2 Opposite of McClellan, realized that this war is fought on the industrial scale ii William Tecumseh Sherman - partners up with Grant b Confederate Generals i Stonewall Jackson ii George Pickett iii Robert E Lee 1 Dominant General on the confederate side b War in the East 1861-1862 i Antietam Sept 17, 1862 1 Single day battle, bloodiest battle 2 Both sides took heavy losses 3 Military victory is a draw 4 Politically, its clear to see who won 5 Effects: a McClellan was removed from command by Lincoln for failing to pursue Lee b Failure to secure a decisive victory prevented Confederacy from securing foreign aid and recognition c Claim of a Union victory gave Lincoln enough support to issue the emancipation proclamation ii 7 days battle iii Fredericksburg 1 December 11-15 1862 2 Attempt by the union to attack a confederate stronghold 3 Union troops massacred due to lack of leadership after McClellan was fired b War in the West i Battle of Shiloh April 6-7 1862 1 Grant was a big name in this battle 2 He understood nature of modern warfare 3 Able to take heavy losses in order to win 4 Union victory b Emancipation Proclamation 1863 i Slavery is abolished in all territory in rebellion ii Boarder states still have slavery - Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland and by Union occupied Tennessee iii Any slaves union troops encountered, were freed iv Slavery was abolished in the 13th amendment v Brought with it the idea of African American recruitment in Union - in segregated units white officers 1 Tremendous passion to serve - more men, less passion to serve, 2 Famous 54th Massachusetts regiment assault of Fort Wagner 3 Wanted to prove that they were just as capable 4 Black troops freeing Contraband Slaves b African Americans in the Union Army i Made up of 10% union troops ii Had higher causally rates 20% mortality iii Initially received lower wages than white soldiers iv Disproportionately assigned to labor work v Very few black officers vi Received substandard supplies b The North Initiates the Draft 1863 i After the volunteers to fight dropped off, there was a draft initiated to keep troop numbers up ii No end in sight iii South eventually followed suit iv Very unpopular decision - Americans hate draft v You could buy your way out with a substitute or pay a fee and have it waved vi Wars being fought by the poor for the rich vii New York city Draft riots - Irish American immigrants didn't sympathize with slaves too much because they were competition for labor 1 Lynched free African Americans, burned down rich sects of the city 2 War was controversial a Siege of Vicksburg and Siege of Gettysburg i May 18th-July 4th 1863 ii Turning point of the war - these battles are decided within 1 day of each other iii Vicksburg - Sieged city and cut off supplies - gave control of Mississippi iv Gettysburg - turning point 1 Biggest battle of the war - deadliest multiday battle 2 South was on the offensive might lead to Lincoln losing election 3 July 1-3 1863 third day, confederacy isn't doing very well 4 Pickett's charge - union countered this assault 5 North could afford to wage a bloody war bc of manpower ii Destroyed much of the confederate army, send the confederate army into retreat iii South would never mount offensive pushes again b Progress of the War i Confederacy is never fully occupied ii By wars end, large parts were iii Competition of the anaconda plan b Sherman's march to the sea i From Chattanooga to Savanah through Atlanta waging total war ii Destroys everything that could support the confederate cause iii Break their spirit and will to fight iv Targets aspects of southern society b Final Virginia Campaign i 1864-5 ii Fighting battles with Grant, South is defensive, retreating iii Victory was not attainable, lee surrenders b Surrender at Appomattox April 9 1865 i No one is arrested, everyone goes home ii No punishment iii No one wanted lasting bitterness and resentment iv States were in rebellion - no one officially left v Jefferson Davis tries to escape the country 1 Technology of War a Ironclads i Merrimac ( southern )and Monitor (northern) fought each other it was a draw 1 South destroyed their ship in fear of it being captured by the north 2 Wooden ships -> iron navies ii Threatened to challenge northern wooden navy iii North made ironclad in response to the south b Minie Ball and Rifling i Bullet with ridges on the barrel to spin with precise accuracy ii Made of soft lead, deadly weapon iii Still very slow to reload b Repeating Rifles 1863 i For union soldiers only ii Self-contained bullet 1 With primer, gunpowder and bullet ii Not used widely - Calvary b Reconnaissance balloons i Scout the area to see troop movements b Telegraph i Constant communication b Photography c Medicine i Prosthetics ii Sterilization 2 Costs of the Civil War a Many died from diseases b Others from wounds c Many wounded d Millions e Death rates 25% for both sides f Majority of men in the US died Effects of Civil War and Reconstruction Thursday, September 10, 2015 12:57 PM 1 Key Questions a How do we bring the south back into the union? b How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? c How do we integrate and protect newly-emancipated black freedmen? d What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction? i Not specified in the constitution 2 Phases of Reconstruction a Wartime Reconstruction i President Lincoln's 10% Plan 1 Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction Dec 8 1863 2 Replace majority rule with 'loyal rule' in the south 3 He didn't consult Congress Regarding reconstruction a He believed the presidential role was very strong and acted upon it 2 Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate Officers 3 When 10% of the voting population in 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, a state would be reinstated and recognize 4 Purposely offered very generous terms to lure the southern states back in ii Wade-Davis Bill 1864 1 Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to taken an iron clad oath of allegiance swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion 2 Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials 3 Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen's liberties 4 Congress was made up of radical republicans - no democrats to stop them from passing bills 5 Not in any hurry to get the democrats back a Passed the Homestead Act, etc 2 Pocket vetoed by Lincoln ii Lincoln Assassinated 1865 1 John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater 2 Andrew Jonson democrat was Lincoln's VP and came to office ii Jefferson Davis Under Arrest 1 Sentenced to prison for about 2 years until given a pardon as an effort to get passed this ii 13th amendment 1 Ratified in Dec 1865 2 Very close to not passing, Lincoln stood behind this 3 Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the US or any place subject to their jurisdiction 4 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation 5 Official end of slavery ii Freedmen's Bureau 1865 1 Millions of people were free with nothing no money, property, job etc 2 Designed to protect the interest of the freedmen and security of blacks 3 Welfare opportunity 4 Southerners saw this as promoting idleness they don't need to work. 5 Education was very important ii Carpetbaggers and Scalawags 1 Northern whites saw economic opportunities created because of the war 2 Buy land down there as it was cheap 3 Carpetbaggers - northerners who went to the south to exploit the situation 4 Scalawags - southerners that went along with reconstruction b Presidential Reconstruction i VP --> President Andrew Johnson 1 Jacksonian Democrat 2 Anti-aristocrat 3 White supremacist 4 Agreed with Lincoln that states had never legally left the union 5 "Union party" actually a republican party ii President Johnson's Plan (10%+) 1 Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except confederate civil and military officers and those with property over 20,000$(They could apply directly to Johnson) 2 In new constitutions they must accept minimum conditions repudiating slavery secession and state debts 3 Named provisional governors in the Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions 4 Effects a Disenfranchised certain leading confederates b Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations c Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the south ii Growing Northern Alarm 1 Many southern state constitutions fell short of the minimum requirements 2 Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons 3 Revival of southern defiance --> BLACK CODES a Guaranteed a stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated b Restored pre-emancipation system of race relations c Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers (tenant farmers) d Couldn't leave until they paid their debts ii Congress breaks with the president 1 Congress bars southern congressional delegates 2 Joint committee on Reconstruction created 3 Feb 1866 --> president vetoed the Freedmen's Bureau bill a Didn't feel the need to help new freed black (Johnson was a white supremacist) 2 March 1866 --> Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act 3 Congress passed both bills over Johnson's vetoes a 2/3 majority vote in congress, because there weren't many democrats, they passed over the veto 2 Feared that democrats in congress undo the new laws b Congressional/radical Reconstruction i 14th amendment 1 Ratified July 1868 a Provided a broad definition of citizenship b Guaranteed due process c Guaranteed equal protection under the law to all citizens 2 Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens 3 Democrats would not be able to undo an amendment without another amendment ii The balance of Power in Congress 1 In south Carolina and Mississippi the majority is free blacks 2 Blacks were a political majority ii Radical plan for readmission 1 Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision 2 Required new state constitutions including black suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th amendments 3 In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of constitution making ii Reconstruction Acts of 1867 1 Congress cut the south up into 5 military districts 2 Union army is deployed to the south to enforce reconstruction 3 South didn't like this ii Tenure of Office Act 1 The president could not remove any officials (especially cabinet members) without the Senate's consent, if the position originally required Senate approval 2 Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln's government, see if Johnson would break the law 3 A question of the constitutionality of this law 4 Johnson fired Stanton (sec of law) in 1868 5 President Johnson's Impeachment a Took place in the House of Representatives - vote on impeachment -> senate -->trial if the president should be removed 2/3 he was one vote short b Fearful if we remove the presidents because we can, it will harm the legitimacy of our political system ii Election of 1868 1 Republican - Ulysses S. Grant 2 Republicans in the south because so many southerners had been disenfranchised and blacks voted in a republican block 3 Grant won because he "waved the bloody shirt" phrase used to describe who caused all the bloodshed in the south - republican party of peace ii 15th Amendment 1 Ratified in 1870 2 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude 3 The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation 4 Women's rights groups were furious that they weren't guaranteed to vote 2 Black reconstruction in the south a Black and white political participation i Numerical majority in the south ii Revolution in history - none to some participations b Black Senate and House Delegates - First time ever in history c Education - establishment of historically black colleges in the south d Blacks in Southern Politics i Core voters were black veterans ii Blacks were politically unprepared iii Blacks could register and vote in states since 1867 iv The 15th amendment guaranteed federal voting b Colored rule in the south? i Argued the same thing that they argued in the Antebellum period ii Still said that blacks were inferior, bad iii Most serious attack on blacks was the KKK 1 Terrified blacks out of their new rights 2 Federal government Force Acts - gave the government the right to take down the KKK and other terrorist groups b 1876 election year - Rutherford B Hayes won through a compromise if republicans agreed to pull troops out of the south thus ending reconstruction i Southern states could now be defiant and stop black political participation in the south Causes of War Monday, September 21, 2015 12:58 PM 1 Long Term Causes of the Great war a The alliance system i Triple entente 1 Russia France and Britain ii Triple alliance 1 Italy, Austria Hungary and Germany ii The Balkans iii The idea was to prepare for an unthinkable war i Designed to keep the peace ii No one country would mess with another because the alliance would come to the aid iii The possibilities 1 You had a smaller power like Serbia however if a conflict would break out between Austria Hungary and Serbia, Russia would come in and then Germany England France etc. a Nationalism i Modern Germany is created out of Germanic nationalism ii When one country grows in power its due to the weakness of others iii There were some nationalist states that were under the oppression of the bigger guys iv Ethnic rivalries in Austria Hungary Empire - made up of various groups and various countries 1 Bohemia, Moravia, Galicia, Austria, Hungary, Bosnia, Croatia Slavonia 2 Some of these people didn’t want to be grouped with Austria Hungary - caused tensions within empires ii The Balkans - "The powder Keg of Europe" 1 Various ethnic groups, Slavs, ethnic rivalries, demanding their own independence 2 Lots of fighting over who should have actual responsibility 3 Many people feared war would break out in the Balkans ii Slavic people concentrated in various parts of Europe. 1 Serbia said that this wasn't fair, you should have control over the people of Germanic decent, Serbia should be in charge of Slavs. Russia affiliated because of high Slav population b Economic and imperial rivalries i Europe fighting over Africa, ii Major world powers carving up the world for imperial powers iii Everyone was trying to compete to exploit resources iv Kaiser Wilhelm II and Weltpolitik 1 Taking Germany down a different path than recently, belief that Germany should be strong 2 The way to obtain power may not be in a peaceful way 3 Believed war was a great way to get what you want 4 Weltpolitik - aggressive policy, build up Germany navy to take on British, 5 Got rid of Bismarck and realpolitik ii Colonial Rivalries in Africa 1 Ethiopia was the only true independent country in Africa 2 All others have been dominated by some other foreign power ii Colonial Rivalries in Asia 1 Open door policy 2 British, French, Germans b Militarism i If you have an empire you need to defend it ii The idea was that the strength of a country is how big its military was. iii Massive arms race even though no war. iv If we have a massive military, no one will attack us - mentality 1 More likely to use military if you have it ii Germany was spending the most money out of all of Europe. Built up strongest and largest land army on earth iii Naval Race 1 British were trying to maintain its dominance in the world 2 Larger more modern navy a British launched the first dreadnought warship, bigger faster carried more firepower b Germany followed up soon after 1 Short term causes 1905-1913 a The Moroccan Crisis (1905) i Appeared to be an independent country, however France was trying to control Morocco. More like a protectorate instead of a colony ii Germans were looking to flex their muscles, tried to intimidate France and say that they can't take over Morocco. Threatened France a little iii Plan to get a convention together to stop France from taking over morocco, it backfired, Britain and France came together and Germany looked weak iv Effects 1 Blow to German Pride 2 The Entente was strengthened 3 Germany was seen as a threat b Bosnian Crisis (1908) i Bosnia was part of the Austria Hungary empire and Ottoman empire, AH formally annexed Bosnia. Serbia was ticked off, because Bosnia was mostly Slavic people. ii Russia tried to back up Serbia and threaten AH, but AH appealed to Germany and was like hey you got my back and Germany was like hell yea broski iii Effects 1 Bosnia was annexed to AH which enrages Russia and Bosnia 2 Russia was humiliated, beaten in Japanese war and now this a Begins armament because they want to be taken seriously b Serbia is enraged c Alliance between Germany and AH strengthened. b 2nd Moroccan crisis (Agadir) Crisis 1911 i France is almost in control of all of morocco, but Germany thinks they can intimidate them ii People in morocco was angry --> revolution iii In order to subdue this rebellion, France sent troops iv Germans sent gunboat panther to protect German interests in the area, sent it to intimidate, showed they had the power to try to get what they want 1 We won't hurt you if you give us a holding in Africa 2 French Congo's was given to Germans ii Known as gunboat diplomacy b The Balkan Wars (1912-1913) i Seized the opportunity to attack the Ottoman Empire ii Ultimately, the ottoman empire was driven out of Europe, Serbia given a lot of land threatened AH iii Serbia was considered to be an enemy of Austria Hungary, the fact that they had gotten more powerful iv This war increased tensions 2 Immediate Cause a The July Crisis 1914 i Fancy name for the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand heir to the AH throne ii Traveling through Bosnia in Sarajevo, touring the empire, iii A bomb was thrown at his car, attempt on his life. iv Another assassin with a pistol shot and killed Ferdinand and his wife 1 Gavrilo Princip - the assassin a Found him, and that he was a Serbian nationalist working for the Black Hand b Want to create a country where all Slavs live together. 2 Serbia denied involvement, but immediately AH demanded such outrageous things. a Almost gave into almost all of the demands, however AH had decided to go to war with Serbia ii Austria Hungary declares war on Serbia on July 28, iii Russia mobilizes its troops along its western border, Germany sees troops and declares war on Russia, you now activate the 2 alliances and one by one, all the countries iv GB thought they could evade, but Germany's plan went through neutral Belgium and so GB went in. v By August 1914, all countries were at war b Who is to blame? The Course of the War Monday, September 28, 2015 12:55 PM 1 A Multi-Front War a Western Front i The Schlieffen Plan 1 Germans had no intentions on fighting on multiple fronts -> weak 2 Called for a rapid German invasion on France, go through Belgium 3 Knock the French out of their fight, beat them quickly then take their time and turn the attention to the eastern front. 4 Defeat French quickly before they could call British, 5 Believed Russians would be preparing to fight for months in the east 6 Why it failed a Belgium resistance delayed German advances b The attack on Belgium brought Britain into the war c Russia mobilized quicker than expected drawing troops to the eastern front d French victory at the First Battle of the Marne halted the German advance i Beginning of the digging of trenches. Both sides began a race to the sea to try to get around each other 2 German Atrocities in Belgium a British hesitated to declare war until the invasion of neutral Belgium b Germans faced some Belgium resistance, slowed down Germans c Kept people behind in Belgium to occupy, d Massive propaganda campaign to get people on the British side ii Trench Warfare 1 Caused the war to come to a halt, stretched hundreds of miles 2 Frontline trench, resting trenches, wounded trenches 3 First modern war with modern weapons, machine guns, gas, submarines, plane 4 No man's land - area between trenches 5 1 Going over the top a The hope was that hopefully you had killed enough people and softened enough, suffered heavy losses 2 Shell Shock a Described the mental breakdown because of stress, now known as PTSD. Fear of death was constant 2 Trench foot a Flesh on the foot would rot away due to moist conditions i Battles of the Western Front 1 Battle of the Marne 1914 a 500,000 casualties, ended the German advance b Ally victory because the French succeeded in stopping the German advance 2 Battle of Verdun 1916 a 800,000 casualties, primarily fought between French and Germans b Germans believed that the French would not stop fighting and use all their weapons c Hoped to divert French forces and allow for a German breakthrough d French victory because French held their ground 2 Battle of the Somme July 1916 a 1 million dead in 5 months b Launched by the British in response to Verdun, tried to break through on the Germans c Threw so many waves of people and German machine guns blew them down d Indecisive victory WW1 began being about who would run out of men first 2 Battle of Vimey Ridge April 1917 a First time all of the Canadian units fought in one big battle b Attacking the Germans and seized the ridge, marked a turning point they achieved this on their own a Eastern Front i Fought in Russia, Austria Hungary, Romania etc. ii More moveable than the Western front iii Russian Forces tied up German troops iv Russians were poorly equipped and suffered terrible losses v Russia won victories against Austria Hungary vi Russian casualties caused political turmoil 1 People began to turn on their leaders ii Gallipoli Campaign 1915 1 Turkish territory, Allies wanted to attack turkey and open up the Dardanelles which lead to russia. If they could do this, the allies could get supplies to russia. 2 Couldn't do this because of German Uboats 3 1 Allies got beaten badly, Central Powers Victory 2 Meant that Russia wouldn't get supplies --> unpopular war 3 1917, Bolshevik Revolution under leader Vladimir Lenin. Russia Quits 4 Now German forces move westward a The "Colonial" Fronts i Turkish Calvary in Palestine ii Lawrence of Arabia 1 British military officer, responsible for stirring up unrest with people in the Middle East to weaken the Ottoman Empire 2 Diversionary fronts ii British Sikh Soldier in India 1 Britian called upon all their colonies to help the Empire 2 Could be rewarded with independence ii Fighting in Africa 1 All major empires had African territories ii French colonial soldiers from china 1 The War at Sea a British Blockade of Germany i No other country on the central powers had a navy that could square off the British Navy ii Germans tried to even the playing field with U-boats, submarine. 1 Began preying on any ships on allied waters 2 Undetectable, made a big impact, British were in danger of starving 3 Challenged U-boats with Q-ships - secretly armed merchant ship, moderately successful ii The Convoy system 1 Called for putting all the cargo ships together and put some military ships in there 2 U-boats had a really hard time terrorizing merchant ships this way because by the time they surfaced, a bunch of military ships were around them 3 Very successful b Battle of Jutland June 1916 i Only significant naval battle, primarily between British fleet and German fleet ii At one time, Germans withdrew from the battle because they believed they wouldn't have enough ships to have a conventional navy. iii Considered an Ally victory despite the fact that they also lost a lot of boats 2 America Joins the Fight a Initially neutral, the U-boats threatened American neutrality, unrestricted submarine warfare b Because of the British blockade, we couldn't trade with Germany, in theory we were neutral in trading c War benefited the US immensely because the Allies turned to us for supplies d The Lusitania 1915 i Passenger ship from US to Europe was sunk, over 1,000 died, over 100 Americans died ii We cannot tolerate this, if you continue to sink American ships and kill innocent Americans 1 Germans feared we would join the war and give the Allies an advantage, quick to apologize b The Sussex --> Sussex pledge 1916 i Halt unrestricted submarine warfare ii Problem was it took away the strength of the U-boats, surprise iii 1917 Germans resumes unrestricted submarine warfare, gambled, believed they could win the war before the US could join and be prepared to fight 1 Resumed to create a better blockade because Allies were getting supplies b Zimmerman Note i Proposed alliance between Germany and Mexico when Germany asked Mexico to attack the US and would gain territories they had previously lost from us ii Tried to get the Mexicans to turn against them despite the fact that they were neutral as well b Wilson Requests a declaration of War - right as the Russians are quitting i Wanted to protect the world from empires and spread democracy ii Couldn't side with Russia because alliance wasn't justified b American soldiers - doughboys i Not prepared to fight, small army, not proper equipment and training ii Not fully in the fight until the last year, therefore didn't endure the heavy losses iii 369th "Harlem Hellfighters" segregated units, not wearing American uniforms because we weren't' prepared to fight b The Yanks help turn the tide i Our entry into the war didn't help as much physically as psychologically ii 2nd battle of the Marne July 1918 - American reinforcements held back the German push iii Biggest impact on WW1 is money and unlimited supplies b The Central Powers Collapse i Bulgaria surrenders - Sept. 1918 ii Ottoman Empire surrenders, Oct. 1918 iii Austria - Hungary and Germany surrender November 1918 1 Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates b Ends with an Armistice 11 am November 11, 1918 i End of hostilities ii Removal of German troops from Allied territories iii Allied occupation of the Rhine iv Renouncement of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Russian peace treaty) v Disarmament of Germany b Why did Germany Lose? i Gambled on a quick victory (Schlieffen plan) ii Invasion of Belgium brought Britain into war iii Two-front war iv Unrestricted submarine warfare brought US into war v Weak allies vi Allied blockade crippled German economy b Why did the Allies win? i More men and resources ii Maintained control of the seas iii Allied economies mobilized for war more efficiently iv Greater understanding of modern warfare v The timely arrival of the US 2 Was World War 1 a total war - yes World War 1 and T otal War on the Homefront Monday, October 12, 2015 12:57 PM 1 Mobilization for War a Economic i During world war 1 both the Allies and Central Powers committed to total war 1 To produce necessary war equipment governments took greater control of the economy converted factories to wartime production and set production quotas 2 All available citizens were put to work unemployment in Europe nearly ended 3 Neutral countries like the USA were able to profit by trading with countries at war ii World war two, like world war one but to a greater scale death toll, civilians targets, economic mobilization iii Opportunities for women in Wartime industries 1 Treated as second class citizens, worked in gender identified jobs 2 Picked up the slack because the men were gone, worked in munitions put together shells and bullets ii Great migration in the US 1 During WW1, racial opportunities got better, increased need of workers 2 White men left industries and gave blacks and women more opportunities 3 Southern African Americans went north to obtain jobs 4 Enflamed racial tensions - race riots because northern whites felt threatened by black migrants a Chicago Race Riots b Conscription i In order to supply the front lines with enough soldiers governments used conscription a military draft that required men to fight 1 At first men volunteered for the war but by 1916 people began to realize how bad the war was and volunteers decreased 2 Governments had to draft soldiers because there were not enough troops 3 Men 18-50 had to register and there was a lottery for soldiers that would have to report for duty. ii Not all conscription circumstances involve total war - Vietnam was not a total war but there was conscription iii Usually discriminatory - poor people get singled out, there's ways to get out of it iv Recruitment propaganda 1 During world war 1, nation used one sided information to maintain civilian support for the war a Propaganda played a role in maintaining the support of the public for the war effort and helped recruit soldiers b Propaganda posters and slogans asked that civilians "do their part" by participating in conscription rationing and war bond sales c In addition most government censored the media to control war information b Rationing i Throughout the war, resources became scarce so governments began using rationing 1 Rationing programs allowed people to use only small amounts of essential resources, like food and fuel. 2 Governments directed supplies and resources to the soldiers on the front and controlled prices of goods at home. 3 Civilians needed tickets and coupons to be able to buy goods, many people grew victory gardens to support rationing programs. b Role of women i During the war women replaced men in heavy industry and munitions factories ii This type of work was not seen as proper for women but was a temporary solution to ensure that enough weapons were made iii In additions women served as nurses drivers clerks for the military and were encouraged to support their husbands if they were drafted or volunteered b Financing the war i New government agencies were created to manage the war soldiers were drafter military contracts were made with factories ii These programs were expensive and required creative ways to pay for war expenses iii Governments sold war bonds that offered citizens investments that would be paid back at a later time 2 Attacks on the home front a Bombing raids i Not that effective, switched to airplanes b The rape of Belgium c Armenian genocide d Allied blockade e German U-Boat threat f Civilian death toll i Entente 20% ii Central powers: 22% Treaties and Mandates 1918-1936 Tuesday, October 20, 2015 1:00 PM 1 The Big three a President Woodrow Wilson i Led us into war "the war to preserve democracy" ii Welcomed with huge crowds in Paris, answers to world peace b French Premier Georges Clemenceau i French were not as forgiving as Americans ii Their cities were shelled, war fought on their soil b British Prime Minister David Lloyd George i Middle ground, somewhat supporter of fair peace ii Wants to be rewarded for winning a war b Italian Prime minister Vittorio Orlando i Somewhat influential, Italy joined the war by switching sides 2 Wilson's 14 points - done before the war ended, it was a PLAN "needs to be a peace without victors" a Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at i Intended to address the issue of an alliance system b Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas i Countries should have the right to move goods across the seas, attacking the blockades of WW1 b The removal of economic barriers and the establishment of equality of trade i Promoting capitalism because of the red scare ii Taking a jab at communism b Reduction of armaments c An impartial adjustment of colonial claims based on the principles of self- determination i Great era of colonization was over, we need to let the indigenous people of an area make their own decisions. Break apparent old empires and make new countries b The evacuation of all Russian Territory for the independent determination of her own political development i Russian territory had to be given back to Russians from Germany, but Russia is going down a communist route ii Russian territory won't go back to Russia, but will determine their own states b Belgium must be evacuated and restored c All French territory should be freed and invade portions restored. Alsace- Lorraine returned to France d Readjustment of Italian frontiers on the basis of nationality e The peoples of Austria-Hungary should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development f Romania, Serbia and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the Balkan states. i We need to eliminate the threat of the powder keg of Europe by letting them have more freedom in what they want to do. b The Turkish portion of the Ottoman Empire should be assured sovereignty but other nationalities under Turkish rule afforded autonomous development c An independent Polish state should be established with free access to the sea i In order to make sure that the new Poland can survive, they need sea access for trade b A general association of nations must be formed with the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. i Hinting at the League of Nations 2 Aims of the Victors a French i Prevent German recovery by the use of war reparations, redrawing frontiers, limiting the size of the German military, and excluding Germany from the League of Nations ii Reclamation of the Alsace-Lorraine iii Annexation of the Saar (to provide coal to French industry) 1 German land/resources ii Annexation of the Rhineland 1 Germany's western frontier ii Restoration of Belgium and the establishment of an independent Poland and Czechoslovakia. b British i Restore the balance of power in Europe ii Promote a rapid German economic recovery as a market for British goods iii Avoid developing feelings of revenge that would promote future wars iv Promote a stable Germany to offset the threat of Bolshevism b Italian i Sought territory promised to them in the Treaty of London 1 Defied the 14 point ii Needed territory to offset economic problems caused by the war iii Little sympathy for Italian demands due to their participation in the Triple Alliance and their contribution to the war iv Italy seen as a "lesser power" b Non-Participants i Defeated central powers nations were not allowed to take part in negotiations ii Russia did not attend the conference iii Italy was relegated to a secondary war. 2 Treaty of Versailles(Germany) a Responsibility for the war i "The allied and associated governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies." War guilt Clause ii Had to get the defeated powers to accept guilt 1 Negated any later attempt to reject conditions put upon them ii By accepting blame, the allies could now dictate other terms on them iii Paves the way for everything to come in the future b War Reparations i The allies wanted to make the Germans pay for the war ii France and Britain wanted to be compensated for the cost of the war, Germany got hit the hardest iii They shall not pass" Verdun --> "they shall pay" France was more strict about this iv GB wanted to make Germany pay less so their economy could recover and could buy British products b Redistribution of Land i Creation of Poland and Czechoslovakia 1 Polish corridor ii Alsace- Lorraine went back to France iii Territory received by Germany from Russia in the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk was to be returned; Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were made independent states iv Germany was forbidden to unite with Austria (Anschluss) 1 Hitler's primary goal was undo Versailles --> invades Austria ii Germany lost all of her overseas colonies which became mandates of the League of Nations as well as trading rights in China and Egypt 1 Mandate is a territory that would temporarily be under the League of Nations until they could prove themselves capable of being their own countries. b Disarmament i German wartime weapons were to be destroyed ii Germany was forbidden to have submarines, an air force, armored cars or tanks iii The Rhineland was demilitarized 1 France is ensuring that if there is a second war, that it would be fought on German soldier ii German conscription was banned b German Objections to the Treaty i German public was outraged ii Germany couldn’t reject treaty because it would resume hostility b US opposition to the treaty i Fear that the treaty would bind the US to the entanglements of Europe ii Wilson went on a tour giving speeches to try to get the general public to support the treaty iii Some were ok with the treaty if had a few changes, others were flat out against it iv Wilson refused to compromise so Congress refused to sign it. US wouldn't be a part of the League of nations why it lacks strength b Weimar Republic i Name of the new German government representative democracy ii Germans had very little experience with this, no established political party iii Coalition government, no one faction could ever take the majority of the people iv "November criminals" those who signed the treaty of Versailles felt betrayed 1 Told that they were going to win the war every day and then lost 2 Stab in the back myth - Jews caused the deception of war Treaties that ended WW1 Friday, October 30, 2015 12:59 PM 1 Treaty of St. Germain (Austria) a Formal recognition of the establishment of Czechoslovakia i Includes many German citizens b Creation of Yugoslavia out of former Austrian territories c Ceding of land to Poland Italy and Romania d Acceptance of war guild reparations and arms limitations 2 Treaty of Trianon 1920 (Hungary) a Disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian empire b Many Hungarians put under foreign rule, halving the size of the Hungarian population c Land ceded to Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania d Acceptance of reparations and arms limitations 2 The little Entente a Czechoslovakia Romania and Yugoslavia b Protection against Hungarian or Italian aggression c Supported by France as a check against German aggression 2 Treaty of Neuilly 1919 (Bulgaria) a Land ceded to Greece causing Bulgaria to lose its access to Aegean Sea b Bulgaria recognized the independence of Yugoslavia and their boundaries were adjusted c Acceptance of reparations and arms limitations d Little involvement in the war therefore little punishment 2 Treaty of Sevres 1920 Ottoman Empire a Ended Turkish control over North Africa and Arab territories b Ceded land to Greece Britain Bulgaria and Italy c Armenia and Kurdistan became independent states d Turkey was occupied by the Allied troops a The Dardanelles and the Bosporus Straits were open to shipping a Acceptance of war reparations and arms limitations b Only temporary for a treaty --> Turks fight back, the Greco-Turkish War Greeks attacked turkey 1919-1922 i Drives the Greeks out of Turkey, demands another treaty be signed
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