Spring Semester Notes
Spring Semester Notes ATC 3336
Popular in Computer Animation 1
Popular in Art
This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Natalie Notetaker on Friday July 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ATC 3336 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Christopher Camacho in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Computer Animation 1 in Art at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 07/22/16
1/ What is animation? ● a series of images displayed rapidly to create an illusion of movement Principles of Animation ● motion ○ squash and stretch ■ change in shape which gives a sense of weight and flexibility to objects, but stays grounded in reality ○ anticipation ■ a mechanical buildup of force ■ lets the viewer know something is about to happen ○ arcs ■ most actions are done on circular path of motion and these paths are referred to as arcs ○ follow thru and overlap ■ not everything in an action starts or stops at same time ■ movement overlaps and follows through to it’s logical ○ timing (and spacing) ■ amount of time required to perform an action ■ spacing is change of distance between frames ○ slow in and slow out ■ spacing gradually increases or decreases to or from a given pose ● also called Ease In and Ease Out ■ slow in is slowing down to a stop ■ slowing out is slowing moving out ○ secondary action ■ supporting action that enhances main idea of animation ■ doesn’t take away from main idea but helps to reinforce it ● technique ○ straight ahead vs pose to pose ■ straight ahead animation working from beginning of scene to end adding in new ideas as you go ■ pose to pose animation done by carefully planning key poses related to business of scene ● tends to give clarity and greater control over movement ● aesthetic ○ staging ■ presentation of an idea so that it is made clear to viewers ○ solid drawing ■ does it show weight, depth, and balance? ■ must feel organic and alive ○ appeal ■ make animation appealing to look at ■ easy to read design, clear drawing, and personality development that will capture and involve the audience’s interest ○ exaggeration ■ taking a pose, action or full idea, and pushing it to an extreme Bouncing Ball ● why? ○ includes many principles ○ basic exercise that can be seen over and over 1/22/16 What makes a good pose? ● staging ○ is your idea clear? ○ the presentation of an idea so that it is made clear to viewers ● solid drawing/posing ○ does it feel organic, believable? ● appeal ○ does it keep visual interest? ● exaggeration ○ is your idea pushed to an extreme? ● line of action ○ imaginary line ■ a drawing should try and only say one thing ■ a clear line of action helps organize your drawing into one thought ○ determine what kind of character ○ mood ○ relationship to other people or objects ○ personality ○ emotion ○ suggest motion ○ weight ○ force of an action ○ conflict ● types of line ○ vertical ■ loftiness ■ regal ■ strong ■ rigid ○ horizontal ■ rest ■ stable ■ secure ○ diagonal ■ movement ■ direction ■ action ■ unbalanced ○ curves ■ comfort ■ safety ■ relaxation ■ calm ■ dynamic ■ turbulence ■ confusion ■ frenzy ○ keep line of action simple ■ base it off straight line, curve, or “S” ■ anything more complicated like zigzag loses its ability to convey an idea ● Silhouette ○ positive space created by outline of entire object ○ should give audience an idea about the character’s overall mood ● ways to help create a clear silhouette ○ positive and negative space ■ negative space empty space around character and helps to define overall shapes and limps ○ overlapping shapes ■ imply form ■ shows spatial relationships 1/29/16 Timing & Spacing ● what’s timing? ○ how long it takes for an action to happen ● what’s spacing? ○ visual distance an object travels between each frame ● slow in ○ spacing gradually decreases as you move into a pose or key ● slow out ○ spacing gradually increases as you move into a pose or key ● through proper use of timing and spacing, you can get a feeling for what an object is ○ everything has certain amount of weight and will act and react accordingly ○ is it heavy or light? ○ what is the object made of? ● one of the best ways to get correct timing and spacing? ○ OBSERVATION!!!! Physics in Animation ● weight ○ the force that gravity exerts upon a body ● gravity ○ natural force of attraction exerted by celestial body upon objects near its surface ● momentum ○ measure of motion of a body equal to product of its mass and velocity ○ force or speed of movement ● Newton’s 1st law of motion ○ object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force ○ object in motion continues in motion with same speed and direction unless acted upon by unbalanced force ● inertia ○ resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or rest ● force ○ capacity to do work or cause physical change ○ power made operative against resistance ● Newton’s 2nd law ○ acceleration produced when force acts on a mass ○ greater the mass, greater the amount of force needed ● acceleration/deceleration ○ rate of change of velocity with respect to time 2/5/16 Solid Posing ● what makes a good pose? ○ solid drawing ■ does it feel organic? ■ does it have weight, balance, rhythm, and solidity? ○ weight ■ not just heavy or light, fat or thin ■ how do you show it? ● through hips and shoulders ● contrapposto Italian for “counterpose” ■ defined by gravity ■ forces can be expressed through curves in the body ○ rhythm ■ interplay of different forces in the body that helps it stay in balance or creates equilibrium ■ how to create rhythm? ● through the use of curves ■ another way of saying our pose has movement, twist, form, and feeling ■ not just about following edge or outline of character ■ keeps from being static, brittle, lifeless, and stoic ■ straight lines have no rhythms ■ curves have some, and “S” curves have most rhythms ○ balance ■ gravity is invisible force you must always be aware of to bring reality to your work ■ always pay attention to where model’s head and center of gravity are in comparison to his/her feet ■ line of balance ■ think about model’s mass and forces and realize they have to be equalized on both sides of line of balance in order for model to stand ■ poses don’t always have to be in balance ■ rhythm is figure’s solution for balance ■ weight combines into one ○ solidity ■ human body is an integrated unit. It’s not a collection of unrelated anatomical forms ■ a movement in one part will affect other parts ■ will almost always be a relationship between the torso, hips, and head ■ almost every substantial move you make with your body has a ripple effect on how these three forms relate to each other to maintain your balance ■ animate the primary source of purpose creating action. This is usually the head and trunk of the body. The limbs follow and assist ■ the whole body is involved in making even the smallest of adjustments 2/12/16 Anticipation and Squash & Stretch ● squash and stretch ○ objects have certain amount of flexibility ○ objects change shape as they move under their own power or react to external forces ○ due to gravity and physical force ○ emphasize attitude ○ to show change of expressions (thinking and feeling) ● material influences the amount of squash and stretch ○ rigid vs soft ○ anything composed of living flesh will show considerable movement within its shape ● faces are very malleable and stretchable ○ chewing ○ take ● anticipation ○ preparation for action ■ gathers needed energy to make an action happen ● usually anticipation is slower and less violent than action ● any action is strengthened by being preceded by its opposite ● always in opposite direction to where main action is going ■ tells the viewer something is about to happen ● the motion that says “I’m about to perform” ● the cocking of your arm to get power enough to complete an action ● subtle lift of a hand ● the “introduction” to almost all we do ■ lack of proper anticipation = boring animation ■ can be very small or large depending on action ■ less anticipation, slower and weaker the following action expected to be ■ really big anticipation = really fast action ○ go hand in hand ■ no other 2 principles will affect style or “cartoonyness” of animation ■ the amount of anticipation and squash & stretch will define ○ a mechanical buildup of force 2/19/16 ● appeal ○ the pleasing and fascination quality that makes a person enjoy looking at any drawing ● contrast ○ a big part of what makes any design work is giving it contrasts contrasts in line, shape, color, etc ○ contrast in line is one of the most basic design elements straight lines against curved lines ■ straight vs. curved lines ● usually the part of body that is curved is the muscular or fleshy part that bends or folds inward ● straight is usually the boney part which stretches or pulls tight when a bend takes place ● a drawing with all straight lines will be stiff ● the curve is the energy that moves through the shape and the straight helps direct its path and give it structure ● the challenge is how to use straight lines when trying to portray living forms in space ○ aren’t many straight lines in nature ● creates forceful shapes ● straight is hard structure and curved is flexible force ■ simple vs. complex shapes ● contrast simple side of body contrasted with complex side ○ a figure with 2 simple sides can look plain and uninteresting ○ a figure with 2 complex sides can lack force and have an unclear line of action ● asymmetry ○ a drawing usually flat and uninteresting ○ no force, life, or fluidity ○ contrast in form and shape can create an active type of balance ● tangents ○ straight line that just touches a curve at a certain point ○ a line that just barely touches another ○ if you have a tangent or 2 lines meeting, neither takes dominance in space and we have flatness ○ overlap occurs when 1 line stops as it touches another ■ makes it appear as though it has gone behind it ■ overlap helps evoke foreshortening 2/26/16 ● principles of animation ○ overlap ■ the breaking up of movements so that not everything in or on a character starts and arrives at the same time ■ animate forces, not forms!!! ○ force ■ capacity to do work or cause physical change ● internal motivation ○ comes within the character or object being animated ○ primary or initiating force ■ the source of energy which enacts a change of physical position and motion in the body of a character ● external motivation ○ forces outside the body, force characters to react ○ secondary or reacting force ■ the evidence of effects of inertia or momentum in the body as it reacts to the influence of the primary force ■ power made operative against resistance ● inertia ○ resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or rest ● momentum ○ speed of an object ○ measure of motion of a body equal to product of its mass and velocity ○ 4 key concepts ■ follow through ● separate parts of body or object will continue to move after the action has been completed (or after the body has come to a stop) ■ drag ● parts of a character or object trail behind in an action ■ lead and follow ● one section of body goes first and another section of body goes after until all parts of body have arrived at the next pose ■ successive breaking of joints ● as one object leads an action, the successive joints bend or “break” in opposite direction 3/11/16 Principles of animation ● Path of action ○ Anytime an object is in motion, it creates a path ○ Generally the motion of an object will follow a wavelike or figure eight path of action ○ We try to create a fluidity of movement ■ A flow or rhythm that is appealing ■ Curves are generally more appealing than straight ● Arcs ○ Used to create more natural and expressive motion ○ Natural or organic movements will follow a slightly circular path ■ Head turns ● In 2D animation, using an arc to turn a head makes it more convincing than having the head in same position ■ Arm movement gestures ■ Hips ○ Add more life and flow to a path of action ■ If it isn’t in the arc or path of action, it will not flow ○ Very rarely do move from point a to b in a straight line ○ Track your arcs ■ The path determines where the inbetweens and breakdowns will be 4/1/16 ● The walk ○ A process of falling and catching yourself ○ 2 steps every second (march time) ● 5 important positions when it comes to a walk ○ First contact ■ Heel touches ground ■ Front leg straight ■ No weight transferred to front leg ○ Passing ■ Weight has transferred fully to one leg ■ Hips traveled up ■ As foot passes, toe barely clears ground ○ Extreme down ■ Hips speed up as gravity takes over and weight is released ■ Furthest point down on the hips ○ Extreme up ■ Hips slow down as we reach highest point ■ Foot comes forward to catch the weight ■ Contact leg straight with heel just off ground ○ Second contact ● Weight ○ The up and down position of our masses that give the feeling of weight ○ We feel the weight when the mass of the body comes down ■ Especially when it is preceded by a straight where there is no weight on the leg yet ● The foot ○ Heel is the lead part ○ Foot is secondary and follows along ○ Heel leads and the foot drags behind and flops forward ○ Normally a foot picks up slowly ○ Then travels quickly through the middle ○ And puts down fast 4/15/16 Character Walk ● Every person is unique; no one walks the same ○ Physical characteristics ■ Age ● Old ■ Gender ● Female ○ Legs close together = little up and down on the body ● Male ○ Legs apart so there’s a lot of up and down head and body action ■ Weight affects speed ● The lighter someone is, the faster they tend to move ● Hang time and recovery ○ The heavier a character is, the less time the feet will be in the air and the longer the recovery time ○ Side to side ■ A heavy person will have far greater side to side action on each stride because he has to adjust far more the distribution of weight over the contact position to get balance over the contact foot ○ Weight in a walk is shown through forces in the body ○ Personality ○ Emotions ■ Dragging of feet, kicking feet out, body forward (like Grumpy) ● Ways to turn a regular walk into a character walk? ○ Adjust the passing position ○ Change timing
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