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Chem 1062 Notes Ch 17: Equilibrium

by: mandygh926

Chem 1062 Notes Ch 17: Equilibrium CHEM 1062

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These textbook notes cover the following topics: Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s Principle, Small X approximation, and ICE Tables.
Chemical Principles II
Doreen Leopold
Chemistry, Equilibrium
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This 2 page Bundle was uploaded by mandygh926 on Saturday July 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CHEM 1062 at University of Minnesota taught by Doreen Leopold in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles II in Chemistry at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 07/23/16
Chemistry Notes Ch 17: Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions Includes: Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s Principle, Small X approximation, ICE Tables Corresponding Textbook: Chemistry; The Molecular Matter of Nature and Change Key Terms:  Equilibrium constant (K): K only depends on the temperature, there is no change with initial conc., volume, or adding a catalyst. All concentrations are at equilibrium in this expression and all pressures are partial pressures. The exponents of the rate law are the coefficients of the balanced equation for equil reactions. For heterogeneous equil., pure solids and liquids are not included in k expression. c d c d [C] [D] PCP D ∆n K c a b K p a b K pK (Rc ) [A] [B] P A B  Reaction Quotient (Q): if Q>K shifts left, Q<K shifts right, Q=K no shift  Small X approximation: if k is small and or initial reactant conc. is large, then x is negligible. If [equil]/[initial] x100 < 5% or if [initial]/Kc > 400 then it is justified.  Catalysts: speeds up reaction (forward and reverse) by lowering activation energy. Shortens time to reach equilibrium but no effect on the equilibrium position.  Le Chatelier’s principle: equilibrium is disturbed and will adjust by reducing the disturbance Key Concepts: Disturbances of Le Chatelier’s Principle: 1. Concentration The system reacts to consume added substance or produce removed substance. 2. Pressure Changing volume of container has large effect if there is ∆n. decrease volume, then equilibrium favors the reaction with fewer moles of gas. Increase volume, then equilibrium favors the reaction with greater moles of gas. 3. Temperature The only disturbance that can alter K value. Endothermic: increased temp increases K Exothermic: increased temp decreases K ** Note: Can calculate K at different temps using Arrhenius or Van’t Hoff equations given either ∆H or Ea.  ICE Tables: Initial conc. + change in concentration= equilibrium is used to solve equilibrium problems. Set up a table like the one below with ICE along the left side and a column for each reactant/product. Then fill in the concentrations/ information you know and write the k expression. Solve for x using the small x approximation or the quadratic formula. Example Reaction: A + B →2C **Notice: the change decrease for the reactants and increases for the products because this is a forward reaction. Flip the signs if this was a reverse reaction. Also notice the ratio for the X in the change column comes from the ratio of the reaction equation. A B C Initial 1 M 0.5 M 0 M Change -X -X +2X Equilibrium 1-X 0.5-X 2X K = (2X)^2/ (1-X)(0.5-X) eq If given the equilibrium concentrations for this example you could solve for X from the bottom row of the table. Otherwise use the small x approximation or quadratic equation to solve the K eqexpression if given K.


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