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Dracula Class Notes

by: Charbene Williams

Dracula Class Notes slav 2360

Charbene Williams

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- slavic history - folklore - lore
dracula, Folklore, slavic, vampires, mythology
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Charbene Williams on Tuesday July 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to slav 2360 at University of Virginia taught by Stepanic in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Dracula in Dept. of Slavic Languages and Literature at University of Virginia.


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Date Created: 07/26/16
Lecture 1 Sunday, January 31, 2016 12:09 PM Lecture 2 Sunday, January 24, 2016 7:14 PM Slavic Prehistory  Slavs had no written system in their first 3000 years, making their early history very difficult to study  Sources of study 1. Historical Sources (outside writing about Slavs) i. Ancient Greeks c. 500 BC such as Christian missionaries that would write about them ii. take with a grain of salt and find consistencies 2 Archeology i. Temple sights, cemeteries (worshiped dead ancestors), broken house pieces 2 Ethnography i. Interpretive tools - clothing passed down, types of pottery styles, things that you can interpret 2 Linguistics i. Different languages that all evolved from one Slavic original language ii. 1 type of tree (between Poland & Ukraine) all languages had the same word for this tree, assumed location of origin of all Slavs iii. Slavs - "people of the word", from Slavyan = word iv. Heavy focus on spoken language, didn't have a set system of writing  Slavic homeland is north of the Capathian Mountains between Poland and Ukraine  Original Indo-European migrations, probably from Iran, probably following Black Sea and East -> China -> Back to West  Hunter-gatherer early lifestyle 2000 - 500 B.B.  Settled around rivers (trade, travel, escape from invaders, etc.)  Primary building material - wood 1 Worshipped nature and trees o Walled in village made of wood, one or more long houses (where weddings, village meetings, etc. would occur) o Houses located outside of that Slavic Settlements 1 Personal Level o Lived adjointly, with entire extended family under one roof o Role of elder male and elder female o Matriarchy originally - elder female was a strong symbol of power "Babushka" - grandmother o So peaceful because matriarchies tend to be this way 1 Territorial Level o Everything held and used in common o Essentially living in a communist utopia 2 Economic Level o Benefit of whole NOT individual = primary concern o Cold climate, sharing suffering equally, no evidence of weaponry for killing people until roughly after 476 A.D. (fall of Rome) - becomes a patriarchy o War -> men stronger than women, slowly began to take over First Slavic Migration 1 Collapse of Western Rome Empire - 476 A.D. o Rome power system of Europe of the time 2 Germanic Tribes Move West o Barbaric tribes that kept fighting and attacking Roman empires o Created power vacuums where no one is really in control anymore taken over by Germanic tribes 3 Aware of Better Areas o Slavs move to where German tribes were before o Wiped evidence of Germanic tribes within 30 years o Slavs were waaayyy behind the times, became aware of stronger, better, more efficient technologies 4 Armed (weaponry) 5 Possible Climate Change 525 - 535 A.D. o Series or individual volcanic eruption that caused it to be winter year round o Could no longer farm, had to fight for food o Debate ….. Did this really happen?  Expansion lasts til about 700 AD 2nd Slavic Migration 1 Urbanization o Move into territories already set up by other people "similar to illegal immigrants of their day" 1 Cultural Identity Further Altered o Still no writing system o Appropriation o Sharing ideas, influenced 2 Populated Several Areas Including: Bulgaria, Moravia, Kiev o Bulgaria - populated by the Proto-Bulgars, essentially the Bulgarians before the Bulgarians o Turkish origin, Islamic religion o Slavs breed with and encounter them o Moravia - controlled by the Franks  Germanic tribe - Christian  Empire of Charlemagne (First Holy Roman emperor)  Encountered Germanic people & Christianity  Still no written system o Kiev: 1015- 1115 A.D. (Kievan Rus')  Most important city in Europe of the time  Seat of original Roman empire  Rus' - "rower", rowed boats  Vikings in Kiev controlled Kievs, Slavs called them Rus'  Slavs encountered another form of paganism Pagan Practices  Animism - everything has its own spirit, all life is connected by some super grand energy  Always on the move, hunter gatherer lifestyles, couldn’t really contemplate life b/c no time  Demiurge - "Super urge" Gods who created Gods (must be more general since they are always moving) 1 Numinous Place o Natural Place in environment, rare, unusual, cannot be explained o Ex. Delphic Oracle - Temple of Apollo, natural fissure in rocks, unexplained gas coming out, built a temple around it, thought it was the scent of Apollo helping them to know their future o If tree was struck by lightning, they would make it a temple sight, never happened before, must be a supernatural phenomenon, no science to explain 2 Soothsayer o The soothsayer or "shaman" is the person who understands and can interpret (religious figure) known as "Volkhv" = wolfman. Pagan priest essentially o Wolf = very important symbols for Slavs 3 Spiritual forces o Cemetery - dead, restless dead o Numinous place has these forces 4 Gods o Perun - God of Thunder, peace sign, old pagan way of calling on Perun (splitting tree, fetilizing Earth, sexual symbol) o Veles - God of agriculture, domesticated animals o Radegast - God of War  Very difficult to Christianize - difficult, stubborn, didn't want to let go of traditional beliefs, no writing system (didn’t want to learn a new language)  Christianity was only supposed to be spread by the 3 Holy Languages - Greek, Hebrew, and Latin  Mass was spoken in Latin until 1960s until they began to use English  Cyril & Methodius o God the Pope to okay translating o Became 4th Holy Language o Created the Glagolitic script 863 A.D.  Tried to make one alphabet apply to all Slavic languages  Their followers created Cyrollic alphabet because it was too difficult. Different alphabets - Russian cyrillic, Bulgarian, etc.  Christianization has begun o Gods and Spirits (Perun ex.) became morphed into "Saints" or "saints" became spirits and Gods o Ex. Day of the Dead, still celebrated (old Pagan practice) o Ex. Vampires o Domovoi - Dom = house/home spirit (ancestor worship)  Kind of like a leprechaun, make it happy by speaking to it or leaving food for it, he might sweep the house in return  If angry, may kill animals, break dishes so you can't eat, drain milk/blood of animals  Derived from Svarog - God of Sun & Earth o Leshii - spirit of forest/woods  Angry that people abandoned the woods, one per forest  Made out of wood or mushrooms, nature things  Could shape shift into wolves or kill people  Sounds of the forest = dangerous  Could change into someone you know then lure you into the forest and harm you o Rusalka  Water spirit (similar to female equivalent of vampire because original Slavic vampire was always male)  Not always negative, sometimes positive  Usually beautiful, perfectly shaped girl, long white hair, no pupils (white spheres)  People told to avoid bodies of water around spring when the Rusalkas came out  Restless dead, not a mermaid, not a fish, but could turn unto a fish  It was seen as dangerous if a young girl at an age where she could be married (13-18) died before reaching womanhood (marriage, sex, children)hair always dripped water (symbol of wasted fertility, would put morning dew on crops)  Broke up potential marriages  could also be an old haggard, or still born babies D % 8, Lecture 3 Thursday, January 28, 2016 7:42 PM The Transmission of Lore  "Lore" o Something taught or learned o Knowledge gained through study and experience o An extension of language which is the seat of all creativity  Language is the most important invention of the human race o Lore developed out of this:  Helps to establish solidity and consistency  Creates culture in society through v  Various outlets (ex. Myth, art, folklore)  Why do we need lore? o To help confront chaos/things uncontrollable (ex. Nature- tornadoes) o Helps organize our world  How? o Provides a reserve of knowledge for future generations to understand reality and confront problems o Ex. Monacan Indians: Didn't have a lot of vitamin C in their diets, got scurvy  Pine needs used in water as a tea was found to be able to cure scurvy  Discovery of something that solved a problem that a culture knows about  3 Spheres of Coping o Broniswav Mallinowski (1884-1942) one of the fathers of modern anthropology o 1948 - "Magic, Science, and Religion" o Tried to prove racist subhuman stereotypes wrong o Idea that our science is more advanced, but we all as humans think in the same way, they just rely on magic and religion more Tangible World (nature) Affected by Lifestyle/Culture Resources (Lore) Spheres of Coping Sacred Profan e  Sacred- everything dealing w/ religion  Profane- worldly things ex. Frat party picture  Must keep both separate or society will crumble The 3 Sphere of Coping  Science = accumulated verification  "cause and effect"  Determine reaction  Do it again to confirm Magic = End Oriented Manipulation of Events to try to predict or control of events (ex. Prayer)  Not in the sense of black magic or witchcraft Leads to…..  Religion = process/value oriented o Solidifies culture o Ex. Monacan Indian rain dance, established Magic Religion Science Theory of Ritual Development - (why there are still 3 spheres) 1 Primary Anxiety- knowledge eventually reaches a dead zone, you can't explain any more a When there is a gap in human control, become emotionally frustrated (all rain in reservoir dries up) 2 Primary Ritual (histeria, riots) a Freaking out and acting up in reaction to frustration (random action) b Verified by a result: ex. It rains the next day (usually by coincidence) 2 Secondary Anxiety a Eventually the primary ritual does not work this time, maybe the situation is worse than usual 2 Secondary ritual a primary is augmented, more people added, more steps added (rainstick sounds like rain, put that sound out into nature) 2 Rationalization a Results because of the secondary ritual 2 Symbolization (Ex. Tlaloc, Aztec God of rain) o Animism and shamanism -> something else is controlling it 2 Function a Ritual is solidified, religion is created out of it  Anxiety is now reduced, making us feel more secure that something better will happen o How science -> magic -> religion Lecture 4 Tuesday, February 2, 2016 2:46 PM The Origins of Myth What is a myth? 1 Sacred History Usually Dealing With World Origins 2 Nonhuman/Partially Human Characters (demi Gods) 3 In the past (distant past before recorded history) 4 Not necessarily true (but could be) 5 If connected to ritual = usually true and/or symbolic a Ex. Noah's arc b Maya- Hero twins (demi Gods).  Fable works like myth, but it is not a myth.  Never happened but a symbolic lesson that was taught ex. Tortoise and the Hare "slow and steady wins the race"  "Charter of belief, guide of action" - Malinowsky on myth o Mayan- Popol Vuh (book of the people): at first everything was darkness, 2 demi urges Heart of Earth and Heart of Sky, created earth and water. Created plants on land, made land and water animals, could not understand that they exist, created human beings out of earth, could not reproduce, killed them, made people out of trees, These people had no hearts, no respect for the animals, the Gods, cord, etc. Destroyed them with a flood. Created the 3rd type of humans (us) o Xibalba- underworld  Pussmaker  Bile maker  Hero twins- saved humanity, fathers were ball players. Symbolic game represented rising and falling of the sun. If you dropped the ball you were sacrificed.  Owls- what the lords of Xibalba used to watch and summon people playing ball  Hero twins created out of this, survived Lords of Xibalba and saved humanity o Mythology- study of myth with focus on a general type or that which is particular to a certain group/culture  Upper mythology- myth dealing with upper realms ex. Heavens, positive Gods, (Freya, Valhalla, Bifrost) o Lower Mythology- lower realm (Xibalba and Earth) o Demonology - study of demons as myth… that's it  Demon- any type of malicious entity  Old Christian demons (Baal, Alastor, Asmodeus) *****not on exam*****for essay purposes only*****  Four Parts of Myth 1. Form- usually narrative 2. Content- usually beginnings of the world/environment 3. Function-examples and models for proper living 4. Context - rituals i. Keep the idea of falsity separate  4 categories of Myth 1 Historical- natural environment or event 2 Psychological- usage of emotions to teach 3 Sociological- explains society 4 Structural- organization of world and culture  12 Approaches of Myth 1 Explains enigmatic phenomena (Adam and Eve) 2 Symbolic structuring of the world 3 Projection of collective subconscious (Bile-maker, Blood-gatherer) 4 Man's adaptation to life 5 Charter of behavior (10 commandments) 6 Legitimizes social institution (Moche- human sacrifice, please Gods through sex, sex very sacred: water levels of river) 7 Marker of social relevance (food rules, don't eat certain animals) 8 Mirror of social structure (what it looked like: murderers, rapists, abusers, suicides) 9 Result of a historical situation (Moche) 10 Religious communication (correct/orthodox belief/practice Ex. Easter) 11 Religious Genre (canon- texts of religious belief ex. The bible) i. Apocrypha- not official belief 2 Medium of structure (how myth teaches in language) Lecture 5 Thursday, February 4, 2016 3:08 PM Folklore  Assumed beliefs not questioned  Derived from both lore and myth  Like lore, also a system of ideas and a reserve of knowledge for future generations, however lore is specific, folklore is more general o Lore- garlic keeping the vampire away o Folklore- garlic in recipes, on windows, doors, necklaces  Like myth, can also be charter of belief, guide of action -> can teach you things, except folklore can always change but myth typically cannot change (ex. Moche, culture collapses due to morals and foundations being questioned) o Folklore in language --> pop vs soda, coke vs pop 3 examples of Folklore 1 Narrative- oral literature (folktales, songs, epics, folk plays, and choreographed arts such as dances) a George Washington chopping down cherry tree, could be changed to Abe or Teddy b Betsy Ross creating the first flag- not true, folk lore from women's first wave feminism in 1870s, she only had a hand in making it c Krampus vs coal in so 2 Material- pottery, embroidery, and painting a Manoan's bull leaping as rite of passage into manhood and to show nature that they were dominant. Slavs wrestling bears b Folktales: The Vampire of Croglin Grange (from UK) i Little house on a farm, family of 2 brothers and 1 sister ii scary figure picking at the door, Leave the grange for a while iii They come back. Scary figure comes back and in the house, bites sister's neck iv Sister screams, brothers shoot in the leg, it keeps running like nothing happened v Next morening brothers found it in tomb dead/sleeping, set on fire vi Disproven, then church was found to be real vii Augustus Hare- known for travel (log) literature 1 1896 -1900: The story of my life , Volume 4: Croglin Grange appeared 1st time in print on his "blog" he mentioned that he was told the story, not sure if it was real or not 2 1840s Varney the Vampire - victorian literature (plagarized by Varney and made a fake folklore to intrigue his readers) 2 Social- beliefs, customs, and rituals (typically pagan) a Social folklore- wedding of the dead (Siberia;Europe;Ukraine) put young dead girls corpse through mock wedding to appease spirit 2 Social- beliefs, customs, and rituals (typically pagan) a Knock on wood --> Slavic belief of spirits in wood would curse you, so you m=would scare them out by knocking b Snowmen- burn them as a sacrifice, pagan god Folktales: The Vampire of Croglin Grange Vamp (from UK)  Blood drinking  Claws  Corpse-like skin  Fiery eyes  Functions at night  Increased strength  Shapeshifting  Steeps in a tomb/coffin Weaknesses  Fire (burned to ashes) Not actually a folktale because it is just a story he made up and presented as a folktale Folktale #2: The soldier and the vampire (slavic)  Most famous folktale from eastern europe  Soldier traveling through village and is warned about a vampire out  Talked to a strange man he sees in a cemetary (vampire)  Asks him to go to the wedding with him  Kills bride and groom and drinks blood  Vampire tells soldier how to resurrect bride and groom and kill him  Fights vampire, rooster crows, sun comes up, vampire falls  Resurrects bride groom burns vampire, little spirits come out, must kill all too Traits:  Ashen/pale skin  Blood collecting  Functioning during night or day  Increased strength  Regeneration  Shapeshifting (symbols of death)  Sleeps in a tomb/coffin  Warlock (origin provided in one word)  Practiced black magic while alive, cursed after death Weaknesses:  Fire (burned on a pyre)  Sunlight (bound until night falls again) DOES NOT KILL Jiangshi - "stiff corpse" Chinese Vampire  No Room at the Inn folktale  Men go to inn late at night to sleep, no room except in barn next to inn keeper's daughter's corpse  Claws stuck in tree, sunlight kills Traits:  Long claws  Flying (limited in this case)  Functions at night  Increased strength  Reanimated corpse  Sucks chi from victims (soul-like energy)  Binds by stepping on a victim's shadow Weaknesses  Held breath (can no longer track victims)  Sunlight (killed)  Bagua (sacred paper, Daoist syjbols)  Bells (confused or frighten)  Impalement (sword from peach tree wood)  Rooster crowing  Rope (coated in dog's blood or in a triangular shape  Scattered, dry rice (counts rice)  Sticky rice- heals wounds, burns Jiangshi


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