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Soci 312 Study Guide

by: Madelinechilton

Soci 312 Study Guide SOCI 312

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sociology demography mortality sexuality fertility
Population & Society
Dudley Poston
sociology, demographics, demography, Anthropology
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Date Created: 07/26/16
DEMOGRAPHY EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE Lecture 5: Sexuality   There are two perspectives about sexuality: 1. Essentialist: dictates that everyone has a particular sexuality and  that there are only two sexualities; heterosexual and homosexual  2. Social Constructionism: emphasizes the historical and cultural  variability of categories such as homosexuality, heterosexuality,  bisexuality and asexuality a. Stresses how conceptions of sexual orientation and practices  change over time and vary  across societies  b. Alfred Kinsey moved sexuality research away from a position  of essentialism  i. “Kinsey scale,” which ranks overall sexuality from  completely heterosexual to completely homosexual and  everything in­between.  There are three dimensions of sexuality: 1. Self­identification: what does the person identify as 2. Behavior: what actions do they do  3. Desire: what actions do they WANT to do  a. Note: there seems to some inconsistency among the three  (even though this goes against the essentialist theory)   The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) conducted research  o 75% of women who give a heterosexual response on one question  will be consistent on all 3 questions­ essentialism says it should be  100% o There was a lot more fluidity and variance amongst the homosexual survey: 18% of homosexual women answer the 3 questions  consistently  o Out of a research sample in 2006­8: only about 2% identified as  homosexual  Lecture 6: Fertility  Decline in fertility rates in China and Taiwan: Marrying at a later age,  having a longer period of time between children and then fewer kids all  together  o 55­60% of china is urban; helps with modernization with the norms  and educational opportunities   There are no examples of countries getting the fertility rate back up to 3.0  after dropping   Fertility is so much harder to study because it only happens to women  throughout a specific age range and the same person can have more than one baby but only die once  o Morality is harder to study for one reason: You can leave the  population at ANY age but you can only come into the population at the age of zero  Fertility: the production of male and female births; actual behavior  Reproduction: the production of female births; actual behavior  Fecundity: the potential/ability of producing births  Sterility: the inability to produce births; lack of potential  Childlessness: the production of no children  Youngest to give birth was 5 ½ and the oldest was 70 and the oldest  father was 96 years old   Crude Birth rate: the number of live births occurring among the  population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000  mid­year total population of the given geographical area during the same  year. o The Hispanic CBR shows the greatest decline, but remains high. o In 2013 the CBR for the world was estimated to be 20/100  Age­specific fertility rate: the total number of women who gave birth at a specific age divided by the total number of women that age in a population  Total fertility rate: The number of children who would be born per woman (or per 1,000 women) if she/they were to pass through the childbearing  years bearing children according to a current schedule of age­specific  fertility rates  Highest fertility rates: Niger (7.6), Chad (7) and Somalia (6.8) o Hutterites: around 10 babies per woman (Highest recorded fertility  rate in history); an Amish group in America and they do not use  contraception but wait till marriage   Lowest fertility rates: Taiwan (1.3), Poland (1.3) and Spain   90 of the 205 countries of the world had TFR’s at or below replacement  level of 2.1 (the number in 2005 was 73). Of the remaining countries, 27  had TFR’s of 5.0 or higher; of these, 25 countries are considered less  developed and are African.   Average woman could bear a child every 2.2 years, with the potential of  16 children per woman but this is very unlikely   In most industrialized countries, male TFRs are higher than female TFRs   In the U.S., men’s fertility is more likely to be influenced by their marital  and employment status compared to women’s   Proximate Determinants of Fertility 1. Marriage and marital disruption (Now it is when the women starts  sexual activity)  2. Contraceptive use and effectiveness 3. Prevalence of induced abortion 4. Duration of postpartum infecundability 5. Waiting time to conception 6. Risk of intrauterine mortality 7. Onset of permanent sterility.  o Adolescent fertility refer to young women having a child (age 15­ 19)  Fertility rate in the world for this age group was 55 per 1,000  Adolescent fertility is high among Hispanics and low among  whites (black, Asian, and American Indian rates fell between the  rates of whites and Hispanics)  There has been a decline in birth rate due to effective  contraception  Lecture 6 Part 2: Contraceptive Methods and Birth Control    The most popular methods are contraception, sterilization, and abortion   Married Women using contraception: o America: 78% using all methods o More developed world (72%) versus the least developed world (34%)  Abortion: o Most of the abortions in the world (2003) occurred in developing  countries (35 million) rather than in developed countries (6.6 million)  because they have more women  o Data on abortions are typically available only from countries where  abortions are legal, but abortions DO NOT occur more frequently in  countries where they are legal versus where they are not legal o In the developed regions, 92% are safe but in developing countries,  45% are safe, and almost all abortion­related deaths occur to women  in developing countries  Contraception Behavior of U.S. Women  o 38 % of all U.S. women are not currently using any form of  contraception  o About 90% of U.S. women (15­49) report having engaged in sexual  intercourse prior to marriage o In 2005, there were an estimated 1.21 million legal abortions  performed in the U.S., a decrease from the 1.31 million performed in  2000 o Every year, around 2 percent of U.S. women in the childbearing ages  have an abortion. Hence, nearly half (47 %) of all U.S. women in the  childbearing ages have had one or more abortions at some time in  their life.  o Of the women in the U.S. having abortions in 2005, half of them were  under age 25; women 20–24 obtained 33 percent of all abortions and  teenagers obtained 17 percent of the abortions.   Two kinds of effectiveness:  1. Theoretical effectiveness: efficaciousness of the method when it is used “consistently according to a specified set of rules” and  used all the time; each method has its own specific rules 2. Use effectiveness: measures the effectiveness of the method  taking into account the fact that some users do not follow the  directions perfectly or carefully, or may not use the method all the  time. This measures how effective the method is in “typical” use.   Family Planning Methods:  o Vaginal spermicides are the least effective o The next method I consider is withdrawal (aka coitus interruptus or the  “pull­out” method) o “Fertility awareness” (or “natural” family planning) refers to methods  that employ an awareness of information about the woman’s menstrual cycle to predict the time of the month when the probabilities are high  that she will become pregnant o The fertility awareness method is based on the idea that a woman  can avoid pregnancy if she refrains from intercourse around the time of ovulation, when the egg is produced.  The trick is finding out the exact  time interval during which to avoid intercourse. The use effectiveness  rate for all fertility awareness methods, combined, is around 24  percent. Theoretical effectiveness numbers are much lower. o The next most effective methods to be considered are the Diaphragm  and the Cervical Cap.   The Vaginal Diaphragm is a device that erects a barrier between the sperm and the ova.   A Cervical Cap is a small, thimble­shaped cup which also serves  as a barrier contraceptive by fitting over the cervix o Male and female condoms; male condoms are a little bit more  effective but it is more inconvenient  o Luis Miramontes and Carl Djerassi: co­inventors of progestin which is  one of the two synthetic hormones used in the first oral contraceptive   The four crusades: Margaret Sanger (wanted contraception pill for the masses), Gregory Pincus (how to make a pill suppress  ovulation), John Rock (doctor who conducted experiments) and  Katharine McCormick (supplied money) Lecture 8: Mortality   The more education you get, the longer you will live   Crude Death Rate: number of deaths/size of population * 1,000 o Risk of death varies by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic  status o Younger populations will have lower CDR’s than older populations o In 2012, the CDR in the USA was 8 when the CDR in Africa was 12  You have to be careful when comparing the CDR with young (Mexico) and old countries (Germany) because of the age composition   Age­specific Death Rate (ASDR): number of deaths of people at a  certain age/ total population of that age group * 1,000 o Death rates are high in the initial year of life, then drop and begin  increasing again at around age 40 or so.  o Because death varies so considerably with age, demographers prefer  to use ASDRs as a more precise measurement of mortality  The Life Table: The mathematical model that portrays mortality conditions at a particular time among a population o John Graunt in 1662 o Everything is looking good for most countries and improving­ except for Sub­Saharan Africa­ some people are living less long as they did 15  years ago due to the effect of HIV   Pre­modern Mortality: for the most of human history, life expectancy was 20­30 years o EX: During the plague years in London in the 1660s, only 3% made it  to age 65 o About 2/3 of babies survived to their first birthday, and about 1/2 were  still alive at age five  Countries with highest life expectancies 2009­2010: Monaco, San  Marino, Andorra and Japan; ranging from 82­89  Countries with the lowest life expectancies 2009­2010: Swaziland,  Angola, Zambia and Lesotho; ranging from 31­40  Racial crossover: years of life by age, sex and race  o EX: In America, black males have the lowest life expectancy but once  they reach a certain age, they have a higher life expectancy  o There are two main reasons: Age misreporting and frailty  Frailty: survival of the fittest, produces a more robust group of  black people  Age misreporting: Black people think they are older than that  actually are; which means the crossover would happen at a later  age  A boy born in 1900 could expect to live to 46 years, and a girl to 48 yrs.   By 2003, a boy could anticipate living for 75 years, and a girl infant for 80  years; it is 76 and 81 in 2009.  Race and Ethnic Differences: o Blacks still live, on average, around five less years than whites.  o A major reason for the racial differential is the socioeconomic  consequences of lifelong poverty and racial discrimination.  o **Hispanics have the highest life expectancy   2010: blacks 75, whites 79, and Hispanic 81 o The psychological and physiological consequences of racial  discrimination   Sex and Gender Differentials in Mortality:  o Women live longer than men (in 2009; about 5 years longer)  o The survival advantage of women is nearly universal among the  nations of the world  Infant Mortality Rate (IMR):  o Death rates in the first year of life are much higher than at any other  year, until the age of 50 or more o Deaths are much higher in the first month of life than in the remaining  11 months, much higher in the first day than in the remaining days of  the month, much higher in the first hour than in the remaining 23 hours, and much higher in the first minute than in the remaining 59 minutes. o IMR in the US was 13 in 1980 and was 7.5 in 1996, and 6.6 in 2005  and 6.2 in 2014. o IMR varies by race and ethnicity o IMR has fallen over time, for all race groups, but the differences remain between racial and ethnic groups o The IMR of the world in 2006 was about 52 infant deaths per 1,000 live births and around 40 in 2013. o Lowest IMR Countries in 2014: Singapore, Norway and Japan (2 per  1,000) o Highest IMR Countries in 2014: Afghanistan (117), Niger (87) and  Central African Republic (93)   Famines in History:  o Famines occur for a variety of reasons:  Inefficiency of manual labor, and lack of transportation, roads and  storage   By plagues of rodents and insects, and by plant diseases o Famines usually take place in rural and poor populations, making  death tolls difficult to measure.   o Famines in India killed 19 million between 1891 and 1910 o The Three Major Epidemics in Recorded Human History:  1. Black Death (1347­1352) - Number of deaths averages around 40­50 million deaths 2. Spanish Flu Epidemic (1918­1919) - Number of deaths averages around 50 million deaths 3. HIV/AIDS (early 1980s to the present) - By 2030, the HIV/AIDS epidemic will surpass the Black  Plague and Spanish Flu epidemics for the number of deaths - HIV & AIDS and Mortality:  o HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus  o Swaziland, 25 percent of its population aged 15–49 is infected with HIV (Lesotho at 23 percent, Botswana at 22 percent, South Africa at 19  percent)  o AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome o In 2012, there were 35.3 million [32.2 million–38.8 million] people living with HIV, and 25 million (71 % of all cases) in sub­Saharan Africa. o About 100 million more AIDS­related deaths expected in African  countries alone by year of 2025 o In the USA, HIV is spread mainly by:  1. Having sex with someone who has HIV 2. Sharing needles and other equipment used to prepare injection  drugs with someone who has HIV  - Wars in Mortality:  o EX: Military and civilian death toll would be around 8.5 million in World  War I and 40 million in World War II - Suicide:  o In the world about one million people each year commit suicide. o As many as 20 times that number attempt suicide o The suicide rate is considerably higher for males than for females  around the world. - Homicide:  o Homicide rates are highest for young adult males in virtually every  country for which data are available. o The homicide rate peaks at ages 15 to 24. o For white males at this age, the homicide rate in 1998 was 12 per  100,000. o In contrast, the rate was a staggering 97 deaths per 100,000 for  African­American males at this age. Lecture 9 Part 1: Migration  - Migration: the pull (because of problems) or push of people (drawn for  freedom or work etc) and it is an instrument of cultural diffusion and social  integration o Push factors from an area can be job loss, discrimination, availability of partners, community characteristics, catastrophes, etc.  o Pull factors to an area can be better employment, education, climate,  living conditions, etc o EX: California to Texas (this is the most flow from one state to another) - Migration is “selective” of the “best” people; “migration selectivity” is a key  - American exceptionalism:  o American exceptionalism is the theory that the United States is  qualitatively different from other countries o Over 98 percent of the population of the U.S. today is comprised of  either immigrants or the descendants of immigrants  - There are two main types of migration o Internal: Internal migration is the change of permanent residence  within a country that involves a geographical move that crosses a  political boundary, usually a county.  All migrants are movers, but all movers are not necessarily  migrants (A migrant is a person whose residential move involves  the crossing of a political boundary) o International migration occurs between countries  The U.S., by far, receives the most migrants of any country in the world. (EX: 40.2 million in 2010)  International Migrant: “a person who changes his or her country of abode [the country where that person spends most of his or  her daily night rest over a period of a year]”   Refugee: immigrants admitted because of facing persecution  (can be based on race, religion, nationality or political opinion) in  their home country. - Most recent data show that around 1 in 8 Americans moved from one  house to another in the 2012­13 period, that is, 12.5 % moved from one  house to another. Of these, most moved within the same county, i.e., 8%  Around 2% were from a different county, same state; and around 2% from  another state; and 0.5% from abroad.  - A migration stream is a body of migrants departing from a common area  of origin and arriving at a common area of destination during a specified  time interval.  - A migration counter­stream is the migration stream, smaller in size,  going in the opposite direction during the same time interval.  - A migration interval refers to the time­period during which the migration  occurs.  o Time intervals of one year, five years, or ten years, are common  intervals used in demographic studies of internal migration.  - Migration does not have the biological or genetic components that are  found in the study of mortality and fertility; migration is due entirely to  environmental and personal factors.  - Immigration refers to the movement of people to a new country for the  purpose of establishing permanent residence o The key element in the definition of an immigrant is the establishment  of a permanent residence in the new country.  - Emigration refers to the permanent departure of people from a country  o In every international migration, a migrant is simultaneously an  immigrant and an emigrant. - About 3.2 % of the world’s population in 2013 was comprised of long­term  immigrants. - Remigration refers to the migration of international migrants back to their  original countries of origin.  - Unauthorized Immigrants in U.S.: o 50% are undocumented border crossers o 50% are visa over­stayers o Mexican immigrants are mostly EWI when most of the other  immigrants from other countries are visa over­stayers  o In 2012, there were about 11.2 unauthorized immigrants in the USA  - Estimated 10 million slaves to the Americas between 1619 and 1776 (3.4  million to the English colonies in what was to become the U.S.) - Most international migration is economically motivated, and most  immigration these days is to the more developed countries.  o Of the 190 million long­term immigrants in the world in 2006 (230  million in 2013), 115 million resided in more developed countries (with  almost 43 million in the U.S. in 2010) - In 2010, The U.S. has just over 13% of its population foreign­born.  o Qatar has a population of 87% foreign born and the UAE has 70% - The 40 million foreign­born in 2010 represent the largest absolute number  of immigrants ever present in the U.S.  - A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in  his or her home country. Money sent home by migrants competes  with international aid as some of the largest financial inflows to developing countries.  o In 2012, according to the World Bank, $401 billion went to developing  countries (a new record of remittances) with overall global remittances  at $514 billion o Top remittance­receiving countries in 2010: India (55 billion) and  China (51 billion) o Top remittance­sending countries in 2010: United States (48 billion) and Saudi Arabia (26 billion)  - An unauthorized immigrant is a person who immigrates to a host  country “through irregular or extralegal channels” o In the U.S. the majority are EWIs. Estimates are that around 40% in  the U.S. are visa overstayers, and the balance EWIs. o The number of unauthorized migrants worldwide is estimated to be  between 35 and 46 million persons, or about 15­20% of the 232 million international migrants worldwide in 2013. o In 2010, there were around 11.2 million unauthorized immigrants in the U.S, representing about 28% of the 40 million foreign­born persons in  the U.S. in  2010. o Over half (6.5 million, around 58%) of the unauthorized immigrants in  the U.S. were born in Mexico, and 250,000 in China o Lecture 9 Part 2:  Iceland Chapter 5:  - America is the land of immigrants  - USA politics debates: o The extent to which immigrants are assimilating  o Social and economic impact of immigration  - Different immigrants from different countries bring different concerns o EX: Catholicism from German and Ireland immigrants when  immigrants from Mexico bring the concern of drug cartel  - 11 million undocumented immigrants in 2011 - Naturalization Act of 1790: there was no legal restrictions for the number  or country of immigrants  o Note how it has changed now  - Assimilation: general convergence of social, economic and cultural  patterns  o They are being integrated into American society  - Ethnic disadvantage: even if the immigrants learn the language and  customs of their new country, they may still not have socioeconomic  mobility or acceptance into the mainstream of the white population  - Impact of Immigration:  o Economic:   Do the immigrants drive down the wages of native­born  workers? Are the immigrants acting as complements or  substitutes?   They are often complements and not substitutes   EX: Andrew Carnegie and John Nordstrom   Boosted struggling industries like fruit and vegetable  production in California   Over­crowding in public schools and the need for services  for non­english speaking people o Social Solidarity and Social Capital:   Immigrants may change the character of an area  Social cohesion was lower in more diverse communities so  there is a negative association between diversity and social  solidarity   Immigration has helped revitalize inner­city neighborhoods,  which has decreased the violence rates   Immigration in the recent decades has not been associated  with more crime  - America has the largest number of immigrants but not the highest  percentage  - International migration is increasing worldwide  FINAL DEMOGRPAHY EXAM  (15 pts) answer one of two questions from my lectures/chapters 5, 6, and 7. Mortality (chapter 5): - In 2012, the CDR in the USA was 8 when the CDR in Africa was 12 - Countries with highest life expectancies 2009­2010: Monaco, San Marino,  Andorra and Japan; ranging from 82­89 - Countries with the lowest life expectancies 2009­2010: Swaziland, Angola, Zambia and Lesotho; ranging from 31­40 - Hispanics have the highest life expectancy  o 2010: blacks 75, whites 79, and Hispanic 81 - Women live longer than men (in 2009; about 5 years longer)  - Lowest IMR Countries in 2014: Singapore, Norway and Japan (2 per  1,000) - Highest IMR Countries in 2014: Afghanistan (117), Niger (87) and  Central African Republic (93)  - Swaziland, 25 percent of its population aged 15–49 is infected with HIV  (Lesotho at 23 percent, Botswana at 22 percent, South Africa at 19  percent)  - About 100 million more AIDS­related deaths expected in African countries  alone by year of 2025 - In the world about one million people each year commit suicide. o As many as 20 times that number attempt suicide o The suicide rate is considerably higher for males than for females  around the world. Internal Migration (chapter 6): - American exceptionalism: Because migration is selective of the very best  peoples. Persons without motivation and without a striving for  advancement and improvement, persons with few socioeconomic skills  and talents, persons not willing to take risks and chances ­­ these persons will more often remain at home where they were born - Over 98 percent of the population of the U.S. today is comprised of either  immigrants or the descendants of immigrants  - Unauthorized Immigrants in U.S.: o 50% are undocumented border crossers o 50% are visa over­stayers o Mexican immigrants are mostly EWI when most of the other  immigrants from other countries are visa over­stayers  o In 2012, there were about 11.2 unauthorized immigrants in the USA  - All migrants are movers, but not all movers are necessarily migrants. - Largest state­to­state migration: California to Texas (60,000 in 2009) - Ages 19­34 are when someone is most likely to move - Between 2004 and 2005, about 14% of the population of the U.S. moved.  Blacks were somewhat more likely to move locally than were whites. - Internal Migration in China:  o China ­­ a country of over 1.3 billion persons ­­ is now experiencing  a tidal wave of internal migration from its hinterlands to its major  industrialized metropolitan areas  Rural­origin itinerant migrant workers, known as the “floating  population” or “floaters” o Floaters: to over 250 million in 2012 which is the largest stream of  peace­time human mobility in recorded history  One of six people in China today is a “floater” o Of the around 200,000 Chinese who leave China every year, an  estimated 50,000 leave for the United States; half enter legally and  half enter as undocumented International Migration (chapter 7):  - Texas and California has the highest number of unauthorized immigrants - Three ds: dirty, dangerous and demeaning (the jobs that floaters and  undocumented people do)  - The U.S., by far, receives the most migrants of any country in the world.  (EX: 40.2 million in 2010) - In 2010, The U.S. has just over 13% of its population foreign­born.  o Qatar has a population of 87% foreign born and the UAE has 70% - The 40 million foreign­born in 2010 represent the largest absolute number  of immigrants ever present in the U.S.  - Top remittance­receiving countries in 2010: India (55 billion) and China (51 billion) - Top remittance­sending countries in 2010: United States (48 billion)  and Saudi Arabia (26 billion)  - In 2010, there were around 11.2 million unauthorized immigrants in the  U.S, representing about 28% of the 40 million foreign­born persons in the  U.S. in 2010. - Over half (6.5 million, around 58%) of the unauthorized immigrants in the  U.S. were born in Mexico, and 250,000 in China - Largest number of international migrants 2010­2013 o Mexico to USA o Sudan to South Sudan  o India to UAE  - Countries with top net immigration from 2000­2010: USA, Spain and UAE - Countries with top net emigration from 2000­2010: Bangladesh, Mexico  and India - In 2008, 59% of undocumented immigrants were from Mexico, more than  2.4% from China (15 pts) answer one of two questions from my lectures/chapters 5 and 7. - Mortality (chapter 5): - International Migration (chapter 7): (50 pts) terms, mainly chapters 5,6,7, and 13, and some from chapter 4 - CHECK QUIZLET (10 pts) answer one of two questions from Iceland, chapters 5 and 7. Iceland Chapter 5:  - America is the land of immigrants  - USA politics debates: o The extent to which immigrants are assimilating  o Social and economic impact of immigration  - Different immigrants from different countries bring different concerns o EX: Catholicism from German and Ireland immigrants when  immigrants from Mexico bring the concern of drug cartel  - 11 million undocumented immigrants in 2011 - Naturalization Act of 1790: there was no legal restrictions for the number  or country of immigrants  o Note how it has changed now  - Assimilation: general convergence of social, economic and cultural  patterns  o They are being integrated into American society  - Ethnic disadvantage: even if the immigrants learn the language and  customs of their new country, they may still not have socioeconomic  mobility or acceptance into the mainstream of the white population  - Impact of Immigration:  o Economic:   Do the immigrants drive down the wages of native­born  workers? Are the immigrants acting as complements or  substitutes?   They are often complements and not substitutes   EX: Andrew Carnegie and John Nordstrom  o Boosted struggling industries like fruit and vegetable production in  California  o Over­crowding in public schools and the need for services for non­ english speaking people o Social Solidarity and Social Capital:   Immigrants may change the character of an area  Social cohesion was lower in more diverse communities so  there is a negative association between diversity and social  solidarity   Immigration has helped revitalize inner­city neighborhoods,  which has decreased the violence rates   Immigration in the recent decades has not been associated with more crime  - America has the largest number of immigrants but not the highest  percentage  - International migration is increasing worldwide  Iceland Chapter 7: - Economics play a huge role in drawing people to places - Social networks are instrumental in shaping migration­ people hear about  places they can go through the people they know, they want to find a  community where they can feel comfortable and thrive - Example of internal migration: in 1950, 55% of Americans lived in the  Northeast but there was a transition when more people moved to the  south­ in 2010 only 44% of the population lived in the Northeast  - How more states are influenced by international immigration - Sun belt area: southern tier of the United States o Lower land price, development of air­conditioning  - From 1910­2010: 7% to 51% lived in suburban areas o Become more diverse  o Increasing poverty in the suburban areas  - While the distinction between cities and suburbs may be declining, this  does not necessarily mean that individual neighborhoods are becoming  more racially and socioeconomically integrated  o Very high levels to moderate levels of black­white segregation   - Class segregation is increasing in the north with the growth of the black  population  o Metropolitan areas: NYC, Philadelphia and Dallas - Social capital: the benefits people receive through cooperation with the  people they know  o EX: the success refugees has influence on if they know someone in America (probability of getting a job, reduce costs of entering)  - The sprawl of the US cities has to do with the individualistic mindset o Causes problems: poor health (obesity from no exercise), lower  quality of life (traffic), and environmental stress (pollution)  (10 pts) answer one of two questions from Wattenberg, chapters 8 and 11. Wattenberg Chapter 8:  - New medicines, better public sanitation and behavioral changes added to  the growing population of an older population  - The median age of America in 1950 was 30, then in 2000 it was 35 and in  2050 it is expected to be 40  - Life expectancy in 1950 was 69 to 77 in 2000 and then 82 in 2050 - The aging population may have negative economic side­effects o The working class will have to pay more to cover health care and  nursing homes o Senior citizens with no large savings or pensions often find drug  prices incredibly high, they are saying they have to choose from  eating or being medicine  - Countries are trying to reward people for having babies to raise the fertility rate o Singapore and Japan have a TFR of 1.3  o Taiwan pushing for tax reductions and education subsidies to boost fertility rates  - Japan: the legal age of retirement is 59 and the life expectancy will reach  88 in 2050 which is 29 years of living off of government paid pensions and health care  - New demography: higher life expectancy with low fertility rates  Wattenberg Chapter 11:  - Argues that America should be involved with the global promotion of  liberty  - War: as the world grows, the more people will have war on their minds  which increasing the inclination to invade and cause a war. This will result  in the loss of lives and then the population sinks, further reducing the  perceived need for war  - Western civilization will become a smaller fraction of the total world  population  - Predicts that the percentage of the world’s population living in modern  countries will decrease from 19.7% in 2000 to 13.7% in 2050 - Japan population to decrease from 128 million to 105 million by 2050 o Had the potential to be a supreme power because of car production but the severe population decline changed that  - Kennedy took advantage of America’s soft power o Soft power: the ability to attract and co­opt rather than coerce, use  force or give money as a means of persuasion o He stressed big banks/companies and superior colleges and the  spread of English o Said that America is not only the single surviving superpower but  also the most powerful and influential in world history  - America’s top competitors in the 21  century: Europe (big/rich but  politically divided), India (per capita income is growing but from a very low  base) and Russia (diseased nation with loosing population but historically  feared by most)  - Nations of the west: America, Europe and Japan - Terrorism: o Terrorism is the weapon of the weak o A strong case can be made that the modernism that brought us  human liberty has brought the human species to its most  successful moment  - A party or movement can do things that individual nations cannot do alone o It is time that the cause of human freedom and liberty be treated as  a movement not as a splendid idea  - Surely every nation has priorities it seeks to pursue. Every nation has an  international economic agenda concerning trade and economic growth  - The intent of this chapter is that America constitutes an empire of ideals  and should be such an empire. The core idea is a noble one concerning  individual liberty in more places, for more people  1. Answer this question (15 points) from my lectures  Lecture 4: Age and Sex Composition o Changes in age and sex structure affect virtually all social institutions o Dependency is an issue wen comparing the old and the young; they depend on the people in the middle ages o New Boomers: people born from 1983-2001; also known as Millennials, Boomerang Generation and Trophy Kids o Dynamics of the Age Transition  A population with 35% or more of its people under age 15 is referred to by demographers as “young.”  A population with 12% or more of its people aged 65 or older is “old.” (Sometimes, this is measured as age 60 and older.)  EX: the population of most countries in Africa (Niger and Burkina Faso) is “young”, when in Japan 30% of the population is considered “old” o In 2010, there were 740 million people the age of 60 or older but it varies within countries  EX: In the more developed countries, it is 21%, in the less developed it is 8%, and in the least developed it is 5%. o Women live longer than men; by 100 years old, there are 20 men for every 100 women o Centenarians: this is the portion of the population that reaches age 100 and it is the fastest growing segment of older populations in the US  2000 to 2010: Centenarians grew from about 50,000 to 70,000 and most were women (oldest person alive: 116 years old Susannah Jones) o Fertility: more males than females are born o Mortality: females have lower death rate than males o There are 5 biological definitions of sex: 1. Chromosomes: male (XY) and female (XX) 2. Gonads: male (testes) and female (ovaries) 3. Sex specific hormones: male (androgen) and female (estrogen) 4. Internal sexual properties: male (prostate) and female (fallopian tubes) 5. External sexual organ: male (penis) and female (clitoris and vagina) o There are 3 social definitions of sex: 1. Rearing: “it’s a boy!” 2. Identify: what you check on forms 3. Gender roles: masculine vs feminine o Intersex: when there is any inconsistency in the 5 biological definition of sex  An intersex person is born with sexual anatomy, reproductive organs, and/or chromosome patterns that do not fit the typical definition of male or female.  Happens to 23/1,000 births  EX: Jacob’s syndrome (XYY; chromosomal) or Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (XY; hormonal) o Transgender: referring roughly to all persons whose gender identities, expressions or behaviors do not conform to the sex to which they were assigned at birth, i.e., the fifth biological definition;  Doesn’t have to change biologically o Transsexual: refers to people whose gender identity is different from their assigned sex; changes biologically (body congruent with mind)  EX: Christine Jorgensen was the first American publicly to have a sex change (male to female)  EX: Chaz Bono (female to male) o LGBTI: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex o Sex vs gender  Sex is used biologically and gender is used socially  Demographers tend to use the term “sex” when discussing both biological and non-biological differences. Demographers don’t use the term “gender” very much at all. o Sex ratio: how many men for every 100 women living at that time  Ranges from 102-107  High sex ratio (above 105): female infanticide, in- migration of males for labor and female-selective abortion  Low sex ratio (below 90): war and out-migration of males  Lecture 5: Sexuality o Essentialism: there are only two sexualities (homosexual and heterosexual) o Alfred Kinsey wrote the first research book about sexual activity and do quantitative research on the matter o Social Constructionism stresses how conceptions of sexual orientation and practices change over time and vary across societies.  It emphasizes the historical and cultural variability of categories such as homosexuality, heterosexuality, bisexuality and asexuality. o Three dimensions of sexuality (tends to be some inconsistency) 1. Sexual orientation: what are you 2. Behavior: how do you behave sexually? (same sex, opposite, none) 3. Desire: what are your desires to do?  They did a survey regarding this information and about 75% of women who give a heterosexual response on one question will be consistent on all 3 questions- essentialism says it should be 100%  Chapter 6: Fertility o Decline in fertility rates in China and Taiwan: Marrying at a later age, having a longer period of time between children and then fewer kids all together  55-60% of china is urban; helps with modernization with the norms and educational opportunities o There are no examples of countries getting the fertility rate back up to 3.0 after dropping o Fertility is so much harder to study because it only happens to women throughout a specific age range and the same person can have more than one baby but only die once  Morality is harder to study for one reason: You can leave the population at ANY age but you can only come into the population at the age of zero o Fertility: the production of male and female births; actual behavior o Reproduction: the production of female births; actual behavior o Fecundity: the potential/ability of producing births o Sterility: the inability to produce births; lack of potential o Childlessness: the production of no children o Youngest to give birth was 5 ½ and the oldest was 70 and the oldest father was 96 years old o Crude Birth rate: the number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year.  The Hispanic CBR shows the greatest decline, but remains high.  In 2013 the CBR for the world was estimated to be 20/100 o Age-specific fertility rate: the total number of women who gave birth at a specific age divided by the total number of women that age in a population o Total fertility rate: The number of children who would be born per woman (or per 1,000 women) if she/they were to pass through the childbearing years bearing children according to a current schedule of age-specific fertility rates o Highest fertility rates: Niger (7.6), Chad (7) and Somalia (6.8)  Hutterites: around 10 babies per woman (Highest recorded fertility rate in history); an Amish group in America and they do not use contraception but wait till marriage o Lowest fertility rates: Taiwan (1.3), Poland (1.3) and Spain o 90 of the 205 countries of the world had TFR’s at or below replacement level of 2.1 (the number in 2005 was 73). Of the remaining countries, 27 had TFR’s of 5.0 or higher; of these, 25 countries are considered to be less developed and are African. o Average woman could bear a child every 2.2 years, with the potential of 16 children per woman but this is very unlikely o In most industrialized countries, male TFRs are higher than female TFRs o In the U.S., men’s fertility is more likely to be influenced by their marital and employment status compared to women’s o Proximate Determinants of Fertility 1. marriage and marital disruption (Now it is when the women starts sexual activity) 2. Contraceptive use and effectiveness 3. Prevalence of induced abortion 4. Duration of postpartum infecundability 5. Waiting time to conception 6. Risk of intrauterine mortality 7. Onset of permanent sterility. o Adolescent fertility refer to young women having a child (age 15-19) o Fertility rate in the world for this age group was 55 per 1,000 o Adolescent fertility is high among Hispanics and low among whites (black, Asian, and American Indian rates fell between the rates of whites and Hispanics) o There has been a decline in birth rate due to effective contraception 2. Write 1-2 sentences defining/describing each of 15 of the following 23 concepts/rates/topics (30 points). 3. Answer one of these two questions (10 points) from the Wattenberg book:  Chapter 4: Baby Makers o We are in a time when other developed countries are decreasing in population, but we are increasing o 2000-2005: America grew from 285 to 300 million when the next truly modern was Japan with 127 million people o 2000: A little over half of Americans live in suburbs and 2/3 are in mortgage debt, which is unique with the rest of the world o USA is the only modern country that lives in detached single family homes o “America’s two-child total fertility rate is good- natural and normal. What’s astonishing is that this natural and normal rate is abnormal to the rest of the world”  Chapter 5: Immigrant Takers o Immigration has been extremely successful in the USA o During the times of mass immigration- people don’t like the immigrants but generations later we look and see that it was a good thing  EX: “beaten men from beaten races” o New immigration: Mexicans are the largest minority, almost to the point of becoming a majority; but they are not assimilating into the cultures because they aren’t learning English, traveling back and forth etc  Swamp: immigrants turning America into a “chaotic third world” o The difference between in a continuation of current immigration trends or a cut off of immigration is 90 million- which is the population of Germany  Chapter 6: The Culture of Alarmism o Predicting populations in the future: “low” (5.5 million by 2100), “medium” (9.1 million) and “high” (14 million) o Two ways to measure Total Fertility Rate:  Cohort measurement: measuring what has already happened  If that “completed fertility” measurement is projected into the future it will show more people than a measurement that uses the current much lower fertility rates  Period measurement: produces a portrait of what is happening now  EX: Europe from 2000 to 2050 with a TFR of 1.85; one theory would say the population would drop 124 million when another theory only has Europe declining by 92 million o By 2300: The population will go from 9 to 2.3 million  Chapter 7: Why? o Farm to city: 1900 half of Americans lived in rural areas when in 2000 only 21% lived in rural areas o Women getting an education: higher the education, less babies o Abortion: more acceptable and better inventions o Divorce: high divorce rate=low fertility rate  1960: 2.2% per 1000 and in 1998: 4.3% per 1000 o Contraception: acceptability, inventions and accessibility o Age of marriage: getting married later  1960 to 2003: 21 to 25 years old o Homosexuality: growing rate of openness/acceptance o Money: more money=less babies; want to have less kids and spend more money on things/travel o Cohabitation o Diffusion theory: attitudes of people in LDC (less developed countries) are changing due to western influence 4. Answer one of these two questions (10 points) from the Iceland book:  Chapter 2: The American Family o Industrialization and Urbanization were key catalysts in spurring changes in the economic functioning of families o Culture is learned in childhood and is transmitted through families and communities; includes habits of thought and action o Several trends of living arrangements  Cohabitation: less stable than marriage, less of a commitment so the incentive to get married has decreased  Non-marital childbearing  Rising age of marriage  Decline in fertility o In 1940 only 2% of births were to unwed mothers, in 2009 the birth rate to unwed mothers has increased to 41%  Chapter 3: Gender Inequality o Homogamy: women marrying men of equal money and education  Now women are marrying down, which surprised demographers o Historically, patterns of gender inequality have been linked to changes in the family o Women’s labor force has increased for many reasons:  Family size is declining  Technological advances that save time (EX: dishwasher, washing machine, microwave etc)  Changes in the economy; increase of white-collar jobs  Educational attainment  Working women with children: 47% in 1975 to 71% in 2007 o There is still occupational segregation:  Only 4-5% of firefighters are women and 14% are architects and engineers; when more women take on the roles of teachers or secretaries etc  Chapter 4: Economic Well Being o The growth of the US economy over the long haul has been “exceptional” o How the economy effects the way of living: 1900 virtually no one owned a car and 20 years later 25% of households owned one and then in 1930 it raised to about half owned one o Wealth inequality and income inequality are different; wealth inequality is even greater than income inequality  Wealth: deals with assets, land owned, stocks bond etc  Income: salary alone o Why inequality has increased?  The higher demand for high-skill jobs  Globalization and international trade  Drop of unionization; only 12% of workers were in unions in 2012  Rising salaries for people considered to be “superstars”  Government changes favor the affluent o Apple: employrd43,000 in US and 20,000 overseas in 2012 o USA ranks 3 with a GDP per capita just over $48,000 o The effects of the Great Depression and the Great Recession (2007-9) 5. Answer this question (15 points) from my lectures: 6. Answer this question (10 points) about the movie “And the Band Played On”:  The early years of the AIDS crisis in the United States is presented. The multi-layered story centers on efforts at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta to identify the cause and transmission of and thus fight the disease. Many of the internal battles at the CDC are between Dr. Don Francis, the idealistic young lead investigator, whose thoughts of seeing mass deaths in other epidemics is never far from the front of his mind, and his boss, Dr. Jim Curran, who feels that they have to work within the meager funding supplied by the federal government and be politically correct to further the long term work more effectively. Many of their external battles are with the Republican led federal government, who woefully fund their work, and with other organizations, such as blood suppliers, who are initially unwilling to test their blood supply using an expensive hepatitis B surrogate test in the absence of a known AIDS test, or disclose blood donor information for their potential AIDS transmission probability (i.e. gay men). A second facet of the story centers on the gay community in San Francisco, and the balancing act gay advocates and public health officials in the city have to do to protect the gay population from what is largely seen initially as a gay disease, yet not further stigmatize and suppress an already largely stigmatized and suppressed gay population in the US. A third facet of the story centers on the work by academics to identify what many believe is a retrovirus cause of the disease. Two of the teams working largely in isolation are led by Dr. Luc Montagnier at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, France, and Dr. Robert Gallo at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. Gallo's motivation as being seen as *the* one and only scientist making significant contributions to the field, and only when working on AIDS research is seen as being fashionable, as opposed to the motivation of public health, has the potential to stall the effective treatment of the disease for those infected. Through these three facets, personal stories of individual AIDS victims are presented, at that early stage where there is a 100% mortality rate. 7. Select either the “Kinsey” or “Mona Lisa Smile” movies and answer this question worth 10 points:  Katherine Watson, an Oakland State University Ph.D. student, is hired as an Art History instructor at Wellesley College for the 1953/54 school year. She is not an obvious choice as Wellesley is an exclusive upper crust institution where its faculty, students and alumni generally look down upon "State" universities. Katherine quickly learns that her paper credentials do affect how her students treat her. She also learns that the students are book smart, but do not know how to think for themselves. Their parents and the school administration foster a predetermined path in life for the girls, namely to stick to traditional mores and thoughts, with the primary goal of marrying into a good family. There are pockets of free thinking among faculty and the students, but those thoughts and associated actions are generally quashed by the overall tone of the school. Katherine decides to instill into her students her own beliefs of what is important in learning. Will the students and administration allow Katherine to be contrary to the prescribed thought?  In 1953, free spirited and non-orthodox art history teacher Katherine Ann Watson accepts the challenge of teaching in the conservative Wellesley College. She leaves her boy-friend Paul Moore in California and share a house with the teacher Nancy Abbey and the nurse Amanda. On the first day, her class fails under the leadership of the arrogant Betty Warren and her friends Joan Brandwyn and Giselle Levy, but Katherine is advised by her mates and the Italian teacher Bill Dunbar to not fear the students. Soon Katherine learns that the girls are only waiting to catch Mr. Nice Guy and get married and she fights against the status-quo of Wellesley and to keep her independence.


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