Nutrition Chapter 6 - Lecture & Textbook
Nutrition Chapter 6 - Lecture & Textbook NHM 311
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Riley Notetaker on Wednesday July 27, 2016. The Bundle belongs to NHM 311 at University of Mississippi taught by Kathy Knight in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Dietetics & Nutrition at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 07/27/16
Chapter 6: Proteins and Amino Acids Definition of protein: Large macromolecules consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids. Protein Functions: -Source of energy -Provide structure -Protects our bodies from foreign bodies like bacteria and viruses -Regulation of body processes as: -Enzymes, which speed up metabolic reactions -Peptide hormones, which are chemical messengers that bind to a protein on the outside of a cell membrane -Transport proteins that move substances in and out of our cells -Contractile proteins help muscles to move -Proteins help to regulate acid-base and fluid balance Functions of Proteins: -Source of energy (4 kcals per gram) -Provides structure to the body by furnishing building material (collagen, elastin, keratin) used for growth and maintenance -Antibodies are produced by plasma cells and used by immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses -Proteins attract water -Enzymes help reactions go without being used themselves -Hormones are chemical messengers -Regulation of body processes: transport proteins -Contractile proteins: skeletal muscles and muscle fibers -Regulation of fluid balance: edema -Acid based regulation: acts as a buffer -3 compartments of fluid in the body: -In the blood: intravascular. -Fluid in the cell: intracellular. -Fluid in between the cells: extracellular or interstitial (Protein deficiencies show up first in the intravascular) Edema: When fluid leaks and the fluid collect in the cavities or tissues of the body (Happens in pregnancy) Classification of Amino Acids: Essential: (needed for the body but can not be made or made enough) -Indispensable amino acids Nonessential: (body can make these amino acids) -Dispensable amino acids Conditionally Essential: -Conditionally indispensable amino acids -Tyrosine, taurine, histidine, glutamine in premature infants and require long term parenteral nutrition Essential Amino Acids: -Phenylalanine -Valine -Tryptophan -Threonine -Methionine -Histidine -Isoleucine -Lucien -Lysine Amino Acids: Transamination -When a nonessential amino acid is not available from the diet, it can be made of the body by the process of transamination -Amino Acid pool allows for amino acid availability -Condensation: amino acid + amino acid=Dipeptide Protein Synthesis: -DNA makes you, you. Found inside cells of the nucleus. -The cell has to produce a messenger RNA that copies exactly the instructions for making some proteins that the cell needs -Attaches itself to the proteins making machinery of the cells, the ribosomes -The messenger RNA leaves through the nuclear membrane. DNA remains inside the nucleus. Protein Structure: -Some amino acids are just straight chains of amino acids -Secondary Protein Structure: -Tertiary Protein Structure: -Quaternary Protein Structure: Protein Denaturation: -Folded protein -Denaturation -Denatured protein Examples: denaturation proteins by the use of heat: eggs, blood on a shirt that stain by hot water If a protein shape is altered, function may be altered… -Sickle cell anemia caused by genetic defect in red blood cells Sickle Cell Anemia: -Disease caused by single error in amino acid sequence of hemoglobin -Incorrect mRNA subunit during transcription -Red blood cells rigid strictly, shaped like a sickle -Signs: -Amenia, pain in chest, abdomen and joints, swollen hands and feet, frequent injections, stunned growth, vision problems Protein Digestion and Food Allergies: -Food allergies are triggered when a protein from the diet is absorbed without being completely digested -Proteins from milk, eggs, nuts, wheat, soy, fish and shellfish and peanuts are common caused food allergies (the big 8) -A rapid, severe allergic reaction is called anaphylaxis -People with GI disease are prone to allergies because their damage intestines allow for the absorption of whole proteins Protein Deficiency: -Protein energy malnutrition: PEM is a term that covers a range of protein deficiency conditions that may include only protein deficiency or protein deficiency plus energy deficiency. -Kwashiorkor: is a pure protein deficiency (swollen belly) -Marasmus: is an energy and protein deficiency or starvation (characterized by depletion of fat stores and wasting muscles) Protein Excess: -Elevated protein intakes over long periods of time may result in: -Hydration and kidney issues -Bone health issues -Kidney stones -Increases risk of heart disease and cancer -Excess kcalories Proteins that may harm certain individuals: -Phenylketonuria, or PKU is an inherited condition attributed to a defective gene -Aspartame (a sugar substitute) contains phenylketonuria -People with Celia’s disease cannot eat gluten -Some people are sensitive to the glutamate in MSG Protein Requirements: -Adults require 0.8% body weight -Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution -Range (AMDR) is 10-35% of energy for adults -Protein needs increase during periods of growth, pregnancy and lactation Complete and incomplete proteins: -Complete (high quality) -Contain adequate amounts of all essential amino acids in right amounts -For humans: meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy, soy -Incomplete -Low amounts of one or more essential amino acids Limiting amino acids: -Amino acids missing or in low accounts -Example: corn- low amounts of lysine and tryptophan Protein complementation or mutual supplementation: -Combining foods with incomplete proteins to provide adequate amounts of all essential amino acids -Rice and beans -Corn and beans -Peanut butter and bread Vegetarian Diets: Type: Vegans (no plant products) -Use of complementary proteins -At risk for calcium, zinc, iron, vitamin B deficiency Ovo-Vegetarian -At risk of calcium Lacto-Vegetarian - At risk of Iron Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian (use plant and dairy products) Health Benefits: -Lower blood cholesterol -Lower BMI -Lower risk of heart disease -Lower risk of cancer -Lower blood pressure -Lower risk of developing HTM -Lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes Animal Welfare Concerns
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