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PHSC 1170 Notes and Review

by: Madison Hedden

PHSC 1170 Notes and Review PHSC 1170

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Madison Hedden
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Dr. Nammouz keeps the same notes each semester so my notes should be very helpful. I am always very detailed.
Intro to Chemistry and Earth Science for Elementary Education Majors
Minory Nammouz
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Date Created: 08/02/16
Chapter 1: What is Science? Jan 13, 2015 1. Science: reproducible, testable, tentative, predictive, and explanatory  The Nature of Science o Beginnings- 300 years ago o Associated with Galileo and Newton o Ancient natural philosophies- “thinking only” o Additional component here- understanding base upon experimental evidence  The Scientific Method o 1. Observe some aspect of nature o 2. Propose and explanation for something observed o 3. Use the explanation to make predictions o 4. Test the predictions with experiments or more observations o 5. Modify the explanation as needed o 6. Return to #3  General Scientific Activities o Collecting observations o Developing explanations o Testing explanations  Explanations and Investigations o Hypothesis: tentative explanation for some observations o Experiment: recreation of an event or occurrence to test a hypothesis o Controlled Experiment: comparing two situations with all factors alike except one o Control group: fixed set for comparison o Experimental group: differs from control group by one influencing factor o Independent variable: the variable that is changed or manipulated o Dependent variable: response to change that is measured o Controlled variable: are quantities that the researcher wants to stay constant  Qualitative vs. Quantitative o Qualitative observation: knowledge that we receive through the senses remarking a quality or change of the observations o Quantitative: knowledge related to, or express in number value  Pseudoscience o Misleading and often absurd claims of scientific results o Tests:  1. Academic & scientific background of claimant  2. History of review by scientific peers  3. Participation in scientific institutions and organizations  4. Claim published in peer-reviewed journal and independently validated by others. 2. Chemistry: A study of matter and its changes  From a chemist perspective o The word “chemical” is a technical term referring to any material with a scientific composition [like elements of compounds].  Matter: the stuff that makes up all material things; it is anything that occupies space and has mass o Occupies space & has volume o Has mass o Mass & volume are two necessary  Mass vs. Weight o Mass is a measure of the quantity of matter that an object contains o Weight measures force. On earth, it measures the force of attraction between our planet and the mass in questions o Weight varies with gravity, mass does not  Practice Problem o Look on BB* o Exercises [cross multiply]  1. 540 kg → lb = 118.94  15km→ mi =  200g→ oz=  5L→ pt=  10.L→ gal  5.5lb→g=  25.0yd→m=  Length o 1 Kilometer (Km)= 1,000 meters (m) o 1 Meter (m)= 100 centimeters (cm) o 1 Centimeter (cm)= 10 millimeters (mm)  Mass o 1 Kilogram (Kg)= 1,000 grams (g) o 1 Gram (g)= 1,000 milligrams (mg)  Volume o 1 Liter (L)= 1,000 milliliter (mL) o 1 Gram (g)= 1 cubic centimeter (cm^3)  Try o 37.4 mL→L= 0.0374L o 0.198g→mg= 198mg o 546cm→m= 5.46m o If you were asked to find the density of milk in a glass, would you need to use all of the milk in the glass? Why or why not?  No, its how dense, not the mass  The Density Ratio o Ratio of mass & volume o Intrinsic property [independent of quantity] o Characteristic of a given material o “Weight density”: weight per unit volume o Density equals mass over volume [ D= m/v ] o Ex.  18.96g/ 4.31cm^3 = 4.40 g/cm^3 **** must be g/cm^3 or Kg/m^3  More Examples o A 10.0-g sample of which of the following substances would have the greatest volume?  A. Hexane (.660 g/mL)  B. Ethyl Alcohol (.789g/mL)  C. Water (1.00 g/mL)  D. Magnesium (1.738 g/cm^3)  E. Copper (8.94 g/cm^3) Chapter 2 Measuring Temperature and States of Matter  Measuring Temperature o Correct degree in lab is Celsius o Celsius  0 degrees = freezing point of water, which is also = 32 degrees F  C → K= +273  -273 degrees C = absolute 0 in Kelvin  Lower temperature= less movement  0 degrees Kelvin = no movement/ energy = no life  Temperature Conversion o K = C+273 o F = 1.8 * C + 32 o C = (5/9) (F-32) o Ex. Human body temperature is 37 degrees C; convert to K  -310 degrees K o Ex. 300 degrees K; find C and F  C= 300= C + 273 C-273 =300-273 C= 27 degrees  F= 1.8 * C + 32 1.8 * 27 + 32 F= 81 degrees  Symbols & Equations o Symbols: represent quantities and NEED TO FINISH  More Math  Classification of Matter  Mixtures o Mixture: is a physical blend of two or more substances o Homogeneous mixtures are in uniform composition  Ex. Salt dissolved in water; can’t see it; but can still separate it back if you wanted too o Heterogeneous mixtures are not uniform in compound  Ex. 2 cereals; chocolate chip cookie; can see the differences  Elements o Elements: are fundamental/basic substances, from which all material things are made o Elements are represented by chemical symbols. The first letter of the symbol is always capitalized and the second is always lowercase o Ex. Cu, Zn, H, Mg o ********* symbols are often derived from their Latin word  Compound o Compounds: are two or more elements chemically combined o Many compounds exist as groups of atoms bonded together as a unit called molecules. o Ex. Which are elements and which are compounds  C  Ca  HI  HCl  He  CuO  No  NO  Atoms & Molecules o Atom: is the smallest characteristic part of an element; building block of all matter o Element is composed of atoms in a particular kind o Molecule: is a group of atoms bonded together as a unit  Molecular Modeling o Molecular model: 3-D representations of molecules  States of Matter o Solid, liquid, gas o Solids are close and don’t move much; energy is lower o Liquids move faster because distance is bigger o Gases move really fast and have more space o The more heat, the faster the molecule will move o Solid: definite shape and volume o Liquid: definite volume, no definite shape o Gas: no definite volume or shape From/To Solid Liquid Gas Solid Melting Sublimation Liquid Freezing Evaporation Gas Deposition Condensation  Dry Ice is not water, its carbon dioxide  Properties of matter  Physical Properties o Physical Properties: are those properties of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance o Ex. Shape, mass, color, weight o GET CHART o Anything you can observe  Chemical Properties o Chemical Properties: are those properties of a substance that can only be studied by forming new substances o GET CHART  Changes of Matter o Physical Changes: changes when the substance doesn’t change  Ex. Melting, freezing o Chemical Changes: involves a change in the chemical identity of the matter into other substances that are chemically different o *******Can I turn it back to what is was before? If yes, physical change. If no, chemical change Rocks 4-2-15  Spaceship Earth: Materials Manifest o Earth is divided into three main regions:  The core is largely iron and nickel and is not accessible.  The mantle consists of silicates and a variety of metals.  The crust is the outer shell of Earth. The lithosphere is the land masses, the hydrosphere makes up the water, and the atmosphere is the air surrounding Earth.  The Lithosphere: Organic and Inorganic o The lithosphere is composed of rocks and minerals. Minerals are the Inorganic portion of the lithosphere. o The organic portion of the lithosphere includes the living organisms, their waste and decomposition products, and their fossilized remains (including petroleum products). These organic materials contain carbon, as well as elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.  Rocks o The most common and abundant material on earth. o Consists of minerals. o The nature and appearance of a rock is strongly influenced by the mineral that compose it. o A rock’s mineral composition and texture, are reflection of the geologic processes that created it.  Types of Rocks- depends on how they are formed; any rock can go from one rock to another o Igneous: can go through chemical changes and pressure and heat; melt and becomes magma, then it begins to cool, uniform structure and different texture depending o Sedimentary: compacted rocks; rocks that are broken by erosion and then are compacted back together, you can look at some as see that where the each were different. o Metamorphic: can go through chemical changes and pressure and heat;  Igneous Rock o From the Latin word ignis, or fire. o Form as molten rock cools and solidifies. o Magma is the parent material for igneous rocks. o Types of Igneous Textures  Aphanitic (fine grained) texture.  Igneous rocks that form at the surface where cooling is relatively rapid .  The crystals that make up the aphanitic rocks are so small that individual minerals can only be distinguished with the aid of a microscope.  Fine grained rocks are commonly characterized as being light, intermediate, or dark in color  Phareritic (coarse-grained) texture.  Igneous rocks that form when large masses of magma slowly solidify far below the surface.  Consist of a mass of inter-grown crystals that are roughly equal in size and large enough so that the individual minerals can be identified without the aid of the microscope.  Porphyritic  Forms when a large mass of magma located at depth solidify throughout tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Because different minerals crystallize at different temperatures, some crystals become large and others small.  Porphyritic rocks have large crystals (phenocrysts) interbedded in a matrix of smaller crystals (groundmass).  Glassy  Forms when molten rock is ejected into the atmosphere, where it is quenched quickly.  Rapid cooling generates rocks having a glassy texture.  Igneous Rocks Mineral Make up o Is determined by the chemical composition of the magma from which it crystallizes. o Igneous rocks are divided into compositional groups based on the percentage of dark and light silicate minerals they contain.  Felsic : light colored silicate minerals, potassium feldspar and quartz.  Intermediate: rich in plagioclase feldspar and amphibole.  Mafic: contain olivine, pyroxene, calcium feldspar. They are high in iron, magnesium and calcium, low in silicon, and are dark gray to black in color.  Sedimentary Rocks o Formed when rocks are decomposed, broken down, and moved to lower elevation by gravity, where the accumulated material (called sediment) turned to rock. o Make up only a small percentage of earth’s crust. o Concentrated near or at the earth’s surface. o Some sedimentary rocks contain fossils, which are vital tools in the study of geological past. o Sedimentary Rocks: Classification  Detrital  Have a clastic (broken, or non-crystalline) texture, consist of discrete fragments and particles that are compacted together.  Are subdivided by their particle shape and size.  Clay minerals and quartz belong to Detrital category.  Chemical  Some have non-clastic texture in which minerals form a pattern of interlocking crystals.  Limestone, and Dolostone are examples of chemical sedimentary rocks.  Organic  form from the accumulation and lithification of organic debris, such as leaves, roots, and other plant or animal material  Coal is an example of organic sedimentary rock. Coal is the end product of large amounts of plant material buried millions of years.  Metamorphic Rocks o Metamorphism, which means “change form”, is a process that leads to changes in the mineralogy, texture, and sometimes chemical composition of rocks. o Metamorphism takes place were preexisting rock is subjected to a physical or chemical environment that is different from that in which is initially formed. o Metamorphism causes changes in rocks, including:  increased density  Change in grain size  Reorientation of mineral grains into planar arrangement known as foliation.  Transformation of low-temperature minerals into high- temperature minerals.  Introduction to ions may generate new minerals. o Are produced from preexisting igneous, sedimentary, or even other metamorphic rocks. o Every metamorphic rock has a parent rock – the rock from which it was formed. o Are produced when preexisting rocks undergo changes in temperature, pressure, and are introduced to chemically active fluids. o Foliated: rocks have parallel bands, the original make up is not obvious. o Non-Foliated: rocks do not have wavy layers or parallel bands.  Common Metamorphic Rocks o Foliated Rocks:  Slate: very fine grained composed of minute mica flakes that are too small to be visible. Slate is generally dull, has excellent rock cleavage.  Phyllite: Its constituent platy minerals are larger than those in slate but not yet large enough to be readily identifiable with unaided eye.  Schist: medium- to coarse- grained in which platy minerals predominate.  Gneiss: medium- to coarse- grained in which granular and elongated (as opposed to platy) minerals predominate. o Non- Foliated Rocks  Marble: is coarse, crystalline whose parent was limestone or dolostone. Pure marble is white, and soft (hardness of 3).  Quartzite: is very hard formed from quartz sandstone. Water 4-9-15  Ice is less dense than liquid water because it is less mass per unit volume  The consequences are that fish will die in the Northern Lakes, if the ice sinks.  Specific Heat: the amount of heat that is needed to increase the temperature of one gram of material up one degree of Celsius; for water it is one calorie per gram Celsius o High specific heat of water is important to planet earth because  Water in Nature o 75% of earth’s surface is covered with water. o Nearly 98% of that is sea water o About 2% of earths water is frozen in the polar ice caps  The Water Cycle o Water recycles over and over again o Precipitation: comes through rain, hail, snow o Evaporates back and condenses then comes back to us  The Atoms and Periodic Elements Chapter 8 1/22/15  Lavoisier: The Law of Conservation of Mass o Early 1700s Lavoisier: o Law of Conservation of Mass: During a chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed o Try: If a 45.0 g of vinegar is added to 5.0 g of baking soda in an open beaker, the total mass after reaction is less than 50 g. After reaction in a closed system, the total mass of the products is 50.0 g. Is the law of conservation of mass violated in the open-vessel reaction? o Some of the material evaporated and escaped o Try: When 1.00 g zinc and 0.80 g sulfur are allowed to react, all the zinc is used up, 1.50 g of zinc sulfide is formed, and some unreacted sulfur remains. What is the mass of unreacted sulfur (choose one)? a. 0.20 g b. 0.30 g c. 0.50 g d. impossible to determine from this information alone [SOME OF THE REACTION DIDN’T REACT  Atomic Structure Discovered o Ancient Greeks  Democritus (460-362 BC) - indivisible particles called “atoms”  Prevailing argument (Plato and Aristotle) - matter is continuously and infinitely divisible John Dalton (early 1800’s) - reintroduced atomic theory to explain chemical reactions  Dalton’s Atomic Theory o All matter = indivisible atoms [ONLY THING THAT WASN’T ACCURATE] o An element is made up of identical atoms. o Different elements have atoms with different masses. o Chemical compounds are made of atoms in specific integer ratios. o Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions.  Discovery of the Electron o J. J. Thomson (late 1800’s)  Discovered negatively charged electron  Measured electron’s charge-to-mass ratio  Identified electron as a fundamental particle  Early Models of the Atom o Dalton - atoms indivisible o Thomson’s “Plum pudding” model o Electrons embedded in blob of positively charged matter like “raisins in plum pudding”  Rutherford : The Nucleus o Ernest Rutherford (1907) o Scattered alpha particles off gold foil o Most passed through without significant deflection o A few scattered at large angles o Conclusion: an atom’s positive charge resides in a small, massive nucleus o Later: positive charges = protons o James Chadwick (1932): also neutral neutrons in the nucleus Chapter 9  Ionic Bond: formed by a metal and a nonmetal  Metals v. Non metals o Metals lose electrons to take on the electron structure of the previous noble gas. In doing so they become positive ions (cations) o Nonmetals gain electrons to take on the electron structure of the previous noble gas. In doing so they become a negative ion (anion)  Electron Review o Metals lose electrons; form positive ions (cations) o Nonmetals gain electrons, form negative ions (anions) o Cation: metals for cation charge add the word ion o Anion: nonmetals for anion charge add ide  Ionic Compound: Metal & Nonmetal o Ex. K and O o Ne and Na would not work because Ne is a noble gas so they do not do business with anyone  Practice o Name the following binary ionic compounds Chapter 9 – Continued  How to determine formulas from ionic charges?  Write the symbols for the ions o Ex.  Covalent Bonds o Many nonmetallic elements react by sharing electrons rather than by gaining or losing electrons o When two atoms share a pair of electrons a covalent bond is formed o Atoms can share one , two, or three pairs of electrons, forming single, double, and triple bonds  Number of covalent bonds an atom can form o Depends on number of electrons needed for an octet o Examples:  Hydrogen needs 1e; single bond  Oxygen needs 2e; single and double bonds  Nitrogen needs 3e; singled, double, and triple bonds  Carbone needs 4e; single, double, and triple bonds  Which atoms has a greater attraction for shared pair of electrons?  Electronegativity o Electronegativity is a measure of an atoms attraction for the electrons in a bond; number are less than four and one of above o Get CHART  Polar Covalent Bonds o When two atoms with differing electronegativity form a bond, the bonding electrons are drawn closer to the atom with the higher electronegativity. Such a bond exhibits a separation of charge and is called a polar covalent bond.  Non Polar Covalent Bond o When bonding electrons attracted equally to two atoms (usually identical)  Bond Polarity o The difference in the electronegativity between two bonded atoms can be used to determine the type of bond. Use the adjacent table as a rule of thumb. o Get Chart  Covalent Compound Names o Molecular: composed of two or more nonmetals o Two Rules:  First element in formula named first with number indicated by Greek prefix  Stem name of second element next; Greek prefix for number; ending in ‘-ide’ (for two elements) o Get greek prefixes chart  Poly Atomic Ions o Polyatomic ions are groups of covalently bonded atoms with a charge o Get chart o Don’t have to worry about memorizing them  Writing formulas using polyatomic ions o When writing formulas for compounds containing polyatomic ions, it may be necessary to use parentheses to denote the proper number of the ion o Ex  Naming compounds with poly atomic ions o When naming compounds with poly atomic ions o Ex: o Use name of the group and simply put them in order, dont worry about Greek numbers 3/5/15 Chapter 10  Chemical Reactions  Chemical Sentences: Equations o Chemical equations represent the sentences in the language of chemistry. They are the means of communicating a chemical change using the symbols and formulas to represent the elements and compounds involved in a chemical reaction. o Reactants: are the species present before the reactions. o Products: are the species present after the reaction  Reactants → Products  The arrow means yield or reacts to produce  Example Na + Cl → NaCl o The following are used to denote the states of matter of a species in an equation:  (S): solid  (l): liquid  (g): gas  (aq): aqueous solution o The following are particles involved in an equation:  Atom: the smallest characteristic part of an element  Element: composed of atoms of a particular kind (composed of atoms of the same kind/ same identity)  Molecule: a group of atoms bound together as a unit o Coefficients are numbers used to balance a chemical equations. Never change the subscripts  GET CHART  (a): wrong because you don’t want to add just the one O  (b): wrong because it is not the shape that she asked us to end up with  (c): correct  ***when balancing you can only change the number in front  My notes! o Problems  My Notes Chapter 17 3­31­15 Exam 3  Minerals exhibit the following characteristics: o Naturally occurring  Example: Ice is considered a mineral, whereas liquid water is not. o Solid  Example: ice is considered a mineral, whereas liquid water is not. o Orderly crystalline structure  Their atoms are arranged in an orderly, repetitive manner. o Well­ defined chemical composition  Example: Quartz   o Generally inorganic (not made of carbon or hydrogen)  Example: Table Salt (halite)  Properties of Minerals o Chemical properties  Difficult to determine, needs sophisticated tests and equipment o Physical properties  Easily recognized, frequently used in identification  Physical properties of minerals o Optical properties o Crystal shape or habit o Mineral strength o Density and specific gravity  Optical Properties o Luster (appearance or quality of light reflected).  Metallic luster (appearance of metals)  Submetallic luster (copper develop a dull coating (A) or tarnish (B) when  exposed to the atmosphere. Because they are not shiny as samples with freshly  broken surfaces ( C ), these samples are said to exhibit a submettallic luster.) o The ability to transmit light  Opaque: when no light is transmitted.  Translucent: when light but not an image is transmitted.  Transparent: when light and image are visible through the sample. o Color  The use of color as a means of identification of minerals is often ambiguous or  even misleading. o Streak (The color of the powdered mineral)  Is obtained by rubbing the mineral across a piece of unglazed porcelain, streak  plate, and observing the color of the mark it leaves.  Crystal Shape or Habit o The common or characteristic shape of a crystal.  Mineral Strength o Mineralogists use four terms to describe mineral strength and how mineral break when stress  is applied.  Tenacity  Hardness  Cleavage  Fracture o Tenacity, a mineral’s toughness, or its resistance to breaking or deforming.  Brittle (shatter into small pieces when struck): minerals that are ionically bonded.  Malleable (easily hammered into different shapes): minerals with metallic bonds.  Elastic (bends but returns to its original shape): Micas.  Sectile (can be cut into thin shavings): Gypsum, and Talc. o Hardness: a measure of the resistance of a mineral to abrasion or scratching.  Is determined by rubbing a mineral of unknown hardness against one of known  hardness, or vice versa.  Hardness: A numerical value of hardness can be obtained by using the Mohs scale of  hardness Questions:  A mineral can be scratched by a masonry nail or knife blade but not by a wire (iron) nail. o Is this mineral hard or soft? SOFT o What is the hardness number of this mineral on Mohs Scale? 4.5­5.5 o What mineral on Mohs Scale has this hardness? Apatite  A mineral can scratch calcite, and it can be scratched by a wire (iron) nail. o What is the hardness number of this mineral on Mohs Scale? 3­4.6 o What mineral on Mohs scale has this hardness? Flouride  Mineral Strength Continued o Cleavage: the tendency of a mineral to break (cleave) along planes of weaker  bonding.  o Cleavage Continued  Example: Micas are aluminum silicate minerals that form stout crystals with  book (basal) cleavage, because they split easily into paper­thin, transparent,  flexible sheets, along planes of one excellent cleavage direction. o Fracture: Minerals having chemical bonds that are equally, or nearly equally, strong  in all directions exhibit a property called fracture.  When minerals fracture, most produce irregular surfaces.  Density and Specific Gravity  o Density: mass per unit volume. o Specific gravity, SG: a unitless number representing the ratio of the density of a  substance divided by the density of water. (SG is the same number as density but  without any units). ** Density of water is 1g per mL; mL=cm^3; so 1g per mL is  equal to 1g per cm^3; to find the density is mass over volume, so g/ cm^3; divide that by the density of water  Hefting: is an easy way to judge the specific gravity of one mineral relative  to another by comparing the weight of two mineral of an equal size.  Most metallic minerals have higher SG than nonmetallic minerals. Questions A mineral sample weights 27 grams and takes up 10.4 cubic centimeters of space. What is the SG (specific gravity) of this mineral? ­so 27g divided by 10.4, and whatever that number is, is the answer  Other properties of Minerals o Halite is ordinary salt, it can be identified through taste. o Talc (white) and graphite (black) both have distinctive feels: Talc feels soapy, and  graphite feels greasy. o Streak of sulfur­bearing minerals smells like rotten eggs. o Magnetite have a high iron content and can be picked up with a magnet. o Some minerals exhibit special optical properties, when transparent piece of calcite is  placed over printed material, the letters appear twice. o Carbonate minerals (minerals whose chemical composition includes carbonate, (CO↓3)  will effervesce (“fizz”), as Carbone dioxide is released, when a drop of dilute HCl is  applied to one of their freshly exposed surfaces.    Electron Configuration  Electron Arrangement: Quantum Model o Principle Energy Levels (Shells): roughly correlate to the distance that an electron is from an atoms nucleus o Maximum number of electrons in a given level = 2n^2 [n=level number] o Try:  2(1)^2=2  2(2)^2= 8 o Sublevels (subshells): each principle energy level (n) is divided into n sublevels  Orbitals: orbitals are a region in space representing a high probability of locating an electron. Each sublevel has one or more orbitals  Try: o H o Li o Be o O o F o Mg o Ar Electron Configuration Continued… 2-5-15  Elements that sit on the same column have the same number of valence electrons [sit in very last shell] o Valence electrons are very important because they either have to be shared or transferred o Valence electrons will be the first ones to leave/transferred/shared in the chemical reactions  Elements that sit on the same row occupy the same number of shells  Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table o The periodic table is considered by many to be the most predictive tool in all of chemistry o It is composed of vertical columns called groups or families [may have same characteristics/properties] and horizontal rows called periods o Groups (families): Vertical columns in the periodic table. Groups contain elements with similar chemical properties. o Periods: Horizontal rows in the periodic table. Elements in a period demonstrate a range of properties from metallic (on the left) to nonmetallic (on the right). o Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost principle energy level of an atom. o These are the electrons that are gained, lost, or shared in a chemical reaction. o Elements in a group or family have the same number of valence electrons o Some groups in the periodic table have special names:  Alkali Metals: Group 1A  Valence electron configuration: ns1  Alkaline Earth Metals: Group 2A  Valence electron configuration: ns2  Halogens: Group 7A  Valence electron configuration: ns2np5  Noble Gases [Full shells, happy, don’t like doing business with everybody; therefore don’t react] : Group 8A  Valence electron configuration: ns2np6 o Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids:  Metals  Metallic luster, conduct heat and electricity, malleable [bendable], and ductile. Examples are sodium and copper.  Nonmetals  Dull luster, nonconductors, and brittle.  Examples are sulfur and bromine.  Metalloids  Demonstrate properties of both metals and nonmetals.  Examples are silicon and arsenic.  Atoms vs. Ions o Octet Rule  In reacting chemically, atoms tend to gain or lose or share electrons so as to have eight valence electrons. This is known as the octet rule.  Fight to become full o Metals vs. Nonmetal; fast reactions between the two  Metals lose electrons to take on the electron structure of the previous noble gas. In doing so, they form positive ions [positive charge] (cations).; like to gain electrons  Nonmetals tend to gain electrons to take on the electron structure of the next noble gas. In doing so, they form negative ions [negative charge] (anions). o Stable Electron Configurations  Fact: Noble gases, such as helium, neon, and argon are inert, they undergo few if any, chemical reactions.  Theory: The inertness of noble gases results from their electron structures; each (except helium) has an octet of electrons in its outermost shell.  Deduction: Other elements that can alter their electron structures to become like those of noble gases would become less reactive by doing so.  Sodium can lose a valence electron. In doing so, its core electrons are like the noble gas, neon.  Will fight to lose this elctron  Chlorine can gain an electron, and in doing so, its electron structure becomes like argon.  Try: o Which group of elements in the periodic table is characterized by especially stable electron arrangement?  a. 2A b. 2B c. 8A d.8B o Which of the following have the same electron configuration (isoelectronic)? STUDY FOR EXAM: Review all hangouts Review assignments on connect Study notes  Molten rock material from which minerals can crystallize is called magma o true  Sedimentary rocks were formed from particles or dissolved materials from older rocks o true  Fine grained igneous rocks formed as magma cooled slowly o false  Very rapid cooling of magma produces glass rather than a mineral o true  Igneous, sedimentary, and metaphoric rocks have undergone little change since earth formed o false  The water that evaporates from lakes and streams is fresh, whereas water evaporating form the oceans is salty o False  Weathered sediments pressed and cemented to form o Sedimentary rocks  The various sedimentary rocks such as conglomerate and sandstone are identified by o Particle size  Igneous rocks that formed by cooling slowly from a molten magma have o Coarse grains  The rock cycle is a concept that predict which of the following will undergo ongoing, constant change o Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic  A mineral is o An inorganic solid element or compound o Naturally occurring o A solid with a crystalline structure  Which one of the following properties is least useful in identifying minerals o Color  A physical combinations of minerals and other materials into a cohesive solid is called o A rock  Hot, molten magma cools and crystallizes to form o Igneous rocks  Previously existing rocks that have been changed by heat, pressure, or hot solutions into a different kind of rock without melting are o Metamorphic rocks  Rocks that form physical or chemical sediments are o Sedimentary rocks  Hot, molten rock that is forced out onto the surface of earth is called o Lava  You can see mineral crystals in an igneous rock with the naked eye if the rock has a o Coarse- grained textured  What does the texture of an igneous rock tell you about its cooling history o Coarse grained rocks cooled slowly  Clastic sediments are o Weathered rock fragments  The Himalayan mountains were formed as a result of o Continent-continent plate convergence  When an oceanic plate and continental plate converge o The oceanic plate is sub ducted beneath the continental plate  Japan is a group of arc islands associated with o Convergence of two oceanic plates  Of the total water supply, what is the amount that is available for human consumption and agriculture o Less than 1%  Compared to the amount of surface water the amount of water stored in ground water is o 25 times as great  The two most common ions in seawater are sodium and o Chlorine  About what is the average concentration of salts in earth’s oceans o 3.5%  How much of water on earth is salt water o 97%  Why is the hydrologic cycle called a cycle o Water evaporated from the ocean eventually will return to the ocean  Which of the following does not happen to water that falls on the land o None of the above


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